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m . G y,s 




Physician in the Hou 


Valuable Articles on Life and Its Prf/ 

>; Health and Disease, the Rule 
Proper : • teristics of 



. ■ 


Descriptions of Medicinal Agents and Numerous Formulas 
Special Articles 


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{ of Qer> ...■•.. 
of Me diet n< 


Illustrated with numerous Lithographic 
Woo4 Engravings. 

Ignorance begets misery — ~ Knowledge. 




i 1} 



Physician in the House 




Valuable Articles on Life and Its Preservation, the Actions of the 

Body in Health and Disease, the Rules of Hygiene and 

Proper Living, Characteristics of Foods, etc. 

Also a Complete Cyclopaedia 

of Diseases and Their 

Treatment by 



Descriptions of Medicinal Agents and Numerous Formulas and 
Special Articles 

J/Ja? by 

J/H, GREER, M. D. 

Professor of Genito- Urinary Surgery and, Diseases and Dermatology in the College 

of Medicine and Surgery, and Physician-in- Chief of the Harvard 

Medical Institute, Chicago, III. 

Illustrated with numerous Lithographic Plates and 
Wood Engravings. 

Ignorance begets misery — -Knozvled^e promotes happiness. 

published by 








Copyright 1897, 



This diagram is one of the head and neck, supposed to 
be divided in the middle in an anterior-posterior direction. 

The brain and its divisions (differently colored for pur- 
poses of illustration) and the various passages of the nose, 
throat, etc., are very fairly shown. It is deemed better to 
make a separate diagram of the eye, and that, with the ear, 
appears in another plate. 

It will be well for the reader to remember that these 
plates are nearly all diagrammatic and that the intention is to 
give a "general idea" of the parts illustrated, such as will 
assist in understanding the text of the book in passages where 
reference is made to certain parts of the body. 



This plate represents the base of the brain. The front 
portion is above and that portion which appears to the right 
in the plate is the left of the brain. The upper branches of 
the "X" in the center are the optic nerves. The two 
spoon shaped branches above are the olfactory nerves. 
These are the nerves of the eye and the nose. 

The Internal Carotid artery is shown "cut in two'* 
at the central X. The Basilar artery and its branches 
appears below. 


Diagrammatic Illustrations of the Organs of Sight and Hearing. 


THE EYE. — It is impossible in this space to do more 
than outline the construction of this organ. The parts are 
named in the plate. The Crystalline Lens corresponds to 
the lens of a camera, and being of elastic material its degree 
of convexity and therefore its focus can be regulated by the 
tension of the muscles which attach to its sides. It will be 
readily seen that an image brought within the proper focus 
will be reflected on the back wall of the eyeball — the 
Retina — and so reach the optic nerve. The muscular 
arrangement of the eye is shown in the upper right hand 
corner of the plate. 

THE EAR. — The mechanism of hearing is very com- 
plex. Three very small bones, the stapes, malleus and 
incus, (" Stirrup," "Hammer" and "Anvil" bones, indi- 
cated by their shape — see lower right-hand corner of plate) 
lie in the cavity of the tympanum. They form a link or 
chain system by which vibrations of the tympanum are 
communicated to the perilymph. It is impossible here to 
go to farther detail than to state that the vibrations in the 
inner ear are thus communicated to the sensorium through 
the "labrynth." 


First Layer of Muscles of Back. 


The outer integument being removed, we find the 
elaborate system of the muscles of the back. The "first 
layer" is here shown. A few will be named, with their 

The perpendicular muscle shown in dissection at the 
left of the neck is the Sierno-mastoid and its use suggests 
itself as does that of the great Trapezius muscle connecting 
at the back of the head and extending down, between the 
shoulders. The muscle passing directly over the left 
shoulder is the Deltoid and serves to assist in extending the 
arm backward, as does also the Triceps, shown underneath 
the arm. The triceps also straightens the arm. 

In this plate we cannot indicate plainly the Teres minor 
and major, and others, so pass to the large muscle extending 
from under the arm-pit spreading to the "small of the 
back." That is the Latissimus dorsi and its use self evident. 
The External oblique is that muscle which (in the plate) 
appears to extend from the upper chest on the side to the 
hips. The muscles of the rump are the gluteal muscles, the 
gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. 

First Layer of Muscles of Front. (Diagrammatic! 


The muscular arrangement shown in this plate will be 
readily seen to balance or compensate those of the back. 
That is, provision is made in the muscles of the neck to 
balance the Trapezius muscle of the back. The pectoral (or 
chest) muscles and external oblique muscles of the abdomen 
also act as balances to the corresponding muscles of the 

It requires but little knowledge of mechanics to see the 
uses and wisdom of these muscular arrangements. 

Of course, it will be understood that in this and the 
preceding plate only the external muscles are shown and 
that they are but a covering to other and complex muscular 
devices enabling the body to be moved in whole or in part 
in almost every conceivable direction. 


Diagram of Interior of Trunk with Intestines Removed. 


This diagram is intended to give a general idea of the 
contents of the trunk, omitting the intestines. The anterior 
portions of the left lung and left kidney are represented as 
being removed. 

In the upper part of the plate, of course, are shown the 
heart and lungs, showing the Aorta or great distributing 
blood-vessel of the body. Below and on the right side is 
seen the lower portion of the liver, to the left of which is 
the stomach cut open to show its interior. The left kidney 
(cut across) is seen under the stomach and the right kidney 
in its entirety is on the other side. From the kidneys the 
two ureters lead to the bladder, shown as a round vessel at. 
the bottom of the plate. 

The iliac artery and iliac vein are the prominent red 
and blue "forks" above the bladder. To the right and left 
are the muscles of the pelvis, and on either side, below, the 
bones of the pelvis and heads of the thigh bones. 

More on the heart, lungs and other organs w r ill be 
found in succeeding plates. 


The Lungs and Heart. 


THE LUNGS are the essential organs of respira- 
tion and occupy the lateral cavities of the chest, separated 
from each other by the heart and other contents of the medi- 
astinum*. Their functions are well known and it is only pos- 
sible to "say, in this limited space, that in inhalation they 
bring the blood in sufficient contact with atmospheric air to 
oxygenize it, and in exhalation they throw off carbonic acid 
gas and much refuse matter carried to them by the veinous 

THE HEART is the organ which serves as the distribut- 
ing engine of the blood and is placed obliquely in the center 
of the chest cavity, the apex being pointed to the left, down- 
ward. It is divided into four chambers, the right and left 
ventricles and the right and left auricles. In the right 
auricle blood is received from the circulation and passed to 
the right ventricle which, in contraction, sends it through the 
lungs, where it becomes oxygenized and returns to the left 
auricle and thence to the left ventricle, from which it is 
a^ain passed to general circulation. It will thus be seen 
that each complete pulsation of the heart really means the 
accomplishment of four operations. 

The heart, like other organs, must have a supply of ar- 
terial blood, which comes from the coronary arteries arising 
near the commencement of the as>?* ab shown in the plate. 


The Stomach and Liver, 


THE STOMACH is the principal organ of digestion 
and in form is irregularly conical, curved upon itself, with a 
rounded base turned to the left side. It is situated just be- 
hind the anterior wall of the abdomen, below the liver and 
diaphragm. Its mucous lining is very delicate with multi- 
tudes of glands opening upon its surface. These glands 
throw out a thin, acid fluid called gastric juice when food 
is passed into the stomach. When the stomach is empty, its 
mucous membrane is pale and hardly more than moist, but 
the entrance of food causes gastric juice to flow and the 
action of muscular walls of the stomach mix the food thor- 
oughly with that juice. That operation constitutes the first 
stage of digestion and assimilation. 

THE LIVER is a constant source of loss and, in a sense, 
gain to the blood which passes through it. Loss, because it 
separates a peculiar fluid, the bile, from the blood, and throws 
that fluid into the intestine. Also it elaborates a substance, 
glycogen,- in large or small quantities. This latter substance 
readily passes into sugar and so is carried off by the blood. 

The liver is the largest gla?iclular organ in the body and 
ordinarily weighs about fifty or sixty ounces. The bile 
secreted is stored in the gall bladder which is shown, with its 
duct, in the picture of the stomach. 


Abdominal Aorta and Branches. 



This plate is ^°signed to give an idea of the downward 
circulation. The great abdominal Aorta is shown in red, 
with its branches. The renal arteries supplying the kidneys 
on each side and the two iliac branches belovy. 

In blue is shown the vena cava inferior with the hepatic 
veins (tied) at the upper portion of the plate. 

The renal veins are also shown, returning from the 




Rectum and Bladder. 

* ;--.. 


THE KIDNEYS arc for the purpose of separating from 
the blood certain waste materials and water, the solution so 
formed being -passed to the bladder for evacuation as urine. 

The characteristic form of the kidneys is shown by the 
plate, and their situation in the body is in the back part of 
the loins, one on each side of the spinal column, surrounded 
by fatty and loose tissue. In the picture shown as a whole 
kidney, the arrangement of the branches of the renal arteries 
and veins and 'the duct are plain. In the divided kidney is 
shown the internal glandular arrangement. 

THE EECTUM is the termination or lower part of the 
intestine and is shown here for the purpose of making plain 
its relation to the urinary bladder, which is seen directly in 
front, partly covered by the Peritoneum. The ureter is seen 
entering the bladder near the center of the picture. 


Plan of Part of Sympathetic Nerves. 


The plate here printed is designed to show the so-called 
" Sympathetic Nervous System " and explains itself. The 
light yellow lines represent the sympathetic nerves and 



Plan of Circulation in the Foetus. 


This diagram illustrates the circulation of blood in the 
unborn child, The chief peculiarities of the foetal heart are 
the direct communication between the two auricles through 
the foramen ovale and large size of the eustachian valve. 
The size of the heart is also very large in proportion to the 

The placenta is shown at the lower left hand corner of 
the plate. From this blood is taken for nutrition, along the 
umbilical vein. Nearly all of it passes through the liver be- 
fore reaching other parts of the body. Very little reaches 
the lungs, which are nearly impervious and, of. course, not 

As is shown in the plate, the blood is returned through 
the umbilical artery to the placenta. 







The Arm. 


The bones of the arm are the humerus, extending from 
shoulder to elbow, and the ulna and radius, forming the fore- 
arm. The manner in which they are joined or articulated is 
such as to enable motion of the hand in almost any conceiv- 
able direction. Of course, the arm is mainly used as the 
servant and power of the hand. 

This plate shows the deltoid muscle at the shoulder and 
the pectoralis major muscle next cat in two. Below 
is the well known biceps muscle. The large artery is called 
the Brachial artery and by its side is seen the median nerve. 

In the fore-arm are found those muscles which move the 
fingers, wrist, etc., and it is not possible to explain their 
positions and names within this space without numerous 
plates which are quite unnecessary in a work of this kind. 

A section through the middle of the hand is shown. 


The Leg and Foot. 


This plate illustrates in the left hand figure the outer 
muscles of the leg, showing quite clearly the muscles of the 
thigh, lower leg and the annular ligament of the ankle. 

The next figure shows the outer muscles cut away^ ex- 
posing the inner and more complex organism. 

The figure of the foot shows very clearly the arrange- 
ment of the bones. It will be seen that the w T eight of the 
body rests nearly on an arch, and, as there is "spring" to 
the arch there is consequent elasticity to the step. 


This plate gives a general idea of the principal bones of 
the body. The skull, arm, leg, hand, foot, trunk, pelvis and 
a section of the spinal column are shown. 

In the entire skeleton are two hundred distinct bones. 
These are : 

The spine (including the two lower bones, the 

sacrum and coccyx) 26 

Cranium ■. 8 

Face 14 

Hyoid, breastbone and ribs 26 

Upper extremities 64 

Lower extremities 62 

Total 200 

No account is here made of the teeth and it may be men- 
tioned that some bones are counted as one, which were in 
early life quite distinct and separate. 


The Bones. 


Abdomen in Disease 135 

Aberrations of Mind 415 

Abies 648 

Abortion 137 

Abscess 137 

Faecal 166 

of Joints 421 

of Kidneys 425 

Accidents 45 

Acholia 139 

Acid Poisoning 480, 482 

Acne 139 to 141 

Acrodynia 142, 199 

Acromegaly 142 

Actinomycosis 143 

Acute Diseases 112 

Addison's Disease 143, 423 

Adenitis, Cervical 353 

Adenoma 144 

Age and Sleep 81 

Agorophobia 144, 320 

Agraphia 145 

Agrimony 644 

Ague 145 

Cake 148, 518 

Air, Contaminated 56 

Albinoism 148 

Albuminuria 200 

Albumen in Urine 552 

Alcoholic Insanity 283 

Alcoholism 149 

Alder . ... 644 

Alexia 152 

Allocheiria 152 

Allspice 645 

Aloes ....v... 645 

Alopecia. ..... 374 

Alteration 226 

Alteratives 705 

Althea Officinalis 684 

Rosea 673 

Alum 646 

Alveolar Cancer 220 

Amenorrhea 613, 616 

Amimia . 152 

Ammonia 52, 646 

Amygdalus 688 

Amyloid Diseases 152 

Kidney 425 

Ijiver ;.436 

Spleen 518 

Anaemia 148. 153 

of Brain 195 

Anaesthesia 154. 707, 709 

Analgesia 155 

Analysis of Foods 80 

Anasarca 286 

Anchylosis 155 

Aneurism 159 

Angina Pectoris 156 

2 xi 

Anginose Scarlet Fever 343 

Anidrosis 157 

Anise 647 

Ankylosis 155 

Ankle Ulceration 513 

Anosmia 157 

Anthemis 657 

Anthrax 158, 224 

Anthropophobia 320 

Anti-Bilious Physic 713 

Antiseptics 710 

Antitoxine 281 

Aperients 711 

Aphasia 162 

Aphonia ...;.. 163 

Aphtha :... 529 

Apnoea 163 

Apocy num 650 

Apoplexy 163 

Apples as Food 77 

Appendicitis . . 166 

Aralia 666 

Ardent Fever 413 

Arsenic Poisoning 484 

Arthritis 503 

Uratica 366 

Asaf cetida 647 

Ascites 286 

Asiatic Cholera 238 

Asphyxia 168 

Asthemia 168 

Asthma 169 

Hay 377 

Astigmatism 170 

Astraphobia 317 

Asymbolia 170 

Ataxy 171 

Atelectasis 140, 171 

Atheroma 172 

Atheotosis 172 

Atmosphere 49, 56 

Atony of Bladder 177 

Aura of Epilepsy 304 

Author's Statement 31 

Autumnal Catarrh 377 

Backache 172 

Back Sprains 173 

Bad Signs in Disease 116 

Bakers' Itch 173 

Baldness 374, 375 

Balm of -Gilead 648. 

Balmony 648 

Balsam Fir 64& 

Tolu 649 

Barbadoes' Leg 174, 299' 

Barberry 649 

Barosma 656 

Basilicon Ointment 799 

Barrenness 633 



Bathing 132, 744 

Bay berry 686 

Bearberry 701 

Bed for Sleep 84 

Bedsores 174 

Bedwetting 175 

Berberis 649 

Beri-Beri 176 

Beth Root 649 

Biliary Calculi 358 

Bilious Colic 358 

Headache 3<8 

Temperament 103 

Bioplasm 33. 38 

Bi-Polar Electrization 758 

Bitter Root 650 

Sweet 651 

Bitters. Spiced 732 

Black and Blue 209 

Blackberry 651 

Black Cohosh 652 

Blackheads 140 

Black Root 653 

Black Salve 653 

Bladder Atony 177 

Catarrh 178 

Displacement 638 

Inflammation 179 

Paralysis 179 

Spasm 1<9 

Bleeding 396 

of Nose 181 

Blisters 211, 450 

Blood 106 

and Emotions 93 

Clots 300 

Impoverishment 176 

Poisoning 181, 284, 781 

Purifiers 705 

Root 654 

Bloody Flux 288 

Tumor 159 

Urine 179, 183 

Vomiting 394 

Blotches 313 

Blue Cohosh 655 

Blue Flag : 655 

Blue Disease 263 

Boils 183 

of Gums 369 

Bone Abscess 184 

Atrophy 187 

Calcification 187 

Cancer 189 

Caries 189 

Hypertrophy 142, 186 

Inflammation 185 

Necrosis 188 

Scrofulous 190 

Softening 187 

Syphilitic 190 

Tumors 187 

Boneset *... 655 

Boracic Acid 656 

Borax 656 

Bothriocephalus 562 

Bowels, Costive 250 

Discharges 126, 748 

Falling 396, 493 

Inflammation 190, 191 

Invagination 192 

Looseness 273 

Bowels, Protrusion 396. 493 

Stoppage 192 

Brain Anaemia 195 

Atrophy 195 

■ Cells 90 

Congestion 196 

Construction. 91 

Hemorrhage 163. 195, 230 

Hernia 302 

Hypertrophy 196 

Inflammation 196 

Protrusion 449 

Softening 197 

Tuberculosis 448 

Tumors 198,363 

Bread of Life 732 

Bread Poisoning 308 

Break-Bone Fever 199 

Breast Pang 156 

Breathing, Children's 748 

in Disease 118 

Rules for 60, 131 

Spasmodic 169 

Bricklayers' Itch 200 

Bright's Disease 200. 202 

Bronchial Catarrh 203. 205 

Constriction 208 

Dilatation.. 202 

Bronchiectasis 200 

Bronchitis, Acute — 203 

Capillary 205 

Chronic 206 

Dry..... 208 

Purulent 208 

Bronchocele 364 

Broncho-Stenosis 208 

Bronzed Skin 143 

Brow Ague 457 

Bruises 209 

Bubonic Plague 477 

Buchu 656 

Bugle Weed : 657 

Bullae 210 

Burns 211 

Cachexia 213 

Cacotrophia 213 

Caisson Disease 214 

Calamus 658 

Calcareous Degeneration 214 

Calcification 214 

Calculi, Biliary 358 

Urinary 315 

Calendula f8l 

Camomile £&7 

Camomile "Wine 733 

Camp Diarrhoea 288 

Camphor 658 

Cancer 218 

Bladder 170 

Kidneys 425 

Stomach 221 

Womb 222. 580 

Canker 223 

Capillary Bronchitis 205 

Capsella 699 

Capsicum 660 

Capsules of Kidneys 143 

Gelatin 726 

Carbolic Acid 129. 483 

Carbon 661 

Carbonic Acid Gas. 54, 485 



Carbuncle 224 

Carcinoma 218 

Cardiac Affections 380 to 393 

Care and Pleasure 98 

Carnification , 225 

Caryophy His 663 

Cascara 659 

Cascara Cordial 800 

Castenia 661 

Castration 226 

Catalepsy^ 226 

Cataphoresis, Electrical 756 

Catarrh 227, 228 

Autumnal 377 

Bladder 178 

Bronchial .203, 206 

Epidemic 366 

Fever 366 

Gastric 291 

Laryngeal 428 

Stomach 291 

Cathartics 711 

Celastrus 65 

Cells, Vegetable and Animal 36 

Cellulitis 309 

Centaury 695 

Cephalalgia 377 

Cerebral Abscess 198 

Hemorrhage 230 

Cerebri tis 196 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever 328 

Chapped Hands 376 

Charbon 158 

Charcot's Disease 230 

Cheerfulness 94, 133 

Cheese as Food 79 

Cheiro-Pompholyx 210 

Cheloid .230 

Chelona 648 

Chenopodium 704 

Chest Injuries 231 

Chestnut Leaves 662 

Chicken Pox 232 

Chilblains 234 

Childbed Fever 234 

Childbirth, Painless 767 

Childlessness 633 

Children, Management of 739 

Chills and Fever 145 

Chimaphila 691 

Chin Cough 555 

Chloasma 237 

Chlorine and Chlorides 128 

Chloroform 483, 708 

Chlorosis 153, 236 

Choking 238 

Clothing of Children.. 744 

Cholera, Asiatic 238 

Infantum 241 

Malignant 238 

Morbus 243 

Choleraic Diarrhoea 243 

Choosing Companions 760 

Chorea 243 

Choromidrosis 244 

Chronic Diseases 112 

Chylothorax 245 

Cimicif uga 652 

Cinchona Compound 734 

Cirrhosis of Liver 432 

Lungs 439 

Clavus 258 

Cleanliness 125. 132 

Cleavers 662 

Cleft Palate 376 

Climate and Sleep 84 

Cloves 663 

Coccydynia 245 

Cold Cream 663 

Cold in the Head 227 

Cold Sores 397 

Cold and Disease 115 

Cold Sweat 122 

Colic 246 

Children's 247, 710 

Kidneys 248 

Painter's i 464 

Colombo 663 

Compound 734 

Composition 714 

Compresses 737 

Congestion 249 

Brain 196 

Kidneys 422 

Liver 432 • 

Lungs 440 

Womb 598 

Contagious Diseases 124 

Constipation 250 

Consumption 251 

Contraction of Muscles 172, 510 

Convulsions 256, 333, 407 

Cordial, Mothers' 732 

Neutralizing 799 

Corns 258 

Cornsilk 664 

Cornus 664 

Cory za 227 

Couch Grass 664 

Cough Syrup 800 

Cough. Winter 206 

Countenance in Disease 122, 313 

Courtship 760 

Costiveness 250 

Cow Pox 2c8 

Cramps 260, 263 

Cream of Tartar 665 

Croup, False 260 

Inflammatory.. 261 

Membranous 261 

True 261 

Croupous Pneumonia 262 

Crow*s Foot 669 

Currents. Electrical 750 

Curvature of Spine 517 

Cyanosis 263 

Cystitis 179 

Cystic Tumors 537 

Dance, St. Vitus' 243 

Dancers' Cramp 263 

Dandelion 665 

Dandy Fever 199 

Dandruff 370 

Death Signs 264 

Debility, Sexual 409, 779-— 

Decantation 65 

Delirium 123. 266 

Tremens 151 

Dementia 415 

Dengue 199 

Dentition 527, 745 

Departures from Health 108 

Dermatitis 267 



Dermatolysis 267 

Desquamation 267 

Development of Lungs 58 

Diabetes Insipidus 267 

Mellitus 269 

Diabetic Persons 272 

Diet 272 

Diaphoretics 715 

Diaphragm Diseases 274 

Spasm 397 

Diarrhoea" 273 

Camp 288 

Choleraic 243 

Chronic 274 

Die, How and Why 42, 45 

Diet, Selection 74 

Difficult Swallowing .293 

Urination 294 

Digestant 800 

Dilatations 275 

Bronchi 202 

Heart 381 

Lungs 300 

Diphtheria 275 

Dipsomania 283 

Discharges. Contagious 126 

Children's 748 

Disease and Countenance 313 

Medication 113, 133 

Causes 114 

of Generative Organs 779 

Signs 116, 123, 747 

Disinfection 127 

Displacements 284 

Bladder 638 

Womb 584 

Distilled Water 65 

Dissection Wounds 284 

Distoma Hepaticum 284 

Divers* Paralysis 214 

Dogs' Tape Worm 296 

Dogwood 665 

Dread, Morbid 319 

Dreams, Bad 459 

Dropsy 136 

False 455 

Kidneys 425 

Labia 640 

Ovarian 623 

Womb 586 

Drop Wrist 287 

Drug Rashes 287 

Drunkenness 150, 288 

Dry Dressings 710 

Dumb Ague 147 

Duodenitis 288 

Duration of Life 47 

Dwarf Elder 666 

Dypsomania 416 

Dysentery, Acute 288 

Chronic 289 

Dyspepsia 291 

Dysphagia 293 

Dyspnoea 294 

Dysuria 552 

Ear Signs 295 

Earache 296 

Eating. Rules 132 

Ecchymosis 209 

Echinococcus 296, 434 

Ecthyma 297 

Eczema 298 

Eggs as Food 76 

Elecampane 667 

Electricity 750 

Elements in the Body 70 

Elephantiasis Arabum 299 

Graecorum 428 

Teleangiectodes .... 299 

Elm Bark 667 

Emaciation 300 

Emasculation 226 

Embolism 300 

Emetics 715 to 719 

Emotions 93 

Emphysema 300 

Empyema 301 

Encephalitis 196 

Encephalocele 302 

Encephaloid Cancer 219 

Enchondroma 302 

Endocarditis 302. 386 

Enemas 719 to 721 

Eneuresis 175 

Enjoyments 96 

Enteralgia 246 

Enteric Fever 539 

Enteritis 190. 303 

Enterocele 303 

Ephemera, Puerperal 494 

Epilepsy 303 

Epistaxis '. 18 

Epithelioma 220 

Epsom Salts 668 

Epulis 307 

Equinia Mitis 307 

Ergotism 308 

Eruptions 308 

Eruptive Fevers 333 to 353 

Erysipelas 309 

Erythema 310 

Erythema Nodosum 311 

Erythematous Rash 310 

Ery thromelalgia 31 1 

Essences 322 

Eupatorium Perfoliatum 655 

Purpureum 693 

Eustachian Diseases 312 

Ethylchloride 709 

Ether 708 

Exercise 99. 132. 746 

Excision 312 

Exhaustion, Heart 382 

Nervous 779 

Exhaustive Fever 393 

Exophthalmic Goitre 364 

Exostosis — 312 

Extracts 722 

Face Signs in Disease 313 to 315 

Facial Neuralgia 457 

Paralysis 315 

Spasms 316 

Faecal Abscess 316 

Fainting 316 

Falling Liver 436 

Palate 465 

Womb 589 

Fallopian Diseases 316 

False Bittersweet 651 

Conception 599 

Dropsy 455 

Famine Fever 500 



Farcy 362 

Faridization 755 

Fatty Degeneration 319 

Heart 383 

"Liver 434 

Tumors 536 

Favus 507 

Fear, Morbid 144, 319 

Febricula 321 

Feeding Children 739 

Felon 319, 555 

Ferrum 695 

Fever, Ague — 145 

Ardent 413 

Cerebro-Spinal 328 

Childbed 235 

Chills 324 

Confinement 450, 494 

Enteric: 539 

Eruptive 332 to 352 

Exhaustive 393 

Famine 500 

Glandular 353 

Grades of 322 

Gulf 566 

Hectic 393 

High Grade 322 

Indigestion /. 354 

Intermittent 145 

Low Grade 322 

Lung 441 

Malarial 145 

Malignant 323 

Meningeal 328 

Milk 450 

Nature of 321 

Nourishment during 327 

Pernicious 473 

Poverty ■. 500 

Puerperal 234 

Quartan 497 

Quotidian 498 

Relapsing 500 

Rheumatic 502 

Scarlet 337 

Ship 544 

Small Pox 346 

Sores 397 

Spotted...: 328 

Sthenis 413 

Stomach 354 

Thermic 524 

Third-Day 450 

Typhoid 539 

Typhus 544 

Yellow 566 

Feverfew 668 

Filaria 369 

Filtration of Water 65 

First Principles 113 

Fish as Food 75 

Fissures 160 

Fistula 516 

Rectal 356 

Urethral 356 

Fits 303 

Flatulence 247 

Flaxseed 669 

Flexures of Womb 593 

Floating Heart 388 

Kidney.- 424 

Liver 436 

Floating Spleen 520 

Florida Water 799 

Flour Scabs 173 

Fluke of Liver 284 

Fluor Albus 620 

Flux 288 

Fomentations 728 

Food Regurgitation 508 

Foods We Eat 67 to 74 

Analysis of 80 

Formulas 705 

Frosted Feet 234 

Fruit Laxative 714. bOO 

Functionallnterference 114 

Performance 107 

Fungus Disease 143 

Galactorrhoea 357 

Galium 662 

Gall-Stones 358 

Ganglion 359 

Gangrene 360. 499 

Gastralgia 361 

Gastrody nia 361 

Gastric Catarrh 291 

Fever 539 

Gastrotomy 362 

Gaultheria 703 

Generative Diseases 779 

Genital Difficulties 639 to 641 

Genital Organs 461 

Gentian 669 

Compound 731 

Geranium 669 

Ginger 670 

Giraffe 362 

Glanders 362 

Gland Fever 353 

Inflammation 445 

Glauber's Salts 671 

Glioma 363 

Glassitis 364 

Glottis, (Edema 427 

Spasm 364 

Glycerine 673 

Glycirrhiza 678 

Glycosuria 269 

Gnawing Ulcer 444 

Goitre 364 

Goldenseal 671 

Good and Bad Signs 116 

Gout 32, 33 

Grapes as Food 76 

Grease 307 

Green Sickness 236 

Grippe 336 

Growth of Body 33 

Guarana 673 

Guinea Worm Disease — 369 

Gum Arabic 672 

Kino 676 

Gum Diseases 369 

Gynephobia 320 

Habits and Sleep 83 

Evil 133 

Haemophilia 180 

Hair and Its Treatment 370 to 375 

Worm 369 

Hamamelis 703 

Hammer Palsy 376 

Hand Chaps 376 



Happiness 785 

Hare Lip , 376 

Hartshorn 646 

Hay Fever 373 

Headaches 377 to 379 

Health 104. 105 

and Cheerfulness 94. 96 

Worry 88 

Heart Difficulties 380 to 392 

Heat. Prickly 492 

Heatstroke 393 

Hectic Fever 393 

Hedeoma 688 

Hematemesis 394 

Hematocele 395 

Hemerlopia 395 

Hemicrania 380 

Hemiplegia .469 

Hemoptysis 395 

Hemorrhage 396 

Stomach 531 

Hemorrhagic Diathesis 180 

Purpura 496 

Small Pox 350 

Hemorrhoids 475 

Hepatitis 431. 435 

Hernia 396 

Brain.... 302 

Herpes 397. 515 

Hiccough 397 

Hip Disease 398 

Hives 399 

Hob-Nail Liver 432 

Hodgkin's Disease 400 

Hollyhock 673 

Honey 674 

Hops 674 

Horns 400 

Horn Pox 400 

Human Happiness 785 

Structures 33 

Humulus 674 

Hydrastis 671 

Hydatids 595 

Hydroa 401 

Hydroadenitis 402 

Hydrocephalus : 286 

Hy dromy dia 402 

Hydrophobia 402 

Hy drothorax 479 

H3 r men. Imperforate 631 

Hyperaemia 404 

Kidneys ...422 

Lungs 440 

Hypergensia 404 

Hvpendrosis 404 

Hyperosmia 405 

Hypertrophy. Brain 196 

Skin 299 

Spleen 518 

Tonsils 531 

H3 r pochondria 405 

Hysterics 407 

Ichor 408 

Icterus 419 

Idiocy 409 

Ileus 192.409 

Imbecility 409 

Imperforate Hymen 631 

Impetigo 409 

Impotency 408. 779 

Inanition 446 

Incontinence of Urine 175 

Indigestion 291, 410 

Indolent Ulcers 411. 547 

Inebriety 150 

Infant Cholera 241 

Inflammation 411 

Bladder 179 

Bowels 190 

Brain 196 

Bronchi 203, 205, 206 

'Genitals 641 

Heart 385, 386, 387 

Joints 420 

Kidneys 422 

Lar3 r nx 426 

Liver 435 

Lungs 441 

Lvmphatics 445 

Nipples 461 

Ovaries 626 

Parotid Gland 453 

Peritoneum 471 

Pleurae 478 

Spleen 519 

Stomach 361 

Tonsils 497 

Vagina 630 

Womb 595, 597 

Inflammatory Fever 413 

Rheumatism 502 

Influenza 366. 377 

Injuries to Chest 231 

Insanity 283. 415 

Insomnia 417 

Intercostal Neuralgia 458 

Intermittent Fever 145 

Heart . . : 388 

Interstitial Pneumonia 439 

Intussusception 192 

Inula 667 

Invagination 192 

Inverted Nails 456 

Intestinal Tonic 734 

In voluntas Contractions 172 

Iron , 675 

Iris Versicolor 655 

Ischasmia of Kidney 424 

Isolation and Contagion 125 

Itch (Scabies) 418 

Baker's 173 

Barber's 141 

Itching of Skin 495 

Jalap 676 

Jaundice 419 

Jerusalem Oak 704 

Job's Comforters 183 

Joint Abscesses 421 

Painful ,. 142 

Inflammation 429. 526 

Scrofulous 421 

Stiffness 155 

Swellings 421 

Juglans 657 

Juniper Berries 676 

Keloid 230 

Kidney. Abscess 425 

Amyloid 425 

Cancer 425 

Capsule Inflammation — 423 



Kidney, Congestion 422 

Dropsy" 425 

Failure 553 

Floating 424 

Hyperaemia — 422 

Inflammation 422 

Ischaemia 424 

Movable 424 

Suppuration 425 

Tumor 426 

Kink Cough 555 

Kino Gum 676 

Kleptomania 416 

Kyphosis 426 

Lady Slipper 677 

Lardaceous Liver 435 

Spleen 518 

Lar\"ngeal Catarrh 428 

Laryngismus Stridulous 260 

Laryngitis 426 

Larynx. Congestion 428 

Inflammation 426 

Laurus Camphora 658 

Sassafras 691 

Lavender 677 

Compound Spirits 678 

Laxative Fruit 800 

Laxatives 713 

Lead Colic 246 

Leonurus 685 

Leprosy 428 

Leptandra, Leptandrin 653 

Leucorrhoea 620 

Leukaemia 429 

Lice 430 

Lichen 430 

Tropicus 492 

Licorice 678 

Life Power 109 

Ligament Strains 520 

Lime Water 678 

Liniments 723 

Lippia Mexicana 679 

Listerine 130 

Lithia Compounds 679 

Liver Abscess 431 

Cirrhosis 432 

Congestion 432 

Falling 436 

Fatty 434 

Floating 436 

Fluke 284 

Hob-Nail 432 

Hydatid 434 

Inflammation 435 

Lardaceous 436 

Torpid .436 

Wandering. 436 

Yellow Atrophy 436 

Live, How Long Should We 47 

Living Matter 33. 39 

Living Rules 99. 131 

Lobelia 680 

Lockjaw 316. 437 

Locomotor Ataxy .171 

Longsight 439 

Love 756 

Lumbago 504 

Lung Atelectasis 440 

Capacity 58 

Cirrhosis 439 

Lung Collapse 440 

Congestion 440 

Development 58 

Dilatations 300 

Emphysema 300 

Exercise 59 

Fever 441 

Inflammation 441 

Lupus 444 

Lycopus 656 

Lymphadenitis 445 

Lymphangioma 445 

Lymphatics. Inflammation of 445 

Lymphatic Temperament 10$ 

Lymphoma 445, 537 

Mad Dog Bite 402 

Magnesia , 681 

Sulphate 668 

Malaria and Disease 145 

Malarial Fever 145 

Malignant Cholera 238 

Diseases 446 

Fevers 32a 

Pustule 158 

Scarlet Fever 345 

Small-Pox 350 

Sore Throat 275 

Tongue 531 

Malt Preparations 682 

Mandrake .683 

Marigold 684 

Marasmus 446 

Marriage 764 

Marsh Mallows 684 

Mastody nia 459- 

May Apple 683 

Measles 333, 447 

German 336 

Meats as Food 74 

Medical Profession and the People 29 

Medication 133, 643 

First Principles 113 

Poisonous 134 

Medinensis 36& 

Mel 674 

Melancholia 416 

Melanoderma 447 

Melanosis 447 

Membranous Croup 261 

Meningitis 328 

Tubercular 448 

Meningocele 449 

Menorrhagia 610 

Menses. Menstruation 602 

Menstruation, Establishment 604 

Excessive 610 

Painful 608 

Suppressed 613. 616 

Tardy 605 

Vicarious 619 

Mental Temperament 102 

Aberrations 415 

Mentha Riperita 689 

Menthos 684 

Mercurialization 509- 

Method 99 

Metritis 595 

Metrorrhagia 597 

Midwifery. Painless 767 

Migraine 377 

Miliaria 450 



Miliary Tubercles 448 

Milk Crust (Eczema) 298 

Fever 450 

Leg .'....474 

Sickness 451 

Mind Wandering 265 

Mineral Water 66 

Minute Structures 33 

Miscellaneous Articles 739 

Mitchella Repens 700 

Moderation — 97 

Moles, Uterine .599 

Molluscum Contagiosum 452 

Monomania 451 

Monophobia 320 

Morbid Fear 319 

Morbiili. . .' 333 

Morbus Coxae 452 

Morphine Poisoning 486 

Mortification 360 

Motes 452 

Moth Spots 237 

Mothers' Cordial 732 

Motherwort 685 

Motor Temperament 103 

Mouth Diseases 223, 453, 529 

Mullein 685 

Mulberry Calculi 215 

Mumps 453 

Muscular Contractions 265, 528 

Inability 563 

Rheumatism 504 

Spasms 504 

Mustard 685 

Mutilated Women 571 

Myalgia 504 

Myocarditis 385 

Myodynia : — 504 

Myoma 454 

Myopia 454 

Myotonia 529 

Myrica Cerif era 686 

Myrrh 686 

Compound 711 

Mysophobia 320, 454 

Mystery in Medicine 30, 134 

Myxoedema 455 

Naevi 455 

Nail Diseases 456 

Nasal Catarrh 228 

Polypus 456, 492 

Natural Foods 72 

Conditions 104 

Neck In j uries 456 

Necrosis 188 

Needless Operations 571 

Nepeta Cataria 660 

Nephralgia 248 

Nephritis 422 

Nerve Injuries 457 

Nerves and Emotions 93 

in Disease 123 

Nervous Convulsions 407 

Debility. 409. 779 

Headache 380 

Temperament 102 

Nettle Rash 399 

Neuralgia 457 

Breasts 459 

Coccygeal 23 

Extremities 311 

Neuralgia, Intercostal 458 

Sciatic 459 

Spermatic 459 

Womb 594 

Neutralizing Cordial 799 

Night Mare 459 

Vision 462 

Nipple Troubles 460 

Nitrogen in the Atmosphere 50, 52 

Nodular Rheumatism 505 

Noma 461 

Nose Bleeding 181 

Diseases 461 

Nourishment 39, 41 

Number Six 711 

Nursing Sore Mouth 529 

Nut Galls 689 

Nuts as Food 78 

Nyctalopia 462 

Nymphae Odorata 692 

Nymphomania 462, 637 

Obstruction of Bowels 192 

Occipital Neuralgia 459 

(Edema 286 

Glottidis 427 

(Esophagus Spasm 463 

Stricture 463 

Ointments 724 

All Healing 653 

Basilicon 799 

Bitter Sweet 651 

Tar 726 

Zinc 725 

Openings, Unnatural 516 

Operations, Needless 571 

Oranges as Food 76 

Oranges as Remedy 688 

Orchitis 464 

Osteoid Cancer 220 

Osteo-Myelitis 464 

Osteotomy 464 

Ostitis 185 

Otorrhea 464 

Our Position 29 

Out-of-Door Sports 99 

Ovarian Diseases 464 

Dropsy 623 

Fibroids 630 

Inflammation 626 

Removals 577, 630 

Tumors 623 

Oxygen in the Atmosphere 50 

Oysters 75 

Ozena 228 

Ozone in the Atmosphere 51 

Pain 23, 124, 457 

Relievers 710 

Painless Midwifery . .767 

Painter's Colic 464 

Palate, Cleft 376 

Falling 465 

, Ulceration 466 

Palpitation 389 

Palsy 466 

Pancreas Diseases 466 

Pantaphobia 320 

Parageusia 467 

Paralysis Agitans 466 

Ascending 469 

Bladder 179 



Paralysis, Facial 315, 469 

Glossopharyngeal 469 

Paraplegia 467 

Parasites 470. 559 

Parosma 470 

Parotid Tumors 470 

Parotitis 453 

Passion 133. 756 

Pathaphobia 320 

Paullinia Sorbilus 693 

Peaches as Food 77 

Remedy 688 

Pears as Food 77 

Pediculosis 430 

Pellagra 471 

Pemphigus 210 

Pennyroyal 668 

People and the Medical Profession 29 

Peppermint 689 

Pepsin 689 

Peptenzy me 689 

Pericarditis 387 

Periostitis 185 

Periods 602 

Peritonitis 234. 471 

Pernicious Fever 473 

Perspiration, Colored 244 

Profuse 404 

Pertussis 355 

Pestilentia 477 

Petit Mai 305 

Phagedenic Ulcers 547 

Ph ilosophy of Worry 88 

Phlegmasia Dolens 474 

Phlegmatic Temperament 103 

Phrenitis 196 

Phthiriasis 474 

Phthisic 169 

Phthisis 251 

Phytolacca Decandra 692 

Pigeon Breast 475 

Piles 475 

Pills 726 

Pimento 645 

Pimpinella 647 

Pin Worms 561. 736 

Pimples 139. 401 

Pink Root 699 

Pipsissewa 691 

Plague 477 

Pleasure 96, 98 

Plethoric Headache 379 

Pleurisy 478 

" Suppurative 301 

Pneumonia 441 

Croupous 262 

Interstitial 439 

Podagra 365 

Podophyllum 683 

Poisons and Antidotes 480 to 491 

Acetic Acid 482 

Acids, Mineral 480 

Acids. Vegetable 482 

Aconite ; 491 

Alkalies 483 

Ammonia 483 

Aqua Fortis 284 

Arsenic 484 

Belladonna 491 

Bread 308 

Carbolic Acid 483 

Caustic .• 483. 491 

Poisons, Chloral 491 

Chloroform 483 

Coal Gas 485 

Conium 491 

Corrosive Sublimate 485 

Deadly Nightshade 491 

Digitalis 491 

Dissection 284 

Ether 483 

Fox Glove 491 

Hemlock 491 

Jimson Weed 489 

Lead and Salts 491 

Lye 483 

Matches 487 

Milk 451 

Monkshood 491 

Morphine 486 

Mushrooms 490 

Narcotics 486 

Nicotine 491 

Opium 486 

Oxalic Acid 482 

Phosphorus 487 

Pork 534 

Prussic Acid 482 

Rat Paste 487 

Snake Bites 488 

Stramonium 489 

Strichnine 489 

Toadstools 490 

Tobacco 491 

Turpentine 491 

Poisons Debarred 133 

in the Atmosphere 53 

Poke Berries 692 

Poles, Electrical 752 

Poluted Water 63 

Polygonum 698 

Polypus of Nose 492 

Rectum 500 

Polyuria 267 

Pond Lily 692 

Populus Tremuloides 648 

Pork Poisoning 534 

Position 85 

Potassa Compounds 692 

Potatoes as Food 78 

Pott's Disease 517 

Prickly Ash 692 

Prince's Pine 691 

Professional Testimony 579 

Prolapsus, Bowels 161 

Vagina 632 

Womb 589 

Prunus Virginica 661 

Pruritis 495. 641 

Pseudo-Leukaemia 400 

Membranous Croup 261 

Tabes 493 

Psoriasis 493 

Ptosis 494 

Pt3 r alismus 509 

Puberty Anaemia 236 

Puerperal Ephemera ^94 

Fever 234 

Pulmonary Collapse 171 

Consumption 251 

Hyperemia 440 

Purgatives. . .". 712 

Purple Spots 496 

Purpura 496 



Pus. Unhealthy 408 

Pustules 158. 297 

Putrefaction 266 

Putrid Sore Throat 275 

Pyelo Nephritis 497 

Pyemia 181 

Pyothorax 497 

Pyrethrum 668 

Quartan Fever 497 

Queen of the Meadow 693 

Quietude in Disease 122 

Quinsy 497 

Quotidian Fe ver 498 

Rabies 402 

Rachitis 506 

Raisins as Food 77 

Ranula 499 

Rash. Erythematous 310 

Raynaud's Disease 499 

Recipes 799 

Rectal Diseases 499, 500 

Displacements 639 

Fistula 356 

Injuries 500 

Polypus 500 

Strictures 499 

Red Gum 500 

Regurgitation 508 

Relapsing Fever 500 

Remittent Fever 145 

Renal Capsule Disease 423 

Colic 248 

Respirations 60, 120 

Rest. Necessary 133 

Restlessness 123 

Retention of Urine 522 

Revolting Practices 575 

Rheumatism 502 to 505 

Rheumatic Fever 502 

Headache 379 

Swellings 505 

Rhinitis, Rhinorrhea 506 

Rhubarb 693, 713 

Rhus Glabra 700 

Rickets 506 

Ring Worm 507 

Rochelle Salts 694 

Rodent Ulcer 508 

Rose Cold. ..: 377 

Rotheln 336 

Rubeola 333 

Rumex 704 

Rumination ; . , 508 

Rules for Living... 60, 99, 131 

Rupture 396 

Russian Epidemic 366 

Sabbatia 695 

Salivation 509 

Salix 703 

Salts 668. 671. 694 

Salts and Senna 712 

Salt Rheum 298 

Sanguinaria 654 

Sanguine Temperament 102 

Sarcoma 538 

Sarsaparilla 694 

Compound 706 

Saturnine Colic 246 

Scabies 418. 559 


Scaly Skin 

Scarlet Fever 


Scirrhus Cancer 



Scrofula 421, 512, 

Scrofulous Ulcers 





Seneca Snake Root 


and Salts 

Seidlitz Powders 



Shepherd's Purse 


Ship Fever 


Sick Headache 

Sickness of Children 

Signs of Death 



Singultus -. 


Skin Diseases 213, 404. 476. 493, 




Sleep 81 to 86. 

of Children 


Slippery Elm 

Sloughing 212, 

Small-Pox. 346. 



Hemorrhagic — 



Smart Weed 

Smelling Sense Lost 

Smoker's Heart 

Snake Bites 

Root. Seneca 


Snoring in Disease 


Soda Compounds 129. 671. 

Solids in the Atmosphere 

Spasms 256. 260, 263. 

of Bladder 

of Chest 

Spasmodic Breathing 




Spiced Bitters 



Spleen Difficulties .517 to 

Spotted Fever 

Sprains 173, 


Squaw Vine 

Statement of the Author 

St. Anthony's Evil 

St. Vitus' Dance 







XXV 11 

Sterility 633 

Sthenic Fever 413 

Stigmata Maidis 664 

Stillingia 700. 706 

Stimulating Liniment 723 

Stomach Cancers 221 

Distress 410 

Fever 354 

Hemorrhage 521 

Inflammation 361 

Stomatitis 223 

Stone in the Bladder 215 

Stoppage of Bowels 192 

Stranguary 522 

Stricture of Rectum 499 

Strophulus 523 

Structures of the Body 33 

Sugar in the Urine 269, 551 

Sulphur 32, 130 

Sumac 700 

Sunstroke 524 

Suppurative Diseases 425, 431 

Pleurisy 301 

Surface in Disease 121, 122 

Swallowing, Difficult 293 

Sweat Blisters 450 

Sweating Agents 279 

in Disease ? 122 

Sweet Flag 658 

Sycosis 141 

Symmetrical Gangrene 499 

Symptoms During Disease 116 

Syncope 316 

Synocha 413 

Synobitis 526 

Syphilis 781 

Syrups 729 

Simple 729 

Medicinal 730 

Tabes Dorsalis 171 

Mesenterica 527 

Tachycardia 389 

Taenia Solium 561 

Tannic Acid 665 

Tannin 665 

Tape Worm 559, 561 

of the Dog 296 

Taraxicum 665 

Tar Ointment 726 

Teething 527, 745 

Temperaments 101 

Bilious 102 

Lymphatic 103 

Mental 102 

Motor 103 

Nervous 102 

Phlegmatic 103 

Sanguine 102 

Vital 102 

and Sleep 83 

Temperature in Disease 119 

of Children 747 

Pulse and Respira- 
tion 120 

Testimonv. Professional 579 

Tetanus 437 

Tetany 528 

Tetter 298 

Thin Blood 153 

Thomsen's Disease 529 

Thought Concentration 89 

Thoughts on Prolonging Life 42 

Throat Cutting 529 

Malignant 272 

Putrid 275 

Thrush 529 

Thymol 131 

Tic Douloureux 457 

Tinctures. 730 

Tissues, Changes 45 

Composition of 69 

Unnatural 110 

Tobacco Heart 392 

Toe Nail, Ingrowing 457 

Tongue Diseases 530, 531 

Furred 121 

Symptoms 120, 121 

Tumor 499 

Tonics 731 

Tonsils, Enlarged 531 

Inflamed .:..497 

Tonsilitis 497 

Touch Sense, Imperfect 152 

Trance 532 

Traumatic Neurosis 457 

Trembling Convulsions 533 

Tremens, Delirium 151 

Trephining 533 

Trichina 534,559 

Trichinosis 534 

Trillium 649 

Trismus 437 

Triticum 664 

Tropical Ulcers 565 

Tubercle 512 

Tubercular Meningitis 448 

Tuberculosis of Brain 448 

Mesenteries 527 

Pulmonary 251 

Tuberous Xanthoma 565 

Tubes, Fallopian 316 

Tumors 536 

Arterial 159 

Bloody 159 

Brain 198, 363 

Cystic 537 

Fatty 536 

Fibrous 536, 630 

Glandular 537 

Gums 307 

Kidney 426 

Liver 434 

Ovarian 537, 623 

Papillomata 538 

Parotid 470 

Sarcomatous 538 

Sebaceous 537 

Tongue 499, 531 

Ulcerated Ankles 513 

Genitals 461 

Gums 369 

Heart 387 

Sore Mouth 223 

Stomach 361 

Ulcers 545 

Gnawing 444 

Healthy 546 

Indolent 547 

Inflamed 547 

Rodent 508 

Unhealthy 546 

Ulmus 667 

XX VI 11 


Uraemia 548 

Uratic Arthritis 366 

Urethral Fistula 356 

Urethritis 783 

Urine, Albuminous 200, 552 

Characteristics 549 

Reaction 551 

Retention 552 

Specific Gravity 550 

Sugary' 269 

Suppression 553 

Urination, Difficult 294 

Urticaria 553 

Uterine Diseases 580 

Uva Ursa 701 

Uvula, Relaxed 465 

Vaccination 258 

Valerian 702 

Vaginal Diseases 630 to 633 

Valuable Recipes 799 

Valvular Heart Disease 392 

Vapor in the Atmosphere 50 

Varicella 232. 353 

Varicocele 784 

Variola 346, 353 

Varioloid 350 

Vascular Tumors 455 

Vegetables as Food 78 

Vegetable Cells 36 

Fungus 143 

Verbascum 681 

Verbena Hastata 702 

Vermifuges 735 

Vervain 702 

Vicarious Menstruation 455 

Virginia Snake Root 702 

Vital Temperament 102 

Voice Lost 163 

Volvulus 192 

Vomiting, to Provoke 715 

Bloody 394 

Wakefulness 417 

Wandering Kidney 424 

Liver 436 

Mind 266 

Spleen 520 

Warts 554 

Warty Small-Pox 555 

Wasting Disease '. 446 

Water Applications 737 

Characteristics 62 

Decantation 65 

Drinking 63 

Hard 66 

Mineral 66 

Poluted 63 

Purification 64 

Waterbrash 381 

Wax Mvrtle 686 

Waxy Kidney 425 

Liver 436 

Spleen 518 

Weeping Sinew 359 

Wheals 553 

Weaning of Infants 743 

Wheat as Food 72 

Wens 537 

Whiskey Nose 140 

White Blood Corpuscles Increased.429 

White Swellings 421 

Whites 620 

Wh i tlow 555 

Whooping Cough , 555 

Why We Die 42 

Willow 703 

Windpipe Obstruction 238 

Winter Cough 206 

Wintergreen 703 

Witch Hazel 703 

Womb Cancer •. ... 222, 580 

Congestion 598 

Displacements 584 

Dropsy 586 

Falling 589 

Flexures 593 

Fibroid Tumors 592 

Hydatids 595 

Inflammation 595, 597 

Moles 509 

Neuralgia 594 

Operations 571, 573, 574 

Prolapsus 589 

Scraping 571 

Ulceration 600 

Women, Diseases of 571 

Mutilated 571 

Wool Sorter's Disease 158 

Worms 558 

Bothriocephalus 562 

Guinea or Filaria 369 

Illustrations 559 

Pin or Thread 558 

Ring 507 

Round 558 

Tape 561 

of Dog 296 

Wormseed 704 

Worrv, Philosophy of 88 

Wrinkles 313 

Writers Cramp 563 

Wry Neck 563 

Xanthelasmoidea 564 

Xanthoma 564, 565 

Xanthoxylum 692 

Yaws 565 

Yaw Vine 700 

Yellow Atrophy of Liver 436 

Dock 704,706 

Fever 566 

Young Children, Management of. .739 

Zinc 130, 705. 725 

Zingiber 670 

Zona Herpes 515 

Zoster 570 


The People and the Medical Profession. 

"All that a man hath will he give for his life, " are 
words attributed to the Evil One, planning - the de- 
struction of Job. And, although recorded thousands 
of years ago, the truthful text has ever since been 
utilized as the key note for medical extortion and for 
legalized misrepresentation. 

Poor Job was delivered to his torturer with the re- 
mark, "Behold, he is in thine hand; but save his 
life. " How well known is it that even in this day the 
average physician demands that those very words, or 
their equivalent, must be uttered or conceded in 
spirit when a patient is committed to his care. Per- 
haps the demand would not be unreasonable were 
physicians ideals of knowledge and of integrity, and 
superior to mercenary temptations. But, alas! how 
few such physicians bless humanity! 

Annually, thousands of newly-fledged doctors are 
licensed to struggle for existence and to strive to 
profit by the credulity and misfortunes of their fellow 
beings; with no evidence of knowledge but '•sheep- 
skins,'' obtained from colleges anxious to increase 
their patronage by enlarging their lists of graduates 
regardless of their morals and their attainments. 
Fortunate might it be for many communities were 
their physicians compelled to abandon their occupa- 
tion, and leave the common sense of the people to 
protect their bodies against disease. 



This is an age of reasoning and of comprehension. 
Mystery is being - swept away and simplicity is rap- 
idly taking its place. Men and women of to-day in- 
telligently consider questions which a generation ago 
were considered within the exclusive domain of sci- 
entists. We are becoming a race of philosophers — 
doing our own thinking, weighing our own problems, 
and largely acting for ourselves in all things concern- 
ing our personal welfare. Long ago were broken the 
chains which held humanity under the thraldom of 
priestcraft in matters of science and of religion. 
Scientific men no longer hide their light under a 
bushel or secretly guard their discoveries. Instead, 
they widely publish all they know and all they be- 
lieve; that the world may be benefited. And in re- 
ligion no talent or labor or expense is spared in striv- 
ing to make plain to all, even to the poorest and 
most ignorant, the things believed to be for the bless- 
ing of humanity, here and hereafter. 

But in medicine, how different! More and more do 
the members of the fraternity seek to conceal by a 
maze of technicalities and mysticisms the facts which 
should be given to the world gratuitously. More and 
more intricate is caused to appear the study of the 
human body and the application of remedies to dis- 
ease. As the people become familiar with methods 
and means of cure, those methods and means are dis- 
carded by the medical fraternity and pronounced 
worthless. In their places are adopted so-called dis- 
coveries and specifics, concocted in microscopical and 
chemical laboratories, which the people are not ex- 
pected to comprehend. 

It is declared impossible to properly diagnose dis- 
ease without a previous bacteriological education; 
and impossible to combat it without the employment 
of methods and means which are safe only in the 
hands of "experts. ' : Expensive antitoxines and bac- 
tericides and germ-destroyers are imported from over 
the seas, and hypodermically administered according 
to elaborate rules incomprehensible to the laity. The 
vilest of animal extracts and the most virulent of 
poisons, which in the nature of things are stamped to 
destroy, are declared to become the greatest of health 


restoring substances when administered by the scien- 
tific hands of a regularly licensed physician, whose 
fees, for curing or killing, are collectible by law. 

The acquisition of authority and the exclusive priv- 
ilege of controlling the bodies of others for merce- 
nary purposes, appears to be the chief aim of the 
medical fraternity. To aid in accomplishing their de- 
signs, by deception and wily subterfuge, they have 
secured the enactment of unconstitutional laws and 
the appropriation of State funds to be placed at their 
disposal. Thus have they established and do they 
maintain one of the most gigantic trusts that ever 
cursed a free-born people. 

Medical monopoly is the last remnant of mercenary 
priestcraft to thrive upon mankind's afflictions and 
misfortunes. But its chains, forged centuries ago by 
ignorance and superstition, have gradually weakened 
by the continuous strain put upon them by education 
and enlightenment. Tighter and tighter does it seek 
to draw those weakened chains, and greater and 
greater grows the resistance afforded by increased 
public knowledge. Before long the fetters must give 
way, and humanity will be free to enjoy the liberty of 
striving to know all things and of exercising the 
right of self-preservation. 

To add to the bulk of public knowledge, to help 
make possible the complete severance of the chains 
of medical monopoly, and to give to all the power of 
holding their lives in their own hands, is the aim of 
this volume. 

The Author's Statement. 

This book has been written in plain language, that 
all who read may understand; and technicalities have 
been avoided unless accompanied by common terms. 
Diseases have been mentioned in alphabetical order; 
and the descriptions of the diseases have been made 
as short as is consistent with their proper presenta- 
tion. The subject of hygiene has been given especial 
attention; and the rules for proper living and for the 
preservation of health have been written with great 
care and with a full knowledge of their importance. 

An especial and a most important feature of the 


book consists in the methods advised for the treat- 
ment of diseases. No poisonous drugs of any kind 
are recommended for internal use; and only such rem- 
edies are advised as are capable of aiding the vital 
force in its struggle against disease. Poisons, by 
their inherent nature, are calculated to injure and to 
destroy; and whatever benefit they may seemingly 
accomplish in the treatment of disease, can be more 
quickly and better accomplished without them. They 
may, under some circumstances, force the system to 
action; but they invariably weaken the constitution; 
and even if they should apparently prove beneficial 
at times, the danger and uncertainty accompanying 
their use should forbid their employment in the house- 
hold. Therefore, all the agents endorsed in this book 
for internal use are absolutely non-poisonous. They 
have been tried and proven efficient throughout an ex- 
tensive practice covering many years; and they are 
confidently recommended as safe and reliable. 

In the section devoted to miscellaneous articles will 
be found an amount of useful information which will 
prove invaluable for both old and young. Many of 
the facts and deductions given are the results of ex- 
tensive experience and laborious investigations, and 
the purpose of presenting them is to add to the fund 
of general knowledge and to aid in the betterment 
and happiness of those who will accept their truths. 

In the compilation of this book the author has con- 
stantly kept in mind the fact that those who possess 
it will, in a great measure, depend upon its informa- 
tion and instruction in times of sickness and emer- 
gency. The consciousness of this responsibility has 
prompted his endeavors to plainly and fully present 
his views upon the best means of preserving health 
and the most successful methods of overcoming dis- 
ease. It is earnestly hoped that those who purchase 
this volume may learn to value its information and to 
follow its instructions; and that on account of its pos- 
session they may realize a sense of secur^ in having 
(i A Physician in the House'' worthy of their fullest 



Minute Structures of the Human Body. 

The structures of the human body have long been a 
study for scientists as well as physicians, and in 
these modern days anatomy and physiology have be- 
come essential parts of a common school education. 
As the aids to investigations improve, knowledge cor- 
respondingly advances. With the use of the micro- 
scope most marvelous revelations have been made in 
the domain of science, and no investigations are of 
more profound interest or more directly beneficial to 
mankind than those pertaining to the minute struct- 
ures of the human body, known as the study of his- 

Protoplasm or Bioplasm. 

Either one of these terms is used to designate the 
smallest particle of living matter discernible under 
the microscope. The preferable term, which we will 
employ, is Bioplasm, from the Greek word bios (mean- 
ing life) and plasma (meaning form or basis). Bio- 
plasm, then, is the most minute starting point, recog- 
nizable, of anything that has life, whether vegetable 
or animal; though commonly the initial material of 
animal life is inferred when the term bioplasm is used. 
This term in plain English denotes germinal or living 
matter, and these words — bioplasm, germinal matter 
and living matter — will be used synonymously in this 

3 33 


Physical characteristics of germinal matter may be 
studied in the highest and lowest organisms, and as 
far as we are yet able to ascertain, even under the 
highest microscopical powers, they appear to be pre- 
cisely the same, no matter what the grade of life they 
may belong to. There are no distinguishing features 
to enable us to differentiate between bioplasm of 
fungi, plants, animals or human beings. Should we 
view under the microscope a particle of living matter 
without knowing whence it had been obtained, it 
would be impossible to decide what form of tissue it 
was intended to produce — whether it were destined to 
form blood, or bone, or muscle, or fibre of plant or of 

There must be differences in particles of germinal 
matter obtained from various sources; for what will 
nourish and sustain one kind will absolutely destroy 
another kind. A temperature indispensable to the 
life of one kind may be quickly fatal to another kind. 
And, again, an evidence of differences in various 
kinds of living matter is demonstrated by the fact 
that bioplasm will produce bioplasm only after its 
particular kind — the germinal matter of a plant will 
never produce germinal matter of an animal; and the 
germinal matter of a particular species of animal 
will not produce germinal matter peculiar to the or- 
ganism of another species. 

But, as yet, no aids have been devised for rendering 
our senses capable of differentiating bioplasm. We 
are absolutely certain that differences do exist, but 
we can distinguish those differences only by recogniz- 
ing the varied natures of the results produced by bio- 
plasmic action, and we conclude that those varied re- 
sults are due to differences in inherited powers which 
we cannot isolate. 

When examined by the aid of the highest known 
microscopical powers, bioplasm, or germinal matter, 
appears as an insignificant, shapeless particle of 
transparent, jelly-like matter, absolutely devoid of 
structure. Should the observations be continued any 
length of time under favorable surroundings, such as 
the provision of the particular temperature and other 
environments required by the grade of bioplasm under 


examination, it will be seen to be in continuous mo- 
tion, and that motion is spontaneous; that is, it is not 
provoked by any outside influences, but is controlled 
by power seemingly within the particle of living mat- 
ter; and these characteristics are manifested at every 
period of its existence, and they cease only when bi- 
oplasm dies and ceases to be living matter. 

Anyone can study these peculiarities of bioplasm, 
by the aid of a microscope, by examining the simplest 
forms of living matter known, which are termed 
amoebae. These can be obtained by placing a very 
small portion of animal or vegetable matter in a glass 
of luke-warm water and exposing it to light and 
warmth for a few days, and then using a very small 
particle of the thickened liquid. A little blood-serum 
may be easily obtained from the finger for the pur- 

When properly obtained and prepared, amoebae less 
than one one-hundred-thousandth (1-100, 000th) of an 
inch in diameter will be seen in most active movement 
in every direction, constantly altering their shapes in 
outline and thickness, and absorbing surrounding ma- 
terial suitable for nourishment. These actions con- 
tinue under favorable circumstances for an indefinite 
length of time. But under unfavorable influences, 
such as improper temperature, unsuitable surrounding 
material, etc., the actions become very slow, and 
gradually cease altogether, each separate amoeba, or 
organism, becoming spherical, and forming on its sur- 
face a soft covering, which becomes a firm protective 
envelop, within which the germinal matter, if not 
killed, is preserved until the return of favorable con- 
ditions, when it emerges and grows and gives rise to 
new amoebae; and this process can be kept up indefi- 
nitely, provided the surroundings never depart too far 
from what are naturally required. 

Observations on corpuscles of mucus are very inter- 
esting. These corpuscles are found in the ordinary 
mucus of the air passages of the nose and throat. 
Corpuscles of mucus are oval or spherical, transpar- 
ent or granular, and composed of matter almost dif- 
fluent. No language can convey a correct idea of the 
changes which take place in the form of living cor 


puscles of mucus as observed under the microscope 
under favorable conditions. Every part of the sub- 
stance exhibits distinct alterations within a few sec- 
onds. The material in one part may move to another, 
and the relationship of component particles never re- 
mains the same an instant. But with all the disturb- 
ances and alterations manifested there are no regular- 
ities of movement. Were it possible to take hundreds 
of photographs, at the briefest intervals, no two 
would be alike. The outline of each particle changes 
in many parts and in many directions at the same 
time, so that there is no definite appearance to the 

An entire corpuscle may move onward, protrusions 
may occur at one end and the general mass may fol- 
low. From the first protrusions smaller ones occur, 
which become pear-shaped; these may remain at- 
tached by a narrow stem for awhile and then again 
run into the general mass. Occasionally some spher- 
ical portions are detached from the parent mass and 
become independent masses of germinal matter, which 
grow into ordinary corpuscles of mucus. Thus every 
kind of bioplasm is multiplied. From many observa- 
tions it seems probable that the same class of move- 
ments may be seen in every kind of living matter, 
whether of plant or animal, as may be seen in mucus 
or in amoebae. 

Bioplasm being the limit ol recognizable matter, 
under the most powerful microscope, and no differ- 
ences of bioplasm being apparent to differentiate a 
vegetable from an animal, or one genus or species 
from another, we can but realize that the differences 
exist in inherent characteristics. 

Vegetable and Animal Cells. 

Every organism, whether plant or animal, has con- 
nected with it, as a part of itself, matter that is not 
living. The lifeless shell is evidently a part of the 
oyster, and it increases in dimensions by new matter 
being added to it by the living organism. In man the 
free portions of the hair and nails, the outer part of 
the cuticle, and a portion of the tissues of the teeth 
are evidently lifeless; and the waste of these is 


largely compensated for by the addition of new mat- 
ter formed by the living - particles. But by an un- 
known process the non-living- food is absorbed and 
made a part of the living - matter, and then converted 
into the lifeless formed material which is thrown out 
to surround the living - matter. 

All tissues and fluids of plants and animals are 
composed of many cells, which are particles of living- 
matter surrounded by formed material, and the vast 
differences in the tissues and fluids are due to the dif- 
ferences of the formed materials. The oldest formed 
material is on the outside of the cell and the newest 
surrounds the living - matter. 

Living- or g-erminal matter, that which is constantly 
in motion under favorable circumstances; formed ma- 
terial, that which has no life and has been previously 
formed from or by living - matter; nutrient material or 
pabulum, otherwise food or nourishment — these are 
the only terms required in describing - the develop- 
ment, formation and growth of any tissue, the pro- 
duction of all the secretions, and of the varied phe- 
nomena peculiar to living plants or animals of what- 
ever nature. 

In everything - that has life we may find matter in 
three different states, namely: Matter about to be- 
come living - , matter actually living and matter that 
has lived. The last mentioned form of matter pos- 
sesses characteristics by which we know that it has 
lived; for we can no more cause matter artificially to 
exhibit the characters of the dried leaf, the lifeless 
wood, shell, bone, hair or other tissues, than we can 
make living - matter itself by laboratory apparatus. 
The process of cell growth or increase or multiplica- 
tion in every case depends upon the bioplasm or 
germinal matter only. The differences in cells, and 
their formed materials which go to make up such a 
variety of organic tissues and fluids are due to differ- 
ences in the powers of bioplasm or germinal matter. 
Just why and how particles of germinal matter, with 
no apparent distinguishing characteristics, can con- 
vert pabulum or nourishing substances into varied 
forms, and each form be adapted to its peculiar posi- 
tion and use, are problems so deep that the human 


mind has so far been unable to fathom them according 
to modern science. 

Death of Bioplasm. 

When the life of a mass of bioplasm or germinal 
matter is cut short, by improper environment or other 
circumstances, lifeless substances having individual 
and peculiar properties result. These substances be- 
long to four different classes of bodies: (1) Fibrin, 
which separates spontaneously soon after death; 
(2) albumen, which is coagulated by heat and nitric 
acid; (3) fatty matter, having a point of solidifica- 
tion; (4) salts. 

Once dead, bioplasm or living matter ceases to be 
such, and is resolved into other things. But the 
things which are formed as the result of the death of 
bioplasm cannot be put tog'ether again to re-form bi- 
oplasm. They may be taken up by other bioplasm 
and so converted into living matter, producing a dif- 
ferent kind of formed material. But the bioplasm 
that existed once and then died cannot exist again as 
such. All bioplasm or germinal matter must die, but 
re-living is, as far as we know, impossible, and scien- 
tifically it is inconceivable. A crystal may be dis- 
solved and new crystals formed, with precisely the 
same characteristics, but a particle of bioplasm can 
no more be dissolved and re-formed than a man can 
be dissolved and then formed anew. The difference 
between living matter and lifeless matter — between 
bioplasm and the things which result from its death — 
is absolute. The change from one state to another is 
sudden and complete. The steel of which a magnet 
is composed can be unmagnetized and remagnetized as 
often as may be desired; but when living matter has 
been destroyed by death it cannot be revitalized. 

Concerning the origin of bioplasm we have no 
knowledge or experience, and all theories regarding 
its origin must ever remain as theories, as there are 
no means of establishing any one of them. But all 
evidence teaches us that from the first beginning of 
life, bioplasm has proceeded from bioplasm; and the 
spontaneous formation of bioplasm direct from' non- 
living matter is impossible even in thought, except to 


one who counts as absolutely nothing- the facts of 
physics and chemistry, and is perfectly blind regard- 
ing the phenomena of the living- world transpiring 
about him. 

A mass of bioplasm exposed to certain special con- 
ditions (which conditions vary with every kind of bi- 
oplasm), grows, divides and subdivides in multitudes 
of masses, Each of these grows and subdivides in 
the same manner, until vast numbers result. By 
these apparently similar masses of bioplasm, different 
tissues, organs and members are formed; and at length 
all the complex and elaborate forms of apparatus 
which make up the body of a living being result. 
These organs and structures perform their appointed 
work for the appointed time; they then decay, and 
are resolved into formless matters of interest to the 
chemist as well as to the anatomist and physiologist. 

The body of a living animal is composed of many 
tissues, of varying characteristics, performing very 
different acts, and designed from the first to fulfil 
very different purposes, as proved by the fact that 
each working tissue has to pass through several 
stages of formation, during none of which does it 
work or serve any useful purpose whatever. But the 
stages of inaction were necessary for its construction; 
and the ultimate form it was to take, and the duty it 
was to discharge, must have been determined from 
the first, when it was without form, and when no one 
could have anticipated either the form it was to as- 
sume, the work it was to do, or even offer a reason as 
to why it existed at all. We can realize the existence 
of living matter, but we cannot conceive its origin. 

Nourishment of Living Matter. 

Every kind of living matter is said to be nourished 
when it increases and remains active. In order that 
the act of nutrition may occur it is necessary that the 
material constituting the pabulum or food should be 
brought very close to the living matter. A part of 
the active living-matter then moves toward the non- 
living pabulum or food. Throughout all its life living 
matter, or bioplasm, tends to move away from its cen- 
ter. Its particles seem to be impelled centrifugally 


toward any nourishing material that may be in close 
proximity to it. 

Whether or not the non-living* pabulum is taken up 
and converted into the living - bioplasm depends upon 
a number of circumstances which the living- matter is 
utterly powerless to occasion, influence, control or 
modify. But the external conditions being - favorable 
and the pabulum being - very near to the living - matter, 
some of the pabulum is taken up by the bioplasm, 
which communicates to certain of the non-living - con- 
stituents its own particular properties or powers. 
Such essentially is the phenomenon of nutrition, 
which is universal in the living - world, and which in 
fact consists of the taking - up of the non-living - mat- 
ter by living - matter and its incorporation with it. 
The non-living - is made to live by the agency of that 
which is already living - . 

The manner in which pabulum or nourishing - mate- 
rial is brought into close proximity or actual contact 
with bioplasm, or germinal matter, is very different 
in different cases. In man and the higher animals the 
operation is provided for by a highly complex appa- 
ratus deserving the most attentive study, and consti- 
tuting one of the most wonderful of all natural per- 
formances. Should any part of the intricate struct- 
ure of this apparatus be impaired or its action modi- 
fied in any great degree, serious derangement of the 
nutritive processes result. Also by such modifications 
structural changes of the most important kind in or- 
gans of the highest importance to the life of the com- 
plex organism are occasioned. In the case of the 
simpler forms of life, such as fungous growths, etc., 
the pabulum or nourishment is brought into the imme- 
diate vicinity of the bioplasm, as it were, by mere ac- 
cident. A breath of air, a drop of rain, may contain 
the appropriate food which will provide for the free 
growth of some of the simplest organisms, which in- 
crease and multiply in so short a time. Apparently 
without any effort or concern of the organism itself, 
all things needed for its development from bioplasm 
and its future growth are provided. 

In mankind and the higher classes of animals most 
important organs and various structures aid in the 


performances of functions which minister to the intro- 
duction of pabulum or nourishing* material into the 
intestines, where innumerable particles of bioplasm 
are ever ready to take it up and grow and multiply by 
consuming" the nutritious material it supplies. 

The introduction of food or aliment is not suffered 
to depend upon reason or thoughtfulness. If the de- 
mand of food by the organism be not sufficiently and 
regularly satisfied, the sensation known as hunger is 
experienced, and when this becomes intense, every 
other desire, every other interest is in abeyance until 
the demand for food has been satisfied. 

Distribution of Nourishment. 

The food or pabulum having* in the intestines been 
brought into close proximity to the bioplasm, it is 
taken up and appropriated by the bioplasm, which 
undergoes changes; a part of it dies, and some of its 
constituents, dissolved in water, pass into the blood, 
which flows in channels close to it. The apparatus 
and structures concerned in the distribution of the 
nutrient matter so dissolved to all parts of the human 
body, and the bodies of the higher animals and 
plants, consist of tubes so communicating one with 
another that the contained fluids may traverse them 
freely and return to the same point. This movement 
of fluid through the tubes throughout the body is 
termed circulation; and any influence or obstruction 
which interferes with the free and regular circulation 
of that fluid throughout the body, manifestly hinders 
proper development and tends to destroy the struct- 
ures dependent upon nourishment for their existence, 
and death results. In man and the higher animals 
these tubes and certain organs connected with them, 
concerned in the propulsion of the fluid, are comprised 
under what are generally known as the circulatory 
organs; and the fluid which continues to circulate in 
the vessels as long as life lasts is called the blood, or 
nutrient circulating fluid. 

Food is not simply dissolved and caused to pass 
into the blood, as would be inferred from the descrip- 
tions usually given; but millions of masses of bio- 
plasm live and grow, pass through certain stages, and 


die, yielding up the products of their death, to be 
taken up by other bioplasmic particles, situated in 
the walls of the vessels and in the blood itself. 

The order of the changes occurring" in the food 
taken by man and the higher animals may be enumer- 
ated as follows: First, nourishment or food; second, 
nutrient circulating fluid or blood; third, tissues; 
fourth, products of decomposition or decay; fifth, 
blood; sixth, excreted matter, unfit to remain in the 
proximity of bioplasm, and consequently to be de- 
jected from the body. 

But if man or animals take more food than their 
bodies require, the excess, after having been con- 
verted into blood, is excreted without being first con- 
verted into tissue. By overtaxing these organs ex- 
cess of food may thus cause serious derangement of 
important organs. And decomposition of food in the 
intestinal canal may destroy the bioplasm and hinder 
all nourishment. 

Such, in a few words, is the explanation of the de- 
velopment of the human body and the existence of 
life. For the investigations made in ascertaining 
these facts we are indebted to the indefatigable labors 
of Dr. Lionel S. Beale, of England. And so beauti- 
fully and clearly has he written upon the subject that 
it would be impossible to improve upon his state- 
ments. These have been given with accuracy for the 
benefit of all who may be inclined to learn the facts 
of their own existence. 

The same intelligence which caused the first forma- 
tion of living matter has guided it to perfection; and 
the power which has developed the human organism 
with all its intricacies, has endowed it with the abil- 
ity to preserve its existence and arrange and direct 
its perpetuity. 


Thoughts on Prolonging* Life, 

When we examine the various tissues of the body— 
the bones and sinews and muscles and the blood it- 
self — there seems to be no apparent reasons why they 


should not endure forever, provided they were fur- 
nished with proper nourishment and given the sur- 
roundings most favorable to their maintenance. But 
they do not exist forever, and there must be reasons 
for the fact. 

There is throughout nature a tendency for all com- 
plex substances to assume simpler forms. A plant 
develops from the seed, grows more and more complex 
in its composition and construction, until it reaches 
the height of its glory, and then begins to lose its 
beauty and eventually decays. Some plants complete 
their individual destinies in a few months, while oth- 
ers, such as the oak, may live for centuries. But dur 
ing the entire existence of a plant some part of it is 
beginning to decay. Should we watch it spring from 
the seed we would notice the first or seed-leaves; and 
before long, when the plant has put forth other 
leaves, these seed-leaves will begin to shrivel and 
will soon drop off. It is difficult to find a plant of 
any size which has not some of its leaves or bark or 
roots partially or wholly dead. But in the healthy 
plant, the decay of these portions is counterbalanced 
by the growth in the living portions; and as long as 
this continues life exists. But when the process of 
decay exceeds the process of development, then death 
has set in, and it is only a matter of time until the 
whole plant or tree succumbs to the inevitable, and is 
dead. The processes of decay may by intelligent care 
be warded off a considerable length of time; but 
death having set in, nothing can stop it. 

Human existence may aptly be compared to plant 
life in many respects. Decompositions throughout 
the body commence even in early life; but as long as 
these decompositions are counterbalanced by renewals 
of tissues, made possible by perfect nutrition, life will 
continue. But just as soon as the decompositions ex- 
ceed the renewals death has commenced. 

But what is old age, and why is it inevitable that 
mankind must die? To answer this question let us 
consider the development of the body from infancy to 
maturity, and follow it to old age. At birth and 
through early life the bones are, we know, soft and 
somewhat gelatinous. They are easily bended, and 


throughout all that period of life it is proper that 
such nourishment shall be used as shall favor the con- 
solidation of bones and other tissues within certain 
limits; for too early consolidation is detrimental 
to the attainment of proper physical proportions. 
Should children and young persons up to the time of 
their majority subsist upon such foods as will prevent 
consolidation, as will presently be mentioned, then 
growth would be favored and a large body will be the 
result; provided other circumstances and environ- 
ments are favorable. 

The bones have attained their full development, 
and growth of stature is usually attained, from the 
eighteenth to the twenty-first year of life. Up to 
that time the eating of such foods and drinking of 
such fluids as favor consolidation may be permitted; 
but after that time such articles are detrimental to 
health and favor early old age and death. And why? 
The reason is readily comprehended by a moment's 

After the bones and tissues have attained such a de- 
gree of consolidation as will prevent their further 
growth, the continuance of consolidating foods and 
drinks will only tend to increase their consolidation, 
without their further enlargement. Such an action 
will manifestly result in a condition of abnormal con- 
solidation which will gradually more and more pre 
vent the proper performance of functions. The skin 
will become hardened and lose its elasticity and 
wrinkles will soon be manifest. The muscles will 
cease to respond quickly, locomotion will be slower, 
running will be laborious or impossible; and if con- 
solidating foods are taken to excess, deposits will 
take place in the joints, causing stiffness, and proba- 
bly rheumatic pains and deformities, if not useless- 

The delicate tissues of the brain become more and 
more hardened, and manifest their inability to per- 
form their natural functions properly, by loss of mem- 
ory, absent-mindedness, and the hundred and one lit- 
tle peculiarities and eccentricities so often noticed in 
the aged. 

The arteries themselves, and possibly the heart 


also, lose their proper elasticity; and the circulation 
is correspondingly interfered with. Heart weakness 
is experienced, and nutrition is not carried to every 
part of the body as it should be. The dense struct- 
ures of the scalp are among the first to show failure 
of nutrition, as evidenced by the hair losing its color 
or dying out. The eyes become unable to respond 
quickly to impression, and the muscles of accommo- 
dation are unable to control the adjustment of the 
lenses, causing farsightedness or presbyophia (sight 
of old age). 

Knowing, then, the causes of premature old age, 
how can they be overcome? By studying the compo- 
sition of foods, as laid down in the table of foods, and 
using our reasoning powers, it becomes possible for 
us to avoid those things which favor consolidation, 
and to select such a diet as will favor the elimination 
of solids otherwise deposited. Fruits in abundance, 
apples, pears, berries, grapes, plums, peaches, cran- 
berries and similar articles, should be eaten freely. 
And as for drink, only pure distilled water should be 
taken. It is the great natural solvent and cannot be 
too freely taken after the age of twenty-one. Use 
such a diet and maintain proper exercise, and use the 
lungs and stomach as directed in the subsequent chap- 
ters of this series, and, barring accidents and injudi- 
ciousness, death will be afar off; and old age will be 
robbed of its hideousness, its wrinkled and shrunken 
body and its feebleness and infirmities. 


Accidents, Disease, Changes of Tissue. 

First of all, to avoid death, we must know what 
causes it, or rather in what manner does it come to 
human beings. 

1. Death may be accidental. 

2. Death may follow disease. 

3. Death may be from changes of tissues. 

The subject of accidental death need not be dwelt 
upon. In the first place death by accident is very 


rare; and, in the second place, outside of carelessness, 
accidents are due to causes over which we have no 

But disease is a subject which should be most care- 
fully considered; for nearly all deaths occur during- 
disease. By way of a definition it may be stated that 
disease is abnormal performance of bodily functions 
caused by obstructions, alterations or interference. 

In health every function of the body should be per- 
formed with perfect ease; but when cfo's-ease is mani- 
fested in the performance of any function we know 
there is a departure from health, and consequently a 
tendency toward death. Let us classify simply the 
various causes of disease. 

1. The effects of cold cause disease. 

2. The improper use of the mind causes disease. 

3. The abuse of the stomach causes disease. 

1. The great majority of persons die from lung 
troubles of some kind, and these are always aroused 
by "catching cold. " But the lungs are not alone suf- 
ferers from cold. A moment's reflection will demon- 
strate that many diseases follow exposures to cold. 
The surface of the body is a network of blood-vessels 
and minute canals — the latter serving to carry away 
an immense amount of waste material from the body. 
When the surface becomes chilled the superficial 
blood-vessels are contracted and prevent the free cir- 
culation of blood throug-h them, throwing upon inter- 
nal organs the excess of blood which crowds them 
and causes disease. In a similar manner cold con- 
tracts the pores and canals of the skin and prevents 
the proper elimination of the waste materials through 
them, throwing these poisonous substances back into 
the body for other organs to endeavor to eliminate in 
addition to their own burdens. Besides superficial 
cold, chilled air entering the lungs directly causes se- 
rious trouble. 

2. That the mind has great control over the body 
needs no argument. In cases of disease a strong will 
power and determination to recover is of great ben- 
efit; and many diseases may be warded off by resolute 
confidence and cheerfulness. Likewise the mind has 


power to cause disease. Moroseness will favor indi- 
gestion and all its ills; and anger will induce apo- 
plexy; and passion will create nervous disorders; and 
in almost innumerable ways lack of cheerfulness and 
mental control will certainly result in disease. 

3. The abuse of the stomach is one of the most 
frequent causes of disease. Improper food, impure 
food, too much food and bad drinking water, as are 
well known, invariably cause disease. "What a train 
of diseases and an almost endless amount of suffering 
could be avoided by properly guarding the stomach 
against abuse! Man should at least be as able to 
properly choose his food as are the lower animals; 
and he is able to do so; but he usually prefers to 
allow impulse and desire to overcome judgment and 
natural intelligence. 

Another most frequent cause of hastening death is 
the swallowing of poisonous substances under the 
name of medicine. This murderous custom was born 
during the dark ages; its philosophy is as absurd as 
its practice is dangerous. No "professional opinion'' 
or division of substance can alter the inherent quali- 
ties of poisonous drugs. They by nature are calcu- 
lated to destroy. During disease life may exist in 
spite of their administration, but never on account 
of it, 


The Average and Possible Duration of Existence. 

The pages of ancient and biblical history make fre- 
quent mention of human life being extended over hun- 
dreds of years; and in modern times there is an occa- 
sional individual who passes the century mark. But 
the man who is now a hundred years old is looked 
upon as a marvel of longevity. And why? The 
Psalmist remarked that "the days of our years are 
three score and ten;" and, probably, with the usual 
misconstruction placed upon biblical sayings, those 
words have been accepted as a divine assertion that 
man should properly live no longer; and fulfills his 
destiny at the end of three score years and ten. Ac- 


cording to modern statistics an average human gen- 
eration is about forty years; and should a modern 
psalmist declare that the days of our years are two 
score we could not doubt his truthfulness, but would 
at once realize his meaning. 

But although the average life of man is now about 
forty years, it is far longer than the average of life a 
century ago. If we study statistics and history we 
will realize that in proportion as cleanliness and the 
laws of hygiene have been observed the life of man 
has been extended. Public hygiene in the way of 
sewerage, pure drinking water and municipal cleanli- 
ness deserves great credit for the prolongation of life. 
Could individual hygiene be as practically carried out 
as public hygiene has been, the results would be far 
greater. But public hygiene is woefully defective at 
present in spite of the great improvement over the 

When we reflect that a large proportion of human 
beings in the large cities are too ignorant and filthy 
by nature to consider the subjects of cleanliness and 
hygiene, and that another large proportion of persons 
are totally indifferent to such matters, we cannot 
wonder that human life is so short. But could we ex- 
clude from the calculation the infants who die under 
five years of age, we would have a much greater aver- 
age of life; for over one -fourth of all human beings 
die before they reach the fifth year of existence. 

Taking 1,000 human beings: 

263 die before the 5th year, 
35 die between the 5th and 10th years, 
18 die between the 10th and 15th years, 
50 die between the 15th and 25th years, 
62 die between the 25th and 35th years, 
62 die between the 35th and 45th years, 
89 die between the 45th and 55th years, 
92 die between the 55th and 65th years, 
148 die between the 65th and 75th years, 
123 die between the 75th and 85th years, 
56 die between the 85th and 95th years. 

Leaving only two persons out of 1.000 to reach the 


age of ninety-five years, and only one person out of 
2,000 to reach 100 years of age. 

Yet it is possible for man to live to be 200 years old; 
and the average length of life should be 100 years. 
This latter statement is based upon the fact that in 
all the lower animals the length of life is five times 
the number of years it takes for the bony system to 
become fully developed. Man is not fully developed 
until his twentieth year, and it is therefore natural 
that he should live at least one hundred years. And 
that he does not live to that time is due to his own 
neglect of his body and his disregard of the laws of 
life. It is a sad commentary upon the intellectuality 
of man to realize that the lower animals far excel him 
in obeying the laws of life and reaching toward the 
limits of life allowed them; barring their destruction 
by man. 

It would seem that the first and most important 
subject for study to the human race should be " How 
can I live to fulfill my allotted time?" But experi- 
ence goes to show that such a question, if at all con- 
sidered is made secondary to nearly all other ques- 

' ' Let each one sweep before his own door and the 
streets of Jerusalem will be clean," is an old saying 
and has an apt application in this connection. Let 
each one of us consider individual preservation of the 
body, and thus prolong our own lives and increase the 
general average, 


Its Composition and Its Influence Upon Life. 

Pure air is an essential to good health and exist- 
ence; it is man's natural environment and is furnished 
in abundance everywhere. Although, in some locali- 
ties, frequently contaminated by poisonous gases and 
particles; yet, as a rule, air in free space is practically 
pure all over the globe. Just what constitutes pure 
air from a chemical and physiological standpoint has 
been frequently ascertained by scientific means, and 
has been shown to consist principally of two elemen- 


tary gases, oxygen and nitrogen, mixed together in 
the proportion of oxygen about 20.93 volumes and ni- 
trogen about 79.07 volumes. This does not include 
about one-half of one per cent of other gases, which, 
although exceedingly small in quantity, have their 
specific uses. Some authors state the composition of 
the atmosphere as follows: 

Oxygen 20.93 

Nitrogen 79.03 

Vapor of water Variable 

Carbonic acid gas 00.04 

Ozone Variable 

Nitric and nitrous acids Traces 

Ammoniacal compounds Traces 

Sulphurous and Sulphuric acids Traces 

Hydrocarbons Traces 

Suspended solid particles Traces 

Oxygen of the atmosphere is the great supporter 
of life and combustion; without it all animal life 
would cease; and in proportion as its percentage in 
the atmosphere decreases, health becomes deterio- 
rated. Three-tenths of one per cent loss of oxygen 
would be calamitous. An increase of oxygen (pro- 
vided other gases poisonous in character are not pres- 
ent) increases animal vigor and is proportionately 
conducive to health within certain slight limits. 

Nitrogen has frequently been spoken of as the 
great dilutent of the atmosphere. Its presence is 
necessary to life, although of itself it could not sup- 
port combustion. But without it the body would be 
consumed by its greatly increased activity. Nitrogen 
will not support life, but nevertheless its presence al- 
lows life to be supported by oxygen. Many physiolo- 
gists claim that nitrogen is directly assimilated from 
the atmosphere to aid in the formation of the nitro- 
genous tissues of the body. 

Vapor Of Water is present in the atmosphere in 
variable proportions. The amount present depending 
upon the temperature. At a very high temperature 


the atmosphere can hold a great deal of vapor of wa- 
ter in suspension; but at a low temperature it can 
hold but very little. When the atmosphere contains 
all the moisture it can possibly hold at a given degree 
of temperature it is said to be saturated, and the 
" hygrometric condition" or " fraction of saturation" of 
the atmosphere refers to the difference between the 
amount of moisture present and the amount the at- 
mosphere is capable of holding at a given degree of 

As a rule, the atmosphere contains between sixty 
and seventy per cent of the moisture or vapor of wa- 
ter it is capable of holding. When the percentage 
falls below that amount the air is too dry to be com- 
fortable. This often occurs in rooms that are too 
close and are heated by stoves, without any means of 
adding moisture to the atmosphere. When the per- 
centage of moisture is greater than normal in the at- 
mosphere an oppressive sensation is experienced, 
especially at a high degree of temperature — the air 
being already so filled with moisture that the evap- 
oration by perspiration from the skin is interfered 

An over amount of moisture during cold weather 
renders the cold more piercing. In summer time it 
takes a great deal more actual moisture to saturate 
the atmosphere than is required in winter. This is 
simply illustrated in winter by opening an outside 
door from a kitchen filled with steam. The steam 
will not be visible in the heated kitchen, but as the 
hot air laden with moisture rushes out of the door 
and becomes chilled the moisture instantly becomes 
converted into visible steam and congeals into water. 

Ozone is in one sense of the word a condensed form 
of oxygen, and acts in precisely the same manner as 
that gas, only more vigorously. It is the great puri- 
fier of the atmosphere — destroying fungi and disease 
germs and other poisonous micro-organisms. It is 
often formed during thunder-storms and frequently 
its presence at such times can be recognized by its pe- 
culiar odor, its increased quantity during thunder- 
storms is chiefly the cause of purification of the 


atmosphere realized after such storms, although of 
course the absorption of poisonous gases by the rain 
and the precipitation of solid particles aid in the pu- 
rification. Mountainous regions contain considerable 
ozone, which in a great measure renders such locali- 
ties healthful and invigorating. 

Nitric and Nitrous Acids are sometimes present, 
but always in exceedingly small quantities. They are 
usually formed by chemical actions taking place, and 
rarely equal in quantity more than one part in many 
millions, and then only temporarily. 

Ammoniacal Compounds are formed by decom- 
positions of animal and vegetable substances, and al- 
though they are very small in quantity their presence 
is important to vegetable life, they being absorbed by 
plants and assimilated to aid in the ripening of the 

Sulphur Compounds are not found in the atmos- 
phere of country districts; but in small quantities 
greatly diffused, their presence may be detected about 
cities and other places of manufacturing, where coal 
is consumed in large quantities. Such gases are 
never conducive to health. Occasionally, as in the 
neighborhoods of sulphur springs or artesian wells, 
the air may be filled with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 
which is easily detected by its peculiar odor of '-rot- 
ten eggs/' The presence of this gas from such 
sources is not in anywise detrimental. 

Hydrocarbons are usually products of vegetable 
decay, and are found in most minute proportions in 
the atmosphere about marshes; sometimes these com- 
pounds abound in the air of cities or localities where 
coal is burnt in large quantities. 

Suspended Solids, in minute particles, are always 
present in the atmosphere, and although their actual 
percentage is small, yet they are the only constitu- 
ents of the atmosphere which can be distinguished by 
the naked eye. By observing a ray of sunlight in a 


room innumerable particles of suspended matter can 
be seen. 

The character of these suspended solid particles 
varies greatly, and the proportions of the different 
particles are usually controlled by the locality. 
About the seashore an unusual amount of ordinary 
salt will be held in suspension; over deserts sandy 
particles are abundant, and lime and other mineral 
substances are often present. About factories and 
workshops many irritating substances are suspended 
in the air, and from marshes and unhealthful localities 
and sick rooms disease germs and many poisonous or- 
ganisms enter the atmosphere; and it is a question 
whether or not these micro-organisms entering the 
lungs are the sole causes of disease. Certain it is 
that many irritating substances cause diseases of the 
lungs by their irritating properties. File works and 
nail factories have the air of their compartments 
laden with very minute particles of iron, which in 
course of time cause serious lung troubles by irrita- 

While it cannot be disputed that small-pox, scarla- 
tina, and similar diseases may be conveyed from one 
to another by germs or poisonous particles transmitted 
through the atmosphere, it has not yet been absolutely 
established that certain forms of diseases are caused 
by the agency of organisms in the air as many pro- 
claim. But the spread of diseases from one locality 
to another are often in close connection with recog- 
nized air currents. 

Poisonous Substances in a finely divided state 
may be disseminated through the compartments of a 
dwelling from sources little suspected. The arsenical 
coloring materials used in green wall-papers and the 
poisonous colorings of carpets have often been found 
to be directly responsible for slow forms of arsenical 
poisoning. A case of corrosive sublimate poisoning 
has been reported where that substance was used in 
solution to destroy bed-bugs — the evaporation of the 
water causing the finely divided corrosive sublimate 
to permeate the atmosphere of the sleeping room. 

The dangers of noxious gases coming from vaults 


and drains and cess-pools are too well known to need 
more than mere mention in this place. 

Carbonic Acid Gas, also known as carbon di- 
oxide, is naturally present in the atmosphere. The 
amount averaging* about four parts in ten thousand 
(by volume), though varying according to locality, 
season and time of day. On land the proportion 
slightly increases at night, due to the fact that while 
plants absorb carbonic acid gas during sunlight, they 
do not do so during the night. In the arctic regions 
the proportion of the gas in the atmosphere averages 
over five parts in ten thousand, due to the absence of 
vegetation. For a similar reason and also because 
there is a much greater combustion of fuel going on, 
the atmosphere of cities has a larger proportion of 
carbonic acid gas than is found in the atmosphere of 
the country. 

The following table states the proportions of car- 
bonic acid gas found in various localities. The obser- 
vations were made by chemical authorities: 

Place. Parts in 10,000. 

Boulevard of Paris 3.19 

Parisian green-house 1.00 

Geneva, Switzerland 4.68 

Upon the Ocean, day time 5.42 

Upon the Ocean, night time 3.34 

London Prison cell 12. 15 

Theatre Parquet (gas light) 23.00 

Theatre, near ceiling (gas light) 43.00 

Rocky Mountain Lead Mine 75.00 

Coal Mine (lamps extinguished) 350.00 

Grotto del Cane 7,360.00 

Over the ocean the amount of carbonic acid gas in 
the atmosphere during the day is greatly in excess of 
that during the night; on account of the fact that the 
heated surface of the water does not absorb as much 
gas as does the cold water at night time. 

The sources of carbonic acid gas in the atmosphere 
are easily mentioned. First comes combustion of car- 
bonaceous material which forms carbonic acid gas as 


a product — one atom of carbon uniting - with two 
atoms of oxygen. Whenever wood, coal, gas, kero- 
sene, alcohol or any other combustible article is 
burned, carbonic acid gas is given off. In a closed 
room the oxygen used to unite with the carbon must 
be taken from the room, and for that reason the pro- 
portion of oxygen greatly decreases as the proportion 
of carbonic acid gas increases, and the atmosphere of 
the room soon becomes of a character unbearable, 
which in time would not support life or combustion. 
A stick burned in a closed jar is soon extinguished for 
the same reason. 

Animal respiration is another great source of car- 
bonic acid gas in the atmosphere. Sex, age, food and 
exercise cause variations in the amount of gas given 
off by human beings. Violent muscular activity and 
the consumption of starchy or carbonaceous foods 
will greatly increase the amount. 

The appended table shows the amount of carbonic 
acid gas given off and the amount of oxygen absorbed 
in twenty-four hours by males of various ages. The 
figures given are approximate averages and are fur- 
mished by unquestioned authorities (Andral, Gavar- 

Gas given 


Oxygen absorbed. 






. . . . 49 . . . 

225 . . 




389 . . 



. ...118.. . 




. . ..135.. . 





545 . . 



. . . . 148 . . . 







An adult male makes about sixteen or seventeen 
respirations in one minute, averaging twenty-four 
thousand respirations in twenty-four hours. At each 
expiration he will, on an average, exhale about 
twenty-five cubic inches of air, or 600,000 cubic 
inches in twenty-four hours. About five per cent of 
this is carbonic acid gas, and to maintain this exhala- 
tion about five per cent of oxygen must be consumed. 


Other sources of carbonic acid gas in the atmos- 
phere may be mentioned as follows: From waters of 
all kinds, from fissures, geysers, volcanoes, etc., from 
mines after explosions of fire damp; from fermenta- 
tion — alcoholic fermentation causing the evolution of 
about 190 quarts of carbonic acid for every quart of 
alcohol formed. The total amount of gas from these 
sources is enormous. 

Manufacturing establishments (besides their com- 
bustion of coal) often give off large quantities of car- 
bonic acid gas — such as lime kilns, cement works, etc. 

The actual volume of carbonic acid gas in the at- 
mosphere of our globe is enormous, and is being 
added to by immense volumes; yet the proportion re- 
mains almost constant, as the amount detracted from 
the atmosphere directly counterbalances the amount 
given it. The means by which carbonic acid gas is 
taken frem the atmosphere may be mentioned as fol- 
lows: Vegetables and plants during sunlight absorb 
the gas for nourishment, both by their leaves and 
roots, and decompose it, using tne carbon to build up 
structures and discharging the oxygen, nearly equal 
in volume to the carbonic acid gas absorbed. 

Lime and various rocks and corals and animal or- 
ganisms are constantly being changed to their car- 
bonates by union with the carbonic acid gas of the at- 

It might be supposed that the various strata of the 
atmosphere would vary in composition on account of 
the differences in weight of the gases composing it, 
and that as carbonic acid gas is many times heavier 
than either oxygen or nitrogen it would naturally be 
found nearest the earth's surface. But such is not 
the case, for by a natural law, termed the law of the 
diffusion of gases, the various gases of the atmos- 
phere mingle to form a uniform mixture throughout of 
invariable proportions. 

What Is Contaminated Air? 

Although the average amount of carbonic acid gas 
in the atmosphere is four parts in ten thousand, yet 
in confined places it is obvious that the proportion 
may be greatly increased. When it is increased to 



such an extent as to constitute six parts in ten thou- 
sand the atmosphere may be considered as contamin- 
ated. Still, the source of the increased amount of 
gas should be considered for various reasons. When 
it is caused by respiration or combustion in a confined 
space the increased amount represents also a decrease 
in the proportion of the oxygen present, and there- 
fore a most unnatural condition of the atmosphere, 
which of itself would be detrimental to health even 
without an increase of carbonic acid gas. 

An adult man deprives of oxygen a little over one 
hundred quarts of air an hour. But practically much 
more air is required for his existence every hour, as 
from what has been said it is evident that all the oxy- 
gen could not be taken from the surrounding atmos- 
phere and life still exist. Indeed, should the atmos- 
phere contain even five per cent of carbonic acid gas 
life could not exist in it; and only one per cent would 
cause serious difficulty of respiration. Under no cir- 
cumstances should the amount of carbonic acid gas 
in a compartment be allowed to exceed six parts in 
ten thousand — four parts being the normal amount 
and two parts the addition by combustion and respi- 

De Chaumont, after a series of carefully conducted 
experiments, prepared the following table to desig- 
nate the time required to render unventilated com- 
partments unhealthful on account of an excess of car- 
bonic acid gas thrown out by the respiration of one 

10,000 cubic ft. would be contaminated 







q3 hrs., 20 min. 
1 hr. , 40 min. 

20 min. 

12 min. 

4 min. 

1 min. 

36 sec. 

By contaminated is 
acid gas to a greater 
thousand. Although 

meant charged with carbonic 
degree than six parts in ten 
it would be possible for life to 
exist some time were there even six hundred parts in 


ten thousand, such an atmosphere could not be en- 
dured for more than a few minutes without risk of 
dangerous consequences. 


How to Develop their Full Capacity. 

Did you ever stop to contemplate the importance of 
the lungs to the human body? Very few persons 
make use of their lung - power, and as a rule those im- 
portant organs will be found developed to about one- 
fifth of their full capacity. Large lungs do not al- 
ways indicate development, for largeness may be due 
to accumulations of fatty tissues. It is important 
that the air cells of the lungs be developed — all of 
them. It is in these air cells that the oxygen and the 
life giving principle of the atmosphere have oppor- 
tunity to enter into the circulation and to so affect 
the blood as to purify it and add to it that indefinable 
"something" which we are often satisfied to call the 
life principle — the "breath of life" by which we live 
and move and have our being. 

Realizing the importance of this life principle to 
our very existence is it not a wonder that all the hu- 
man race are not familiar with the best methods of 
obtaining it ? 

Of course we know that vitiated air, that is, air 
laden with poisonous substances, products of decay, 
obnoxious gases, etc., will produce disease; and we 
also know that if the lungs are crowded or diseased 
they cannot perform their normal functions. Know- 
ing these facts, and being assured of the purity of the 
atmosphere we breathe and that our lungs are not 
crowded or diseased, we are, for the most part, satis- 
fied, and feel assured that if diseased conditions are 
present in our bodies, the lungs at least are not respon- 
sible. But let us consider all the circumstances. 

With one-fifth of our lung power developed, are we 
breathing into us the full amount of ''life principle" 
which it is our privilege to enjoy? The air may be 
pure and the lungs sound, and that is well as far as it 
goes, but it does not go far enough — we must use our 


lungs. Through the stomach and the skin many- 
things may enter the body which are capable of injur- 
ing it; but within the body there is a "something" 
which tends to overcome the influences which threaten 
to work destruction. That something we are pleased 
to term the " life princle," and we breathe it into the 
body along with the atmosphere which we inhale into 
the lungs; and the more of this life principle we in- 
hale the greater will be our resistive power against 
disease and the longer our lease of life. 

"Well,"' you will say, "I will start at once and use 
my lungs to their full capacity. '' You can't. The 
muscles of your arms are probably strong enough to 
lift 500 pounds, but they cannot do it unless they have 
been trained to the task. Neither can your lungs in- 
hale this ''principle of life" to their full capacity 
until they have been trained to the task. And to 
train the lungs they must, like the muscles of the 
body, be exercised systematically and progressively. 

The following rules for exercising the lungs will be 
found invaluable. Follow them and you will develop 
your lung power to its fullest, and you will literally 
inhale the "breath of life," which will increase your 
resistive powers against disease, and, in conjuction 
with other proper modes of living, aid in prolonging 
your span of life far beyond the century mark. 

Rules for Lun£ Exercise. 

I. — Always perform the exercise in the purest air 
obtainable. Such air is best found where there is 
good ventilation of air purified by sunlight. Out of 
doors in the sunshine is best; but is not always possi- 

II. — Through the nostrils inhale slowly all the air 
the lungs will hold, but do not elevate the shoulders 
or contort the body in obtaining it. Sit or stand qui- 
etly during the operation. ' When the lungs are full, 
retain the air in them for three seconds, and then 
slowly let it escape. Repeat this operation four 
times, each time retaining the air a second longer. 

III. — Rest a few minutes after observing Rule II.; 
then complely empty the lungs and proceed to refill 
them; this time noiselessly sniff up the air through 


the nostrils in short breaths, not allowing" any to es- 
cape until the lung's are tilled as full as possible, when 
it may be slowly allowed to escape. Keep the shoul- 
ders down and moving backward. This operation 
may be termed packing the lungs with air. 

IV. — Slowly and completely fill the lungs with pure 
air, and then firmly grasp with both hands a pole held 
at arm's length, slowly tightening the grasp until the 
muscles of the arms and chest are put on a strain. 
Afterward use a pole for each hand. 

V. — During all these exercises keep the mind free 
from any thoughts except the one idea that by these 
processes the ' l life principle" is being- taken from the 
atmosphere and stored in the body. 

It is simply wonderful what a great change will 
come over a person who will systematically observe 
these rules of lung exercise; daily, if possible, but 
never to the point of fatigue. The change may not 
come at once; but it is sure to come; and with it the 
whole body and the mind will feel exhilarated. The 
resistive power against disease will be increased a 
hundred fold, and the most important step toward a 
long and a healthy life will have been taken. 


Rules for Proper Breathing. 

There is a great difference between ordinarily using 
the lungs and exercising them. The use of the lungs 
is imperative to existence, and the exercise of them 
is imperative to their development. To simply draw 
air into the lungs will not suffice; several things must 
be considered. 

1. Breathe through the nostrils, always. 

Whoever habitually breathes through the open 
mouth either already has some form of lung disease 
or else is on the rapid road to such a condition. A 
moment's reflection will make it apparent why all 
breathing should be carried on through the nose. 

Ordinary atmosphere is filled with dust; this can be 


plainly seen in a ray of sunlight. Such dust, even 
though extremely fine, will prove irritating" to the 
minute air passages and air cells of the lungs, and 
such irritations constantly kept up will eventually 
cause more or less inflammation. When breathing 
through the nostrils these particles of dust are inter- 
cepted by the arrangement of spongy substances and 
mucous surfaces placed there by Nature for this ex- 
press purpose. Being collected there, the particles 
can readily be blown out when they accumulate in 
excess, which is known by a tickling sensation. Dust 
might be coughed out of the lungs when it proves ir- 
ritating. But coughing is a damaging act to perform 
at best. 

The atmosphere is usually laden with poisonous 
germs of disease or products of animal and vegetable 
decomposition, which, when taken into the lungs, 
poison the circulation and very often cause contagious 
diseases. These poisonous substances, when air is in- 
haled through the nostrils, become lodged in the sub- 
stances and mucus mentioned, and are also counter- 
acted by the character of the secretions, and easily 
ejected. Healthy persons who keep the mouth closed 
may with safety enter the room of a person suffering 
a contagious disease, provided the stomach is well 

With very rare exceptions the temperature of the 
atmosphere is much lower than that of the lungs, and 
inhaling air through the mouth allows it to enter the 
lungs too suddenly and prove a constant source of ir- 
ritation on account of its coolness. When the air is 
inhaled through the nostrils it is warmed and brought 
to the bodily temperature before it enters the lungs. 

The atmosphere is dry compared to the normal con- 
dition of the lung surfaces, and should, by natural ar- 
rangement, be moistened by passing over the mucous 
surfaces of the nostrils before entering the lungs. 

2. Take Long, Fule Breaths. — It is the almost 
universal custom to breathe in too shallow a manner — ■ 
nothing like the full capacity of the lungs being used. 
Of course it is not advisable to expand the lungs to 
the fullest possible degree at every inspiration, such 


a practice would not only be discomforting- and ab- 
surd, but would allow of no reserve force in case of 
emergency. But by a little practice a person will 
soon become accustomed to taking- full and deep 
breaths at each inspiration, thus using every part of 
the lungs, though not, of course, to the fullest capac- 

3. Make Full and Free Expirations. — It should 
naturally be inferred that full inspirations should be 
followed by full expirations, but such is not necessa- 
rily the case. The lungs may be filled and then the 
air allowed to escape in small quantities in a jerky 
manner. This will cause trouble in time. 

4. Hold the Head Erect. — When the head is bent 
forward the upper parts of the lungs are crowded. 
This is a most common cause of lung trouble, and if 
persisted in cannot help but result in serious trouble. 
Throw the head and shoulders back and allow the 
collar bone in the center to protrude as much as pos- 
sible. But do not draw the shoulders upward, as this 
would manifestly cramp the upper part of the lungs. 
It is hardly necessary to add here that the ribs should 
not be pressed upon by tight clothing, corsets, etc. 


Its Characteristics and Purification. 

Every structure of the human body contains water, 
and a person weighing 154 pounds is composed of 109 
pounds of water and 45 pounds of solid matter. As 
drink nearly three pints of water are daily taken into 
the system, to be carried about to every nook and cor- 
ner of the organism; and about the same amount is 
daily discharged through the various secretions and 
by the lungs. In addition to this amount considerable 
water must be consumed each day by every individual 
for bathing, cooking, etc. 

The importance of a pure supply of water can not 
be overestimated, and the dangers of an impure sup- 
ply are greater than any other menace to health and 


life. Various diseases, especially those of an epidemic 
character, have been proven to be largely ascribable 
to impure drinking- water. Among - diseases propa- 
gated by polluted water typhoid fever ranks first, and 
the many outbreaks of this disease, which have been 
of late very frequent, have in all cases, where inves- 
tigations have been made, been directly traceable to 
contamination of drinking water. 

The sewage of towns and cities emptied into the 
sources of the water supply is directly responsible for 
multitudes of deaths which might otherwise have been 
prevented. It is becoming common to attribute all 
cases of typhoid or enteric fever to impure water, but 
there are, perhaps, exceptional cases. 

That dysentery is frequently caused by drinking un- 
wholesome water has long been known; and camp life 
alongside of a stream which serves as a drainage 
canal and a source of drinking water, will abound in 
dysentery. Cholera is likewise disseminated through 
water, and perhaps also are many other diseases 
which are now supposed to be caused by other means. 

Drinking Water. ' 

Pure water is also known as potable or wholesome, 
and is usually derived from springs or deep wells or 
from streams flowing over high, rocky land. It must 
be odorless and tasteless, clear and sparkling, and 
grateful to the taste. It should contain no sediment 
or cloudiness, and be free from mineral or organic ma- 

Drinkable water may be usable and yet not abso- 
lutely pure. Mineral waters may be drinkable and 
yet contain large quantities of substances, such as 
salts, which are not found in pure water. But drink- 
able water of necessity must be clear and sparkling, 
possibly slightly colored and possessing no odor un- 
less it should be the odor of some well-known chemi- 
cal substance, for instance such as is connected with 
ordinary sulphur water. 

Polluted Water. 

Suspected water is usually cloudy and contains 
matter in suspension. It has a disagreeable odor and 


a peculiar sweetish or unpleasant taste, and will 
prove unsatisfying to the thirst, and produce unpleas- 
ant sensations in the stomach. 

Impure water usually has a pronounced taste and 
odor and is not clear and sparkling, and under the 
microscope will be found to contain various animal and 
vegetable organisms. But some impure waters will 
be clear and limpid, odorless and tasteless, but lacking 
a sparkling appearance and having a flat taste. Such 
waters will usually be found to contain in abundance 
the products of animal or vegetable decay, and are 
highly dangerous. 

Organic Material of animal origin is always, 
when found, a dangerous constituent of water; but 
when of vegetable origin it is not always baneful, un- 
less imparted to matter by marshes or other apparent 
unhealthful sources. It is the animal poison in water 
that is the great producer of disease. 

Pollution of water may occur in various ways. A 
surface well may be a reservoir for the water that 
soaks through a soil filled or covered with decaying 
vegetable or animal products, or its nearness to a 
vault or cesspool may cause it to be contaminated by 
their contents slowly seeping through the soil. Wells 
and cisterns in cities or large towns are obviously lia- 
ble to be thus contaminated. The exact least distance 
at which a well may be safely situated from a cess- 
pool can be decided only by the character of the soil. 
Some countries have laws upon this subject. In Bel- 
gium four hundred yards is the distance cocsidered by 
law as sufficient to avoid all possible contamination. 

Purification of Water. 

The most satisfactory way to purify water is to boil 
it for at least fifteen minutes. This will destroy any 
animal or vegetable organism which may exist in wa- 
ter to the detriment of its free use for drinking pur- 
poses. After being boiled, water seems fiat to the 
taste, but this objection is overcome by pouring the 
water from one vessel to another, allowing it to splash 


during - the process. When such a simple method of 
purification may be resorted to by anyone, it is surpris- 
ing impure water should any longer be allowed to 
cause disease and epidemics of disease. The boiling 
of water is otherwise beneficial, as it causes the de- 
posit of carbonate of lime, when that substance is 
present, thus rendering- the water more palatable and 
less liable to produce gravel or urinary calculi. Per- 
manent hardness of water is not overcome by boiling - . 

Distillation will of course result in the absolute 
purification of water, although distilled water must be 
thouroughly mixed with air by agitation before it can 
be considered palatable. One of the greatest aids 
to the cure of rheumatism consists in drinking noth- 
ing but distilled water, and that in great abundance. 

Decantation consists in allowing water to settle 
and then drawing off the upper and clear layer of 
water and leaving the muddy water behind. This 
process obviously gets rid of simply the suspended 
matter. The addition of two grains of alum to the 
gallon of water will greatly hasten its settlement and 
cause many organic impurities to fall to the bottom of 
the vessel; although the soluble products of animal 
decay, often highly deletorious are not separated by 

Filtration is a very common way of purifying wa- 
ter, and if carefully performed is often quite effectual. 
A properly constructed filter, containing gravel, sand 
and animal charcoal will render drinkable even the 
foulest water. But all such filters require the great- 
est attention, as neglect to cleanse them after they 
are once saturated with impurities will cause the ac- 
cumulated impurities to pass through with the water 
and render it doubly dangerous, Washing the con- 
tents of a filter will not sufficiently cleanse them, they 
must be heated to a high degree to destroy all possi- 
ble germs of disease. The Pasteur and similar filters, 
made of porous earthen material, have proven very 
effectual in excluding all forms of impurities, with 
the possible exception of soluble organic products; 


but they require a strong- current of water to pass 
through them. 

Not infrequently water becomes contaminated by re- 
maining" in lead pipes, and becomes highly dangerous. 
Hard water, though, may pass through lead pipes 
with safety, as the carbonate of lime in the water 
unites with the lead to form an insoluble lining to the 
pipes. But soft water, such as rain-water, will dis- 
solve lead and become deleterious to health. For 
such reason cistern water should not be pumped 
through lead pipes and no soft water should be used 
after it has stood any length of time in such pipes. A 
very satisfactory and simple method of testing for the 
presence of lead is as follows: Place the suspected 
water in a white wash bowl and stir into it a few 
drops of sulphide of ammonium, which will turn dark 
if a metallic salt should be present, and the darkness 
will remain after a few drops of muriatic acid are 
added if the metal is lead. 

Hard and Mineral Waters. 

Water containing compounds of lime or magnesia is 
termed hard, and may be readily distinguished by the 
curdy appearance caused by the addition of soap. 
Temporarily hard water contains carbonate of lime or 
magnesia, and may be rendered soft by boiling, which 
causes the carbonate of lime to fall to the bottom of 
the vessel and form crusts. The addition of slaked 
lime to hard water will likewise cause a sediment. 
Either one of these methods renders the water more 
suitable for drinking purposes. For use in the laun- 
dry or baths hard water is best rendered soft by the 
addition of a small amount of sal-soda. Permanently 
hard water is caused by the presence of gypsum, 
otherwise known as sulphate of lime or plaster of 
Paris. Boiling will not cause this to be deposited. 

The continued use of hard waters for drinking pur- 
poses is liable to cause gravel or calculi, and for that 
reason it is always advisable to boil such waters be- 
fore partaking of them; although most persons will 
be able to drink them for years without appreciably 
bad effects. 

What are known as natural mineral waters are such 


as flow through sections containing soluble salts of 
the minerals. Many of such waters are valuable aids 
in the cure of various diseases. Lithia water is es- 
pecially valuable in rheumatic cases; sulphur water is 
serviceable in the treatment of skin affections, iron 
waters are of tonic value, and waters containing sul- 
phates of soda or magnesia are useful as purgatives. 
A mild mineral water may be used continuously; but 
such as are heavily charged with mineral salts must 
be used only when especially indicated. 


Their Composition and General Characteristics. 

Life can be preserved only by supplying the system 
with food suitable for its proper maintenance. In 
youth the amount of food taken must be more than 
sufficient to counterbalance the ordinary wear and tear 
of the body; for new bones, nerves, muscles and other 
tissues must be developed. In old age it is not a diffi- 
cult matter to habitually supply the body with more 
food than is required to maintain existence without 
development. In middle life the amount of food 
taken should be just sufficient to repair damages, to 
take the place of waste, and to preserve vigor and to 
accumulate sufficient flesh to permit of extra demands 
without injury. 

By many it might be supposed that ideal food 
should consist of preparations in condensed form, 
partially pre-digested by ehemical means, and desti- 
tute of all properties except those which supply ac- 
tual nourishment for the building of tissue, etc. Such 
foods, it can be argued, would avoid the labor per- 
formed by the system in digesting the food and sepa- 
rating the valuable constituents from those which are 
thrown off as waste matter. Theoretically such foods 
would be valuable, but practically they are worthless 
except for short periods when the system is unable by 
disease to perform its natural functions, 

The " superfluous " substances are in reality not at 
all superfluous, but absolutely necessary to maintain 


actions designed by nature. For instance, the stom- 
ach will not secrete its proper amount of digestive 
fluid, or gastric juice, unless somewhat distended, 
and the intestines will not perform their functions 
properly unless partially filled with substances. 
During short seasons of fatigue or excitement it may 
be most convenient to sustain extra bodily or mental 
exertions by the use of concentrated foods; but at all 
other times, when natural performances are going on, 
the naturally formed foods of man will be found the 
most suitable. 

It is well to enquire what are the natural foods? By 
some extremists it has been argued that man in his 
original state never cooked his meals, but lived upon 
raw roots, herbs, nuts, vegetables, etc., in their natu- 
ral form. But it must be remembered that man pos- 
sesses an intellectuality which places him above the 
ordinary animal. This intellectuality develops and 
serves for his betterment, There is a reason for hu- 
man intellect and that is intended to be for the advan- 
tage of man. Almost unconsciously the human race 
uses its superior powers to enhance its happiness and 
prolong its existence. No other animal consciously 
or unconsciously improves with each succeeding gener- 
ation as man does. The wearing of apparel and se- 
lecting as clothing the materials best suited for the 
various seasons of the year, are acts which aid exist- 

It can scarcely be doubted that the present age pre- 
sents far different environments for mankind than ex- 
isted along with primeval man. Therefore why 
should we follow the habits of the aboriginal man and 
eat as we suppose he ate? The cooking of many 
foods is an absolute necessity and destroys germs of 
disease and other poisonous substances which man in 
his present higher state of civilization rarely pos- 
sesses the power to resist. For it must be remem- 
bered that along with our increased intellectual devel- 
opment, which is our destiny, our physical beings be- 
come more sensitive to outside influences, and our in- 
tellectual development almost unconsciously counter- 
acts this by providing precautionary measures. We 
are like gods, able to discern good from evil, and 


surely we should be willing" to utilize this ability for 
our comfort and long - life; selecting our foods accord- 
ing" to their adaptability to our requirements, and pre- 
paring" them as is best suited to our tastes and our 
peculiar habits of life. 

Composition of Foods and Tissues. 

The innumerable forms of substances in the animal, 
vegetable and mineral kingdoms are all formed of 
very few substances, termed elements, combined in 
various manners and proportions. The human body 
contains but fourteen elements, united in various man- 
ners, to constitute bone, muscles, nerves, brain, secre- 
tions, fluids, etc. Manifestly, then, in order to main- 
tain the body, and to rebuild as fast as the substances 
are destroyed, we should supply the constituents in 
the proportion in which they occur in the body. This 
we are almost able to do, for the chemist has discov- 
ered which are the elements that enter into the form- 
ation of the body. They are: 

Oxygen, Calcium, Fluorine, 

Carbon, Phosphorous, Iron, 

Hydrogen, Sulphur, Potassium, 

Nitrogen, Sodium, Magnesium, 

(Chief elements) Chlorine, Silicon. 

But knowing that these elements exist in the human 
body it does not follow that all that is necessary for 
maintaining life is to supply these isolated elements 
in the proportion in which they are found in the body. 
Something else is essential, for a diet of these chemi- 
cals would soon destroy life instead of sustaining it. 
What then is necessary? Organization. These ele- 
ments are not found in their natural state in the body 
— not one of them. The anatomist will search in vain 
throughout the body for particles of iron or sulphur 
or sodium or any other of the elements. These are all 
found only in various combinations, which go to make 
up the tissues, fluids and various structures of the 
body. These combinations have been definitely ascer- 
tained. The chief of them may be designated as fol- 


Elementary Combinations in the Body. 

Water, Phosphate of Lime, Sulphate of Potash 

Fat, Phosphate of Soda, Sulphate of Soda, 

Gelatin, Phosphate of Potash, Peroxide of Iron, 
Albumen, Phosphate of Magnesia, Fluoride of Cal- 
Fibrin, Carbonate of Soda, [cium, 

Salt, Carbonate of Lime. Silica, 

Water is everywhere present in the body. It gives 
form to tissues and keeps various salts in solution. In 
fact, over three-fourths by weight of the body con- 
sists of water. Under all circumstances and in all 
conditions, therefore, water is an indispensable arti- 
cle to human existence. Water, pure and simple, 
must be supplied at all times in abundant quantities; 
and this is done by necessity. Every article of food 
we eat contains water, and no substanee is fit to enter 
the stomach that dos not contain it. 

The various combinations enumerated above are not 
all evenly distributed throughout the body. Some 
structures are chiefly of one set of combinations, and 
other structures chiefly of another set, etc. For in- 
stance — 

1. All organs involved iu the performance of ac- 
tual labor, such as the muscles, tendons, etc., are 
chiefly composed of combinations containing nitro- 
gen, such as albumen, fibrin and gelatin. 

2. All organs, such as the brain and nervous sys- 
tem, which perform the intellectual and sensory 
duties of the body, are composed chiefly of the com- 
binations known as the phosphates. 

3. Those portions of the body which are consumed 
to keep up the animal heat are composed chiefly of 
fats and substances containing carbon — the carbon- 

Thus it becomes evident that there must be various 
classes of foods eaten to maintain various classes of 
actions which are performed by structures composed 
of different combinations. 

Classes of Foods. 

1. The muscular system needs foods known as ni- 
trogenous, or the Nitrates. 


2. The brain and nervous system need foods 
known as phosphatic, or the Phosphates. 

3, The maintenance of fuel to keep up the heat of 
the body during- activity needs foods known as carbon- 
aceous, or the Carbonates. 

These, then, are the three classes of foods which it 
is absolutely necessary to supply to the human sys- 
tem in order to maintain existence — each class sup- 
plied in proportion to the demand. Heat must be 
maintained at all times, and the carbonaceous sub- 
stances must always be used in excess of the other 
combinations; for every act of the body involves the 
consumption of heat. Still every act involves the ex- 
penditure of nerve force and also of muscular action, 
but to a less degree. When excessive muscular exer- 
cise is to be taken, the quantity of nitrogenous food 
must be increased; and when excessive brain work or 
nervous strain is being- endured large quantities of the 
phosphates are required. 

What Is a Food ? 

Any substance which is capable of maintaining- bod- 
ily performance of functions without injury to the 
structures may be classed as a food. It will be found 
that the only substances which are capable of so do- 
ing- and which should be classed as foods are sub- 
stances which contain none but elements found in the 
list of fourteen given, and these chiefly oxygen, car- 
bon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Any substance which 
contains an element not of the fourteen is a poison to 
the system. Another fact in reg-ard to food is it must 
be in a form which has been org-anized by Nature 
through veg-etation. 

Having- ascertained the exact proportions of the 
fourteen elements of the body, should they be given 
to the stomach as elements in those proportions death 
would follow. It is absolutely essential that these 
elements must have been combined first in some form 
of vegetation before they can build up structures 
within the body. Water and salt may seem excep- 
tions, but they are not. Water taken, pure and sim- 
ple, acts as a solvent in the body and to help give 


consistence and shape to structures. It remains as 
water in these structures and is not decomposed to 
build tissues; the hydrogen and oxygen of tissues be- 
ing always derived from vegetable substances. Salt 
taken into the system remains as salt in every in- 
stance, and is never decomposd to build tissues. 

To administer iron, phosphorus, sulphur and other 
elements to the body with the belief that that they 
will build up tissues which contain them is a woeful 
display of ignorance on the part of those who thus 
believe. The laws of Nature are so plain in this par- 
ticular that "a wayfaring man, though a fool, need 
not err." Minerals or elements can never be assimi- 

Wheat a Natural Food. 

Long before mankind had the least knowledge of 
his elementary composition, and ages before chemis- 
try was dreamed of, wheat was the principal food for 
mankind, and remains so until this day. It may have 
been chosen by an unconscious intelligence, but it is a 
fact that wheat is the chief grain which contains all 
of the fourteen elements which compose the human 
body, and in proportions which well supply the ordi- 
nary demands of the system. About two-thirds of 
the grain consists of the carbonaceous materials; and 
the outside of the wheat contains the nitrogenous 
combinations; and the germ has the phosphates. 

But, alas for the ingenuity of man! This natural 
food for the human body is now sadly deteriorated as 
modern flour, pleasing to the eye by its whiteness, but 
unfit for constant use on account of being deprived of 
its nitrogenous and phosphatic elements to a large 
extent. It is most gratifying to know that public 
knowledge of this fact is becoming so general and the 
demand for the natural food so great that many man- 
ufacturers are competing with one another in placing 
upon the market fine grades of entire wheat flour, 
which can be used with impunity. There is nothing 
so calculated to raise a family of dyspeptics, of nerv- 
ous and irritable beings, as the constant use of "pure 
white" flour. It lacks the elements of strength, of 
muscle-making and bone-making powers; and if used 


constantly will ruin the teeth, weaken the body and 
be the cause of premature decay. When whole wheat 
flour can be so easily obtained it is a crime against 
nature to continue the use of the other. 

Usefulness of Foods. 

With very few exceptions, such as butter, oils and 
suet, which is carbonaceous, foods are mixtures of the 
carbonates, nitrates and phosphates with waste sub- 
stances which cannot be eliminated. At the end of 
this chapter will be found a table of foods, showing" 
approximately their composition. It will be most 
useful as a reference table in choosing a suitable diet. 
Thus, when there is great muscular exertion, espe- 
cially during cold weather, when great animal heat is 
required, the carbonaceous foods may be abundantly 
eaten, such as fat meats, corn, rice, rye, sugar, prunes 
and white flour. Of course most of these articles 
contain phosphates and nitrates also in limited quan- 
tities; but in addition foods with more of these com- 
binations should be a part of the diet. 

When the muscles need strengthening they should 
be fed with an excess of nitrogenous foods, such as 
lean meats, beans, peas, lentils, cheese, vermicelli, 
etc. But let it be remembered that an exclusive diet 
of these substances will soon cause diseased condi- 

When the brain is being overworked or the nervous 
system placed on a strain, the phosphates are re- 
quired. Typical of these may be mentioned fish (ex- 
cept salmon), eels, lobster, plaice, turbot, almonds, 
prunes, entire wheat, oat-meal and Southern corn. 
It has been demonstrated by most accurate experi- 
ments upon ministers, lawyers and other brain work- 
ers, that after exceptionally severe mental work the 
excretions from the body will be found loaded with 
excessive quantities of phosphates — showing that 
phosphorus has been consumed in excess and should 
therefore be supplied in a natural manner in the form 
of foods. Once understand these facts and no so- 
called physician will be able to feed you pellets of 
elementary phosphorus with the explanation that 
phosphorus is needed to supply nerve waste. It is 


needed, but can be beneficially supplied only as Na- 
ture intended it should be — in combinations formed in 
organized structures. Elementary phosphorus is al- 
ways damaging" to the system — it is poisonous. 

A most excellent drink for brain workers is made by 
stiiring a cupful of rolled oats into a half -gallon of 
water and allowing it to soak an hour, then stir into 
it the juice of half a dozen lemons and strain it and 
drink cool. This will contain an abundance of phos- 
phates, and when sweetened will be agreeable to the 
taste and quench the thirst. Some persons prefer 
bran to oatmeal. The use of phosphates, prepared 
by mixing together phosphatic salts of soda, lime, 
etc., are pleasant and cooling and may be serviceable 
as solvents in the blood; but they cannot act as brain 
foods, for such phosphates have not previously been a 
part of organized substances, and therefore by natu- 
ral law cannot possibly be assimilated as nourishment. 


How to Select a Proper Diet. 

Select the class of diet most suitable for your tem- 
perament and occupation and age, — having regard for 
the season. Persons of nervous temperament and 
those engaged in mental pursuits need an extra 
amount of phosphatic foods. Persons of lymphatic 
temperaments and those who lead sedentary lives need 
less than others of carbonaceous foods. Lean per- 
sons, and those who are actively employed, m3iy eat 
abundantly of carbonaceous foods. Let it be remem- 
bered that in summer the amount of carbonaceous 
foods should be considerably diminished, and in win- 
ter they may be increased. But bear in mind that too 
much carbonaceous food at any time will obstruct the 
system and lead to fever and to various forms of " in- 
flammatory diseases." When, by necessity an over 
amount of carbonaceous food must be taken, use with 
it acid foods and drinks. 

Meats and nitrogenous foods are useful for develop- 
ing muscle and sustaining strength, and can be read- 


ily obtained in concentrated form; but it must not be 
imagined that concentrated foods alone can maintain 
bodily strength; they must be mixed with carbonace- 
ous and other foods; for a certain amount of waste 
material in the body is essential to health. 

Young - persons should avoid meats, as they are ex- 
tremely apt to cause nervous disorders at that time of 
life. Still, meat jellies and broths may be eaten freely 
between the ages of eight and fifteen. Let it be re- 
membered that the value of meat lies in its fibre. 
Beef is by all means the most nourishing meat; but 
it should not be eaten too rare, and again an overdone 
piece of meat is not nutritious. Veal is hard to di- 
gest and mutton cannot be endured by all. Pork, 
when eaten, should be thoroughly cooked, but it is 
best not to eat pork at all, as cornf ed and cleanly hogs 
cannot always be found. 

Not more than one-sixth of the food at any meal 
should consist of meat; and this proportion is too 
large for daily consumption. It is not wisdom to ar- 
gue that a vegetarian diet is best. It may be proper 
under some circumstances, for awhile, to aid in re- 
moving diseased conditions. But man is formed in a 
manner that designates his natural adaptability to a 
diet of meats, fruits, vegetables and nuts. 

Fowls are digested with difficulty, especially when 
roasted or fried. They are best prepared by boiling; 
and the dark meat is far more digestible than the 
white meat. 

Fish can be eaten to advantage by almost any one 
in good health. It is essentially a brain food. It is a 
most valuable hygienic regulation, to say the least, 
required by some religious sects, that meats should be 
abstained from one day in a week and that fish should 
be used in its stead. Fresh fish once a week should 
be a rule of diet. Stale fish is poison and should 
never be eaten. 

Oysters are most pleasant to the taste of many, 
and are calculated to arouse animal passion and ex- 
citement, but they possess very little nourishment, 


and should not be eaten for the purpose of sustaining 

Eggs are most nourishing. They contain all the 
elements necessary to support life, and a human being 
may exist entirely upon a diet of eggs and milk and 
pure water. Hard-boiled or fried eggs are not so 
nourishing as soft boiled eggs. There is nothing so 
nourishing to a weakened person as a couple of fresh 
eggs beaten up well with rich milk and a little sugar 
added; the whites of the eggs beaten separately and 
then added. Many persons make an egg-nogg by put- 
ting into this nourishing delicacy a small amount of 
wine or whiskey or brandy. But it is a shame to add 
such poisons to so valuable a food for the sake of 
falsely stimulating the body and pampering the taste. 

Fruits as a rule are most excellent food and ex- 
ceedingly beneficial; but this cannot be said of all 
fruits upon the market. Unsound or specked fruit is 
always injurious, as is everything else in which decay 
has commenced. Bananas should never be eaten ex- 
cept directly when plucked; and in any climate out- 
side of where they grow they are injurious. In the 
cities of the North the bananas offered for sale have 
been plucked green and allowed to ripen in dark cel- 
lars, and too frequently in the close and poisonous at- 
mosphere of the living rooms of filthy fruit peddlars. 
But no matter how they are ripened bananas are un- 
fit to be eaten in the North. 

Oranges when perfectly sound and wholesome con- 
stitute the finest fruit that can be eaten; but reject 
the inside skin — the pulp being the only fit portion. 
Thin-skinned, rather sour oranges are best. Over- 
sweet oranges, or those whose rinds possess a pungent 
oil, are not fit to be used. 

Grapes, of the proper kind, are most excellent, and 
the proper kind are Concords, with the bloom still 
upon them, or any other succulent grapes which are 
very fresh. It is always best to eat them when picked 
directly from the vines. Avoid all grapes that have 


ripened in the shade, as they are not fit to eat. Sun- 
light is indispensable to the healthfulness of grapes. 
Some persons preserve their grapes from birds and 
dust by tying* small paper sacks about the bunches 
while they are on the vines. This method is destruc- 
tive to proper development. Delaware grapes are not 
fit for eating purposes, although they look very pretty 
upon a banquet table. In eating grapes remove the 
seeds and if the stomach is delicate the skins should 
not be swallowed. There is not so much danger of ap- 
pendicitis from swallowing grape seeds as many per- 
sons suppose, but quantities of the seeds are liable to 
collect in the large end of the stomach and cause 
much unpleasantness and irritation. 

Raisins are very nutritious and wholesome, but be- 
ware of the inferior articles, as they are filled with 
small worms, which may be seen under a magnifying 
glass. Nervous persons may use raisins to great ad- 
vantage, and most invalids can eat them or drink a 
freshly prepared infusion from them as raisin wine. 

Pears are luscious and healthful if ripened on the 
trees and plucked and eaten before becoming too soft. 
Sunlight is essential to the healthful ripening of 
pears; and those which are plucked green and ripened 
in the dark are unhealthful. 

Peaches, when of fine grain and fresh, are good 
food. But the large California peaches sold in the 
Eastern markets are usually plucked green, and in 
ripening off the trees they become tough and leathery 
and unfit for consumption. Peaches with an acid 
flavor are not suitable unless cooked. 

Apples, and plenty of them, may be eaten with im- 
punity, provided that the stomach is not overloaded 
at any one time. There is health in the apple, and 
those who do not eat them should acquire the habit at 
once. At almost any time of day an apple may be 
eaten to advantage. Some declare that "apples stick 
in the throat and are indigestible. " Such will not be 
the case if they are properly masticated and the 


cores and peelings avoided. Scraped apples, eaten as 
soon as scraped, are enjoyed by the most delicate. If 
you do not like apples it is probably because you have 
not yet found the special variety which suits you. 
Hunt around till you come across the peculiar kind of 
apple which is pleasant and agreeable to you, and 
then stick to it as an enjoyable companion and a 
true friend. Eat only ripe apples and those free from 

Nuts are greatly misunderstood — the extremes be- 
ing gone to in their consumption. Some believe nuts 
to be the natural food for man and declare they can- 
not be eaten to excess if improper food is kept out of 
the stomach. Others are satisfied that nuts are poi- 
sonous and should not be eaten under any circum- 
stances. Know the truth concerning nuts and you will 
then be able to eat them properly to your physical 
advantage. Nuts contain phosphates in large propor- 
tion and are therefore valuable brain food and tooth- 
forming material. But, with few exceptions, nuts con- 
tain oils which are extremely liable to undergo change 
in the stomach and form irritating poisons. Indiges- 
tion causes fermentation in the stomach and allows 
this change to take place, just as all oils are liable to 
become rancid by circumstances which favor fermen- 
tation. Eating salt after nuts will aid digestion. It 
is evident, then, that nuts when eaten sparingly, so as 
to insure their digestion and non-fermentation, are 
beneficial to health. 

Vegetables should constitute a large proportion of 
the food of man, just as it does of the most intelli- 
gent animals. By consulting the table of the con- 
stituents of foods their adaptability to various condi- 
tion may be ascertained. Many diseases may be 
cured by the judicious use of appropriate vegetables. 
Onions will be found most excellent for the glandular 
system and will excite the kidneys to action; but they 
should never be eaten fried. Asparagus is also an 
excellent vegetable for sluggish kidneys. 

Potatoes are highly carbonaceous, and are fatten- 
ing; but persons of sedentary habits should eat spar- 


ingly of them, as they are fuel to the system and if 
not fully consumed soon cause obstructions. Hard 
working people and those exposed to the cold may 
eat potatoes abundantly; others should eat with them 
cranberries or other tart foods, or drink lemonade to 
aid their proper conversion in the system. 

Milk is the natural food of infancy; that is, fresh 
milk direct from the breast before it has a chance to 
undergo changes. But as that kind of milk cannot be 
used by adults it is proper that we should find a sub- 
stitute; and we find it in cow's milk. Pure, clean and 
fresh cow 's milk is the most nutritious liquid known 
for general use; and the person who cannot use it 
without experiencing bad effects should seek out the 
abnormal condition which exists somewhere in his 

But beware of the abominable fluid sold so largely 
in cities under the name of cow's milk. Despite milk 
inspectors and city ordinances mercenary wretches 
continue to make their living by dealing out to their 
customers the death fluid which annually kills its 
thousands under the name of pure milk. To be proper 
for use milk should be placed in well scalded jars as 
soon as taken from the cow and then hermetically 
sealed until needed for consumption. Germs of dis- 
ease thrive in milk, and many diseases, especially 
diphtheria and scarlet fever, are conveyed by impure 
or filthy milk. When milk can be procured fresh and 
pure, plenty of it should be used. Buttermilk has 
often been recommended as an excellent drink, and in 
principle it is such if it could be freed from germs of 

Cheese is highly nutritious. It contains large per- 
centages of phosphates and nitrates, and may take 
the place of milk. Mild cheese made from the whole 
milk, fresh and pure, and kept in a clean and fresh at- 
mosphere, is wholesome. Strong and "rotten "cheeses 
are not wholesome. Cottage cheese is often very 
agreeable to the tase, but it is not to be recommended 
as a diet. Cheese, made through various fermenta- 
tive processes should not be eaten — they may stimu- 



late the appetite and prove agreeable, but they injure 
the system. 



Analysis of 





Bacon 63. 

Barley 52. 

Beans 40. 

Beef 14. 

Cabbage 6. 

Carrots 12. 

Cheese 28. 

Chicken 2. 

Chocolate 88. 

Corn 68. 

Cucumber 2. 

Dates 74. 

Eggs (whites) 

Eggs (yokes) 30. 

Ham 32. 

Lamb .14. 

Cow's Milk 8. 

Mutton 14. 

Oats 51. 

Onions 5. 


Parsnips 15. 

Pears 10. 

Peas 41. 

Pork 16. 

Potatoes. 16. 

Prunes 79. 

Rice 83. 

Rye .....75. 

Turnips 4. 

Veal 14. 

Vermicelli 38. 

Wheat ....67. 










13'. ' 










100 Parts. 

p cp 


















































How, When and Where It Should Be Obtained. 

Sleep is "tired nature's sweet restorer, " and it is as 
necessary for existence as food. Periodical interims 
in the midst of functional performances are provided 
for by natural law; and the more irregular these in- 
terims become in frequency and duration the farther 
does the organism depart from its healthy standard. 
The heart is often erroneously spoken of as an organ 
that never rests, but it is the most apt example of the 
natural law of periodical rest. Between the heart 
beats there is a short period of quietude, and it is 
definitely ascertained that the muscles of the heart 
are thus absolutely at rest one third of the time. 
These interims of rest are necessarily frequent, as the 
work to be accomplished cannot be abandoned any 
appreciable length of time. The regularity of work 
and rest of this most important organ of the body 
cannot be interrupted without serious results, and 
whenever irregularity is noticed it is an invariable 
sign of disease. 

Harmony in nature demands that all organs and 
structures of the human body, from the smallest parti- 
cle of living matter to the great muscular systems, 
must have their periods of activity and of rest. And 
the maintenance of regularity of these periods favors 
health and long life, while their irregularity will 
sooner or later cause disease and shorten the term of 

Sleep is the form of rest peculiar to the brain and 
nervous system, and it is a requisite of life, its fre- 
quent recurrences being periods of mental recupera- 
tion and cessations from nerve labor. The frequency 
and duration of sleep required by various persons can- 
not be stated in definite terms. Age, temperament, 
habits, climate and surroundings must all be consid- 
ered in estimating the normal requirements of the or- 
ganism for sleep. 

Sleep Influenced by A£e. 

It is well known that childhood requires a large 
amount of sleep, and this may be accounted for by 


several reasons. Childhood is the period of growth, 
and the infant's organism is taxed to maintain devel- 
opment; food is assimilated rapidly and the circula- 
tion is hurried, respirations frequent, nervous sensi- 
bilities very acute, and the nerves themselves taxed 
to the utmost to maintain the rapid performance of 
the varied functions. During the first year of exist- 
ence too much sleep cannot be possible, and when of 
a natural character must be encouraged and regarded 
as most beneficial. The stupor of brain pressure and 
other affections is not considered here, and such con- 
ditions are readily distinguished. Up to the age of 
four years two- thirds of the time, or sixteen hours out 
of the twenty-four, can be most beneficially consumed 
in sleep. Such sleep should not occur at one time, 
but at intervals — twelve hours at night, two just be- 
fore noon and two in the middle of the afternoon. A 
young child would thrive upon that quantity of sleep; 
but the morning nap is not essential to health and is 
usually not required. Regularity in the time of tak- 
ing an afternoon sleep soon renders children unable to 
keep awake when the hour for sleep arrives, Chil- 
dren from six to ten years of age should be allowed at 
least ten hours sleep out of the twenty -four; and un- 
til maturity (from eighteen to twenty-one years of 
age) young persons should allow themselves eight 
hours for sleep, unless their habits of life during the 
rest of the day are such as make no especial demand 
upon the nervous system. Whatever the amount of 
sleep taken, regularity is essential. 

During adult life the human organism has not the 
drain of development characteristic of youth, nor 
does it exert the extra efforts for preservation re- 
quired in old age, for those reasons the adult is capa- 
ble of enduring strains and suffering irregularities 
without great injury witnin certain limits. At this 
period of life temperament and occupation largely de- 
termine the amount of sleep necessary for the preser- 
vation of health. Regularity being most essential for 
all, each individual must be a law unto himself as to 
amount — good judgment and the feeling of rest se- 
cured usually being the guides in determing the hours 
of sleep required. 


Old age usually requires but little sleep when the 
body is healthy, but considerable when disease is pres- 
ent. Circumstances and conditions make this plain. 
The labor performed by old persons is, or should be, 
small, and there are no excessive strains of develop- 
ment. As a rule, aged persons are early risers, and 
form the habit of retiring early. Their sleep should 
never be disturbed and they should not be aroused in 
the morning, but rather allowed to wake voluntarily, 
for when extra strains upon the nervous system have 
been endured by them, they have no reserve force and 
nature comes to the rescue by demanding a longer 
period of rest. 

Sleep Influenced by Temperament. 

Persons of a lymphatic temperament, inclined to be- 
come fleshy, demand more sleep than those of a nerv- 
ous and vital temperament, and this peculiarity is 
frequently very pronounced even in childhood. It is 
not the extra sleep alone that makes the individual 
"fat and lazy, ' ; but it is the tendency to become 
fleshy that causes the sleep and laziness. It becomes 
the parents' duty to realize these peculiarities in chil- 
dren and not expect sleep to be portioned out with an 
iron hand. Nevertheless, excessive sleep by the lym- 
phatic should be discouraged, and the nervous and act- 
ive should be encouraged in every manner and al- 
lowed every opportunity to prolong their hours of 

Sleep Influenced by Habits. 

It is very easy to acquire the habit of sleeping 
soundly, and of at once falling to sleep upon retiring. 
Such a habit requires a less number of hours to be de- 
voted to sleep than might otherwise be deemed advis- 
able. On the other hand, when anxieties, cares and 
business perplexities are carried to bed, the sleep 
during the early hours is not refreshing and the time 
of sleep is necessarily extended. The occupation 
during the day likewise regulates the amount of sleep 
at night. Brain workers, and those undergoing se- 
vere nervous strains require considerable sleep; their 
fatigue is mental and nervous, and sleep is the only 


form of rest that is beneficial. Persons undergoing 
physical exertions, unless very excessive, usually fall 
to sleep readily upon retiring, and the quiet position 
rests the muscles and the not over taxed nerves are 
most easily refreshed. 

Sleep Influenced by Climate. 

Persons living in very warm or hot climates become 
enervated. The great heat affects the peripheral 
nerves and gives a sense of fatigue which demands 
the complete rest secured only by sleep. Such per- 
sons soon realize the necessity of the noon-day nap or 
siesta which is a part of life in tropical countries. An 
extreme heat disturbs the nervous equilibrium, and so 
does extreme cold, and therefore persons in very cold 
climates and those in very warm climates equally re- 
quire considerable sleep. There is this difference, 
however. In hot climates the heat is most intolerable 
in the middle of the day, requiring the extra noon-day 
nap; in cold climates the cold is most severe at night, 
requiring prolonged and sound sleep at that time, and 
no demand for rest during the daylight hours. In tem- 
perate climates the hours of labor may be longer and 
the activities greater and the accomplishments more 
than could be possible in climates of extremes of 

The Proper Bed for Sleep 

To secure the full benefit of sleep the bed must be 
of a suitable character. For many years it was 
thought that the old-fashioned feather bed could not 
be surpassed for health and comfort, but modern in- 
telligence and experience have demonstrated the fal- 
lacy of the thought. For weary limbs and muscles 
that have endured strains all through the day, the 
feather-bed extends an irresistible invitation for re- 
pose. But the muscles are not alone to be considered 
as requiring rest. Modern men and women endure 
nervous strains, and mere physical repose is not suf- 
ficient. To tired nerves the feather-bed is enervating 
and oppressive, and does not induce that tone to the 
nervous system so much to be desired. 

Another and a most important objection to the 


feather-bed is its unhealthfulness as being a most prob- 
able abode for germs of disease. The human body dur- 
ing* sleep gives off most impure emanations, and these 
soon saturate a feather-bed and render it unhealthful. 
How common a thing it is to regard a certain feather- 
bed as a sort of mascot, upon which the mother must 
lie when each new child makes its advent into the 
world and upon which each invalid member of the 
family must successively take his turn when pros- 
trated by sickness. It is apparent that such a bed be= 
comes unfit for slumber, and although the sleeper 
upon it may not directly contract disease, he is never- 
theless almost certain to indirectly feel the influence 
of its unhealthful condition. 

By those who perform great physical labor, the 
restfulness of weary muscles afforded by the feather- 
bed may cause it to be retained. But under such cir- 
cumstances, each day, summer and winter, the feather 
mattress should be removed from the bedstead and 
hung out of doors or placed upon chairs in a draft by 
the open window; and in spring and in autumn it 
should be sent to a trustworthy establishment to be 
thoroughly renovated. 

A most proper bed consists of a woven wire mat- 
tress, upon which is placed a corn-shuck mattress and 
over this a thin hair mattress. These can be readily 
removed and aired each day, and the corn-shuck can 
be frequently replenished. In winter time sleeping 
between blankets is healthful and comfortable, and in 
summer time linen sheets are to be preferred. Box 
mattresses are an expensive abomination, impossible 
to renovate and correspondingly unhealthful. 

Position During Sleep. 

Comfort will, to a great extent, determine the posi- 
tion of a sleeper, although it is easy to acquire the 
habit of sleeping in the position most conducive to 
health. The most healthful position is upon the right" 
side, with the limbs fully extended and the body not 
bent. Such a position avoids pressure upon the heart, 
keeps the heavy liver downward and affords the stom- 
ach the fullest freedom, while it renders impossible 
any pressure upon the large plexus of nerves behind 


the stomach. While lying - upon the side the pillow 
should be of sufficient size to keep the head in its nat- 
ural relationship to the shoulders. A pillow com- 
posed of hair is to be preferred, although a full- 
stuffed feather pillow is not objectionable if daily 
aired. Pillows composed of Mcintosh cloth and filled 
with air are both comfortable and healthful. 

Lying upon the back is to many the most comfort- 
able position. Such persons should be careful not to 
overload the stomach or to eat too near the time of 
retiring; for a full stomach, or one distended with 
gas, will make pressure upon the large plexus of 
nerves and disturb the sleep by "nightmares," or at 
least interfere with the absolute rest of the nervous 
system, which should be secured in order to render 
sleep refreshing and recuperative. Those who sleep 
upon the back should use a very low pillow, for other- 
wise the head will be thrown unnaturally forward, 
crowding the upper portion of the lungs, and also in- 
ducing a stoop-shouldered carriage. 

Sleeping upon the left side is often impossible to 
persons with heart trouble, otherwise such a position 
should occasionally be resorted to, as it is unwise to 
form a habit of being unable to sleep except in some 
one position, as sickness, injury Or other conditions 
may make the usual position during sleep an impossi- 
bility. Those sleeping upon the left side should avoid 
retiring with a full stomach, as such a condition 
favors pressure upon the heart, and might cause un- 
pleasant sensations, often mistaken for heart disease, 
though usually simply of "heart-burn" or indiges- 

Whenever it is found impossible to sleep in a prone 
position, necessitating the use of many pillows to 
support a semi-erect position, heart disease or asth- 
matic or lung trouble should be suspected, and the 
real nature of the difficulty should at once be ascer- 
tained and appropriately treated. 

A Proper Sleeping Room, 

Nothing is of more importance to healthful sleep 
than a proper bedroom. It is a great mistake to sup- 
pose that anywhere is good enough to sleep. About 


one-third of life is spent in bed; and during" sleep the 
system is relaxed and far more liable to be affected by 
unhealthful surroundings than during* wakefulness, 
when the various functions of the body are in ac- 

No bedroom is fit for occupancy unless at some time 
during" each day the sunshine g"ains admittance. 
Damp walls or a damp floor are dangerous. Green- 
colored or arsenical wall papers should be avoided in 
sleeping" rooms, and the floors should be covered with 
a rug" which may be easily taken out of doors fre- 
quently to be shaken. Carpets tacked down and 
dusted once or twice a year are not healthful. 

Ventilation is of the utmost importance in a sleeping 
apartment. Drafts over the bed must be avoided, but 
fresh air should circulate throug"h the room. It is ad- 
visable that a window should be let down at the top, 
the distance being" reg"ulated by the weather, and the 
draft intercepted by a screen. A stove should never 
be near the bed; and, unless unavoidable, it is best to 
have no stove in the room at all. The severity of 
Northern winters often renders a fire in the bedroom 
a necessity, especially for children. Under such cir- 
cumstances a grate fire will be most healthful, other- 
wise it is far better to sleep in the cold and secure 
warmth by additional bed-clothing". 

A coal-oil lamp should never be left burning" in the 
room during sleep, and if such a thing should happen 
it should not be turned down, as its gas is highly poi- 
sonous. By many it is believed that the fumes from 
burning kerosene oil constitute a prolific source of 
diphtheria and various throat and lung troubles; and 
such a belief is well founded. 

Growing plants in sleeping apartments are never 
conducive to health. At night time plants give off 
carbonic acid gas, and in that manner render the at- 
mosphere of close rooms unhealthful if they are pres- 
ent in large numbers. The placing of a large bowl 
filled with water upon a stand in the sleeping room 
will cause many of the obnoxious gases to be ab- 
sorbed by the water; but it is far better to so arrange 
the doors and windows as to permit of perfect veiw- 


A sound and peaceful sleep upon a clean bed, in a 
room containing pure air, is an unsurpassed tonic to 
the nervous system during* sickness or following 
fatigue, and is one of the surest methods of prolong- 
ing life and of maintaining mental and bodily vigor. 


Philosophy of Its Influence Upon Health. 

According to the rule of four Ws — "worry wears 
worse than work" — thousands have gone to early 
deaths for no other cause than that they were worried 
to death. Very often death may have been declared 
to be from heart or liver or stomach troubles, or from 
various other diseases, when the primary cause of the 
difficulty was worry. But in this age of reasoning it 
is not enough to merely state that worry kills, or even 
to have it practically demonstrated; there must be an 
explanation given as to how worry kills — a scientific 
explanation beyond a possibility of dispute; and such 
an explanation can readily and clearly be given. 

A few facts are admitted by all who have at all con- 
sidered physiological questions: 

1. The brain is the most sensitive structure of the 
human organism. 

2. The cells of the brain are the most important of 
the body, being the directors of all physical func- 

3. Nutrition is dependent upon the healthful per- 
formance of nerve action, guided by the brain cells. 

' 4. Worry gradually weakens and finally destroys 
the nerve cells. 

5. The nerve cells being injured, all the other or- 
gans of the body are affected, and unable to perfectly 
perform their functions — resulting in various diseases 
of the organs. 

It is in this manner that a person is worried to 
death. Constant friction will destroy the largest 
piece of machinery; and worry is constant friction 
upon the most delicate piece of machinery in the uni- 


verse. Slowly and without apparent immediate effect 
worry injures the minute structures of the brain and 
breaks down its cells. 

Every thought involves the wear of brain tissues to 
some degree; but thoughts are varied, and are usually 
assorted in character — cheerful as well as gloomy — 
and their wear is not upon any one particular spot. 
But worry is the constant dwelling upon irritating 
thoughts — thoughts that are antagonistic to health 
and which wear upon a particular spot of the brain, 
like friction at one spot of a machine. 

Were it possible for us to uncover the brain and 
with a delicate instrument unceasingly irritate a por- 
tion of it by constant friction upon one spot, we would 
manifestly soon work irreparable injury. This is the 
principle upon which worry injures the brain. An ir- 
ritating thought constantly, unceasingly irritates a 
particular set of brain cells, and does so until those 
cells are injured; and, considering their extreme mi- 
nuteness, and their delicate structure, it is surprising 
that they endure the irritation so many are forced to 
endure. Occasional worry with long periods of relief 
can be frequently endured without serious results, for 
during the restful period the great conservative power 
of the organism repairs whatever damage has been in- 

Concentration of Thought. 

Any continuous line of thought upon one subject is 
most decidedly injurious; very similar to- the continu- 
ous use of one set of muscles, only in the thought 
there is no relief. It is the strain involved by concen- 
trating thought upon one idea which wears out the 
nerve cells involved. But not only does it wear out 
these cells, but it injures other cells not involved; for 
all cells of the brain must be used, just as all muscles 
of the body require healthful exercise, and these other 
cells cannot be duly exercised when the whole mind's 
action is concentrated upon a particular line of 
thought involving a particular set of cells. The ef- 
fect upon the brain by constantly using one set of 
nerves is far greater than the effect upon the body by 
constantly using one set of muscles while all the 


others are in forced idleness. Work always allows 
periods of repose, but worry allows none; that is the 
reason "worry wears worse than work." Worry 
grows upon a person. It continues constantly to 
harass him, more and more it irritates the brain, and 
the one idea finally takes possession day and night. 

How Brain Cells Are Injured. 

The chief cells injured or destro} r ed by worry are 
situated in the frontal lobes, directly beneath the 
upper part of the forehead. There are here various 
sets of cells. One man may have one set injured or 
destroyed, and another man another set, dejoending 
upon the character of his worriment. But all these 
classes of cells are intimately connected by very mi- 
nute fibres, and are also connected to other classes of 
brain cells. So that whatever class of cells is first in- 
volved, other classes and the whole brain must be af- 
fected. And when the brain is affected the whole 
body with its various organs, with their performance 
of functions must be disturbed, and this means disease. 

When the brain cells work they throw off a product 
which is poisonous (this has been microscopically de- 
monstrated). When this product is rapidly thrown off 
by the normal activity of the cells, they return to 
their natural state. But when the product is not rap- 
idly thrown oft', the poison remains, and the cells being - 
unable to perform their functions they soon commence 
to break down. When they loose their vitality, the ad- 
joining cells and then more remote cells suffer, and in 
time the various organs of the body are affected. The 
brain cells being injured, nutrition is proportionately 
interfered with, and the body begins to show the ef- 
fects of this failure of nutrition. Appetite diminishes 
or is lost, digestion is imperfect and assimilation 
greatly diminished. And whenever any org"an or por- 
tion of the body is insufficiently nourished, disease is 
sure to follow. The disease ma}' be attributed to the 
organ or part of the body aifected, and death may be 
pronounced as the result of such diseased conditions. 
In fact the local disease may be the immediate cause 
of death, but the underlying difficult} 7 , the source of 
all the disturbance, is the original injury to brain cells. 

1 I IT \\P ll's lMx! S!K \ \ riON 91 

The Injury to brain cells described may be termed 
chemical, as the poisonous product of irritable action 
destroys by its chemical properties Electrical influ 
ences may also injure brain cells; and it need no1 be 
mentioned, so apparent is it. that these cells may be 
mechanically in lured, 

Let us more fully comprehend the nature of brain 
difficulties by considering the characteristics oi the 
brain itself as disclosed under the microscope 

Construction of the Bi sin, 

The tissues oi the brain consist ol masses oi very 
minute cells, of very diverse shapes; each portion ol 
the brain having cells ol a particular shape; and 
some portions oi the brain having several different 
kinds; just as various portions oi the brain are in 
voived indifferent lines of thought or mental action. 
All these minute- cells have Little projections, con 
nected with which are delicate libres which serve t* 1 
join the various cells togethei Thus, while the indi 
vidua! cells are joined, those oi the front and back 
portions of the brain and of the upper and other poi 
tions of the spinal cord are united, and all these with 
the nerve trunks and their branches, which are dis 
tributed to every organ and part oi the body 

in the brain the cells repose in .1 sticky mass, 
known as protoplasm Oi course tin- 1u.huvt1U.uh1 
the minute fibres connecting them cannot be distin 
guished by the unaided eye The exposed brain ap 
pears as a grayish mass, curved outward it is ftrm 
to the touch; and is furrowed by divisions between 
the ridges known as 'convolutions oi the brain 

The greater portion of the human brain is known as 
the cerebrum, it occupies the front and also the up 
l>ur portion oi the cranium, it is in thecerebrum that 
all intellectual actions have their origin, such as rea 
son. will power, judgment, etc The seat ol all such 
mental actions seems to be immediately beneath ill** 
front part of the head, Here are situated the brain 
cells which are most .1 ffected by worrj and these ceils 
are connected by fibres to other classes oi cells and to 
the whole nervous organism it is here that worry 
gets in its deadly work) and it is but natural that a 


man should knit his brows when in the midst of worry; 
for beneath that knitted brow the brain cells are be- 
ing 1 injured by the constant impressions in one partic- 
ular line made upon them. And mental disturbances 
are quickly followed by physical disturbances. 

The cerebellum or, as it is frequently called, the 
" little brain," lies toward the back of the head and 
partly beneath the cerebrum. This portion of the 
brain is supposed to control the physical life and mo- 
tions of the body. Experiments have been made with 
chickens by removing the entire skull and cerebrum 
and allowing only the cerebellum to remain. Such 
headless "chickens," if properly nourished, will live 
for days and even weeks, and walk about and appear 
as in usual health; doing all things mechanically, and 
without any perceptive faculties; having* no powers of 
sensation. The brain centers for sight and hearing 
are 1 situated in the lower and back portion of the 
skull, and those of motion and sensation in the mid- 
dle of the skull. 

All persons who worry are not necessarily deceased 
thereby, for many are compelled to endure great wor- 
riment for years and yet are not broken down by it; 
just as many may live to old age who indulge excess- 
ively in the use of alcohol or narcotics. But the 
chances are that continued worry will result in abso- 
lute injury to the brain, and that is more than proba- 
ble if the worry is upon one particular topic. Con- 
centration of thought upon one idea to the exclusion 
of all others cannot help but work disaster if per- 
sisted in, but the limit of endurance is often astound- 
ing, and actual damage done is frequently overcome 
by proper change of thought and action. 

Knowing the philosophy of worry and the dangers 
of enduring it, let us contrive to avoid it. And when 
the one idea fastens itself upon our minds, let us real- 
ize that it is a physical condition, and use the balance 
of our brain to overcome its effects. 

The same amount of will power which is required 
to stubbornly persist in entertaining detrimental 
thoughts, may be exercised in excluding those very 
thoughts, and thus aid in restoring the brain to a per- 
fectly healthy condition. 



Their Influence on the Blood and Nerves. 

While theoretically it cannot be doubted that vio- 
lent or perseverent emotions, such as worry, fright, 
fear, exercise an injurious action on the general state 
of the body, experience itself teaches us that there is 
a certain relation between mental commotion and re- 
sistibility of the body against noxious influences. It 
will not be a strained interpretation of facts to regard 
"physic choc" as constituting at the same time a 
"cerebral commotion" by which the brain and the 
nervous system suffer and receive injuries just as well 
as by a fall or a blow. Secretory processes in the 
body, which healthy nerves only can perform appro- 
priately, will fail to furnish normal products under 
the influence of depressed or exalted nervous activity, 
while, at the same time, the harmonious co-operation 
of all forces will be disturbed some way. And, inas- 
much as the formation of the blood also depends on 
nervous action, and is regulated by it, disturbances of 
the nervous system, such as are consequent on worry 
and fear, will not be without a certain action on the 
composition of the blood. But the blood, according 
to our modern views, plays the most important part 
in the state of immunity against infectious disease, 
and we have, therefore, reason to believe that altera- 
tions in the condition of the blood will necessarily re- 
duce the resistibility of the body against the agents 
of infectious diseases. The French investigators 
have succeeded in demonstrating by animal experi- 
ments that under the action of emotions the blood 
loses part of its protective power. By keeping timid 
animals, such as pigeons, rabbits, white mice, by 
means of noise or comminatory motions in constant 
fear and excitement for several hours, the blood of 
such intimidated animals offered to microbes, subse- 
quently showed on it a favorable substratum for the 
growth of colonies; while on the blood of control ani- 
mals which had not been subjected to these influences, 
no such growth took place. It was also observed 
that these animals, after artificial inoculation, would 
succumb much easier to some pathogenic agent or 


would be affected by others to which they would not 
have been susceptible otherwise. This shows that 
the blood liquid had undergone modifications reducing 
the germicide faculty of the blood. 


Its Influence Upon Health. 

One of the greatest causes of ill health is a morose 
or irritable disposition; and it is one of the causes 
most easily overcome, because it is dependent almost 
entirely upon one's own self. This may at first 
thought seem untrue: but by analyzing the statement 
its truthfulness will be realized. Of course there are 
circumstances over which we have no control which 
often cause us bitter disappointments and grief. To 
assume cheerfulness under those circumstances would 
be unnatural. The woman who said she could follow 
every one of her relatives to the grave without shed- 
ding a tear spoke falsely, or else she was of such a 
callous nature as to be less than human, not more. 

The Master wept over the death of Lazarus, and 
are we his superiors? 

But grief is very different from irritability of dispo- 
sition. The latter is inexcusable, and morally crim- 
inal when it is known to destroy one 's own body and 
add to the discomfort of others. 

No irritable person can properly digest food taken 
into the stomach; and if the food is not digested per- 
fectly there cannot be perfect health. 

No irritable person can breathe properly. If you 
are irritable yourself, or know anyone who is, watch 
the effects of this irritability upon the respirations. 
They will invariably be short and uneasy, and an in- 
sufficient amount of air will be taken into the lungs. 
This being the fact, impure blood must result. And 
who can expect perfect health under such circum- 
stances? Headaches, at first trifling, and then severe, 
are almost sure to follow such a condition; and these 
will lead to graver difficulties. 

The brain of an irritable person is overcrowded 
with blood; and that of itself is a cause of disease. 


When the brain is not clear and performing" ils proper 
functions, how can we expect the nervous system to 
keep in good condition? The circulation of the blood 
is largely controlled by the nerves; the performances 
of all the functions of the body depend largely upon 
the nerves. When they are deranged, what should 
we naturally expect? 

It is most important, then, that we cultivate happy 
dispositions — dispositions which make others com- 
fortable; dispositions which laugh at slight troubles 
and accept bravely and without murmurings the 
greater ones; dispositions which lead us to accept life 
as it is, and enable us to strive to better our condi- 
tions rather than to bemoan our fates. 

But how are we to acquire such dispositions? Is it 
indeed true that our dispositions are born with us and 
that we cannot control them? No; such is not the 
fact. We are placed upon this world as human be- 
ings, to develop toward a perfect condition; and we 
are naturally adapted for such purposes. But we 
have will powers and reasoning* powers, and unless 
we use them in carrying out the plans of Nature, we 
will thwart the purposes of our natural lives. 

Four Sensible Suggestions. 

1. There must be a desire to fulfill our destiny 
while upon this earth; and we must set our mark 
high, and make due allowance for the obstacles 
which are bound to beset us on every side. In other 
words we must be ambitious if we are to avoid and 
overcome irritability. A man without an aim in life 
is always irritable. 

2. We must keep ourselves busy. "Satan finds 
some mischief still for idle hands to do," is an old 
saying. Assuming ''Satan" to be the embodiment of 
all things contrary to natural law we see the force of 
the saying". The busy person has no time to indulge 
in the snarls and quarrels of life which add to irrita- 
bility. If you are already irritable, see to it at once 
that there is employment for your hands and your 
mind as well. 

3. Have an aim in life, and then set yourself a task 
for immediate fulfillment. Don't let it be all aim and 


no realization. So arrange it that a specified amount 
of work must be performed in a given time, or that 
some purpose must be accomplished each day or 
other definite period. The realization of work accom- 
plished is a great source of satisfaction and happi- 

4. Control the tongue. Irritability usually mani- 
fests itself by frequent loss of control of this impor- 
tant organ. It is like a wild horse, and must be 
curbed; and curbing the tongue will curb the mind in 
most instances. But let it not be imagined that sim- 
ply by trying to be happy we can accomplish our pur- 
pose. One must avoid those things which are calcu- 
lated to bring about moroseness of disposition; and 
we must observe the rules of health as laid down in 
this series of chapters. An unsound body is directly 
antagonistic to a cheerful and happy disposition; and 
moroseness is directly antagonistic to a sound body. 
But happiness and contentment and a healthy and 
fully developed body constitute the perfect human be- 
ing — the being we were all designed by nature to be- 
come. Let us bear these thoughts in mind. 


Enjoyment a Requisite of Health. 

To enjoy life should be the privilege of every indi- 
vidual, rich or poor. But precisely what is meant by 
the enjoyment of life depends largely upon the nature 
and surroundings of the individual. What would be 
sport or pleasure to one might be a source of annoy- 
ance to another. Thus it is that the word "pleasure" 
is a relative term, and is readily comprehended as 

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," is 
an old saying, often met with the rejoinder that "all 
play and no work makes Jack a bad boy. " Pleasure 
is essential to normal existence. Animal life, from 
the lowest form to man, the highest form, demands 
some form of pleasure. 

The stern duties of life — the seeking of food and of 
shelter and the maintenance of self-preservation — 


require a strain upon the mind which is decidedly rou- 
tine in character in most cases. All performances of 
functions in the body are performed by alternate con- 
traction and relaxation of the tissues composing 
them; and this alternate contraction and relaxation 
must be perfectly balanced and uninterrupted in order 
to secure perfect action. Whatever prevents or inter- 
feres with such action is a cause of disease. 

Analogously, or perhaps in a precisely similar man- 
ner, the whole physical and mental being, involving 1 
the brain and nervous system, must alternately con- 
tract and relax with great regularity in order to main- 
tain health. It is common language to use the ex- 
pression that legitimate pleasures relax nervous ten- 
sion, and that too strong a pursuit of pleasure brings 
about a too tense condition of the nervous system. 
And such is the fact. No organ or tissues can be 
used excessively in any direction without producing 
discomfort in some form. 

Pleasures, to be such, must be indulged in within 
reasonable bounds. Then, and then only, are they 
healthful; otherwise they are absolutely harmful. It 
may be a pleasurable diversion for a child to " jump 
the rope," and if not carried to excess physical bene- 
fit will follow such exercise. But we know how easy 
a matter it is for a child to overdo "jumping the 
rope," and enjoy the exercise while it last, only to 
suffer from the excess afterward. In a similar man- 
ner every known pleasure of mankind may result dis- 
astrously if carried to excess. 

Moderation Necessary. 

As portrayed in the chapter on worry, the brain 
cannot be used in one direction constantly without 
the brain-cells being injured. Of course pleasure does 
not irritate the brain as worry does; for pleasure is a 
relaxation. But too great relaxation of any tissue 
will produce unpleasant results. 

Let moderation be the rule in all forms of enjoy- 
ment. And to get the full benefit of the relaxation 
afforded by pleasures, enjoy them to their fullest ex- 
tent while participating in them. Whatever the form 
of enjoyment you may choose never carry business or 



sorrow or worry along with it. Learn to control the 
mind if you desire to enjoy life. A sumptuous meal 
or a healthful meal cannot be of much benefit to one 
who eats it while contemplating the cares of life. A 
trip to the country is robbed of most of its health- 
giving enjoyment by carrying with you your numerous 

Divorce Pleasure from Care. 

" One thing at a time, and that thing done well, is 
a very good rule as many can tell," is a truthful say- 
ing. Nothing can be accomplished by allowing your 
thoughts to wander or dwell upon business or cares or 
petty strifes or sorrows, while you are presumably in- 
dulging in pleasures. You do not thus help your 
business or settle your strifes or alleviate your sor- 
row; but forgetting them completely for the time be- 
ing will aid you to do all; for it will relieve your 
mind, and add to its strength to meet the harsh de- 
mands that may be made upon it. A life of pleasure 
is soon followed by a life of misery. But a life of 
happiness is one of stability, which can be secured by 
the alternate relaxation and contraction afforded by 
pleasure and work. While you are in the perform- 
ance of pleasurable acts abandon yourself to them 
entirely; and while you are in the pursuit of business 
or the sterner realities of life devote yourself to them 
assiduously. But let each day find its due portion of 
both pleasure and business, as far as possible; then 
when emergencies arise requiring unremittent atten- 
tion to matters of business or personal or domestic 
trial and endurance you will possess a mind and body 
equal to the emergencies. And when the season for a 
vacation from such cares shall roll around }rou will 
find yourself able to doubly enjoy it. 

Nothing that injures the body when moderately en- 
joyed should be classed as pleasure. Beer drinking, 
or the indulgence in any form of alcoholic liquors, 
smoking or chewing tobacco, the administration of 
narcotics and the unnatural use of the body may 
cause sensations of pleasure while they are being in- 
dulged in by the false stimulation they afford the 
nerves of sensation. But all such indulgences are 


enjoyed at the expense of vitality, as they are di- 
rectly antagonistic to health. 

Out-of-Door Sports. 

Too much cannot be said in favor of the pleasures 
obtained by out-of-door sports within legitimate 
bounds. It is a matter of much gratification to hygi- 
enists, and augurs well for the future physical well- 
being of the American people, that so much attention 
is at present being paid to out-of-door sports, by both 
men and women. 

It is not many years since the pale-faced maiden 
with a slender waist and a languid manner was re- 
garded as the typical American beauty. But now the 
standard of beauty has assumed a more rational form. 
The rosy-cheeked girl with strong physique, who can 
discuss from experience the pleasures of the field of 
sport is the one most admired. Women seem to have 
determined, almost by an inspiration, that if the 
future race of Americans fails to be vigorous and 
healthful it shall not be through any fault of theirs. 
And while there may be many who still prefer to be 
pampered and to be considered delicate, their number 
is growing less and less. 

Of our young men there is much to be commended 
in this direction; though in many ways they are far 
too prone to go to excess in matters of exercise. The 
desire to boast of excelling proficiency often urging 
them on to feats beyond the limits of proper physical 


Helpful Rules for Living. 

Method is the keynote of success; and this is true 
of life as well as business. No life can be success- 
fully lived unless plans have been made for its career. 
Parents and guardians may map out the course of 
study and of action to be pursued by those under 
their control; but those who have grown to maturity 
must plan and perform for themselves. If you have 
not as yet laid down " Rules of Life" for yourself, 


consider the following", and if you are satisfied that 
they are rules of life which are adapted to your wel- 
fare, follow them, and commence at once, no matter 
what may be your age or circumstances. It is never 
too late to strive to do right by yourself and others. 
If you are miserable from past neglect, so much the 
more need of changing your habits; and if you are 
only upon life's threshold, no better time for adopting 
rules of life can be yours. 

1. Aim to develop and maintain a perfect physical 
body. But little can be accomplished by a suffering 
body. It is natural law that you should live at least 
one hundred years. If others have failed to do so, it 
is because natural laws have in some way been vio- 
lated; and there is no necessity for your following in 
their footsteps. 

2. Guard and develop your brain. Do not over- 
crowd it with useless information. No one mind can 
hold all the facts of the universe without being over- 
crowded. Choose the lines of study best suited to 
your tastes. Above all, do not be narrow-minded, 
but let your thoughts be broad and liberal, and do not 
measure others by your ability or possibly limited ca- 
pacity. Appreciate your intellect, but allow others 
to entertain ideas even at variance to your own. 
Many a building has several aspects according to the 
point from which it is viewed. 

3. Guard your tongue and keep it from evil. A 
word hastily spoken may be followed by years of re- 
gret. No member so easily causes sorrow as the 
tongue. Angry words are irritating to the brain, and 
an irritated brain soon brings about disease. 

4. Systematically take bodily exercise. This does 
not necessarily imply gymnastics, nor a special course 
of training, Simply see to it that all the muscles are 
afforded opportunity for development. 

5. Avoid excesses of all kinds. Too much food is 
as bad as too little; too much exercise is as bad as too 
little. Extremes in any line are dangerous to health. 
Let all things be done in moderation — whether busi- 
ness or pleasure, rest or exercise. Violence necessa- 
rily causes disease. 


6. Guard the stomach. Eat only pure and proper 
foods and drink only pure and proper drinks. Avoid 
mineral substances as you would poison. A few salts 
are allowable and are necessary. But remember that 
minerals cannot be assimilated by the system. Study 
the chapter on foods (page 74) and reason out the most 
suitable diet for your individual constitution and ne- 
cessities. Be on the alert for adulterations, and take 
into your stomach only what reason justifies. Let this 
rule be strictly adhered to in sickness as well as in 
health. Let no physician drag* you backward into the 
superstitious of the dark ages and persuade you that 
poisonous drugs in some mysterious manner are able 
to " cure disease. " Poisons are destined to kill and 
no subdivided doses can alter their characteristics. 
Nature alone can heal. 

7. Cultivate a happy disposition under all circum- 
stances. Look upon the bright side of things, and 
see good even in the midst of evil. Criticism oi 
others will sour the mind and lead to moroseness of 
disposition. Live at peace with all mankind under 
all circumstances. 

8. Be diligent in business and success will surely 
follow; and with success, if other rules are followed, 
there will come an enjoyment of life that cannot oth- 
erwise be obtained. 

9. Be honest. Honest to your self, your Maker 
and your fellow-men. Nothing so debases a man in 
his own estimation as dishonesty, — it injures the mind 
and robs life of one of its greatest pleasures. The sat- 
isfaction of doing right and deserving your own es- 
teem and that of others, whether you receive the lat- 
ter or not, is worth striving for. 


Their Characteristics and Influences. 

Peculiarities of dispositions and of physical forma- 
tions are termed temperaments when taken in the ag- 
gregate. All mankind may be classified under four 
temperaments — Sanguine, Nervous, Bilious, Lym- 


The mingling" of these temperaments in equal pro- 
portions in one individual would constitute an ideal 
specimen of manhood. But such a mingling" seldom 
occurs — nearly everyone having one or the other of 
the temperaments markedly manifest; though it is sel- 
dom that one temperament predominates to the total 
exclusion of the others. 

Sanguine or Vital Temperament. 

Persons with this temperament very pronounced are 
often spoken of as "full-blooded. " Their chests and 
muscles are well developed, and their blood circulates 
freely, giving them a robust or ruddy appearance. 

They thrive best in out door occupations and cannot 
endure restraint of any kind. They are usually bold 
and enterprising; but often fail of success from insuf- 
ficient persistency. Naturally they are long-lived; 
but their love of eating is often disastrous. 

Their mental capacities are usually large, and their 
influence is marked. As a rule they are leaders of 
thought, and advance ideas, delighting to be pioneers 
in all things rather than followers; and their impul- 
siveness is liable to lead them to errors. 

Persons of vital temperament are very liable to suf- 
fer from disturbances of the circulation, fevers, con- 
gestions, inflammatory rheumatism, hemorrhages, vio- 
lent headaches, etc. As a rule they are easily af- 
fected by medicines. Diseases may take a severe 
turn with them suddenly; but they are liable to re- 
cover very rapidly when the crisis of a disease is 

Nervous or Mental Temperament. 

A person of this temperament will have a large 
brain, or rather the front part of the brain will be well 
developed if the head is not large. The general 
build of the body is slender and the muscular system 
not well developed; the features fine and the hair 

Persons of this t emperament love mental work and 
study, and are usually averse to out-door and physical 
pursuits except as a performance of duty. They 
evince great powers of endurance. Their acuteness 


of perception and sensitiveness of feeling - are most 

In disease they suffer intensely and are liable to 
brain complications, being" prone to delirium and con- 
vulsions. Their small arterial systems render them 
subject to cold and lung diseases. Spinal troubles, 
neuralgias and constipation are to be dreaded by 
them. All persons of nervous temperament should 
endeavor to restrain their excessive mental activity 
and give more attention to their physical development 
and seek periods of rest. They require very small 
doses of medicine to produce effects. 

Bilious or Motor Temperament. 

This temperament is marked by a largely developed 
bony system, broad shoulders, large knuckles and a 
general angular appearance to the body — the muscles 
being firm and wiry. As a rule the hair is dark and 
the skin sallow. 

"Bilious" persons can endure great hardships and 
are fond of muscular exercise, though their move- 
ments are slow. Their mental activities are not bril- 
liant, though often the deepest thinkers are of this 
temperament — ideas being" evolved slowly, but being 
maintained persistently. They are subject to spells 
of "the blues." Disease is contracted by these per- 
sons very slowly, but is apt to get a strong hold upon 
them, and convalescence is slow, although they often 
retain a strong hold upon life under adverse circum- 

These persons should not use tea or coffee and 
should take plenty of out-door exercise. They are 
extremely liable to constipation and liver troubles. 
Large doses of remedies are required to cause an ef- 
fect upon them. 

Lymphatic or Phlegmatic Temperament. 

Persons of this temperament are large and well 
formed, and are easily fattened. They are sluggish 
in disposition and are proverbially "lazy." During 
disease theydo not manifest good resistive powers, 
ane are extremely liable to scrofulous or malignant 
disorders or tumors. Out-of-door exercise would be 


most beneficial to them; but they are not prone to in- 
dulge in it. Their sluggishness, coupled with their 
usual excessive indulgence in eating, makes them un- 
desirable patients during disease. 

A mixture of temperaments is most favorable to 
health and long life; and when any one temperament 
strongly predominates, the habits of life should be 
such as to counterbalance its evils and favor the de- 
velopment of other characteristics. 


The Natural Condition of the Body. 

An erect, well-formed figure, a clear and ruddy 
countenance, an elastic step, unconsciousness of in- 
voluntary actions, and a desire and capability for 
physical and mental work, are characteristics of 

Such conditions necessarily imply the regular and 
uninterrupted performance of all the functions of the 
body in a natural manner; including the desire for 
heathful food, its perfect digestion and assimilation, 
and a corresponding elimination of the waste mate- 
rials—involving the normal secretion of all the vari- 
ous fluids and products of the system. 

The least departure or deviation from such a nat- 
ural condition constitutes a source of danger to the 
whole organism. Interruption to the performance of 
the seemingly most trifling functions of the body de- 
stroys the harmony of action which is so necessary to 
perfect health. The slightest interference, if not cor- 
rected, is capable of proving the source of a most 
general disturbance of systemic action. 

In order to fully comprehend in what manner devia- 
tions from the normal standard of action may occur it 
is necessary for us to know many facts concerning the 
tissues and organs and functions of the body. These 
facts are simple and easy of comprehension. All nat- 
ural laws are simple and easily grasped by intelligent 
minds. It is the philosophies of men and their theo- 
ries which confuse. And in medicines, as in all sci- 


ences, it was apparently intended that mankind 
should be able to learn by intuition and study and ex- 
perience those things necessary for the welfare of his 
own being. 

Definition of Health. 

Perfect ease throughout the body, is probably the most 
concise definition of health. The blood must flow 
easily, the muscles must act easily, the nerves must 
respond to impressions easily, and every function 
must be performed easily, without interference or hin- 
derance from any cause whatever. Ease implies free- 
dom and natural conditions; and disease implies re- 
striction or interference, and unnatural conditions. 

The Attitude. 

The natural attitude of the human body during ac- 
tivity is erect; and all the organs and tissues and 
blood vessels and nerves have been constructed in 
conformity to that posture. Any continued deviation 
from an erect attitude necessarily changes the rela- 
tionship of organs one with another, and eventually 
alters the character of the tissues composing them. 

For instance, should the shoulders be persistently 
bent forward serious consequences would inevitably 
result. The upper portions of the lungs would be 
crowded upon and hindered from performing their 
natural functions. Under such conditions the minute 
blood vessels of the parts could not convey sufficient 
blood to properly nourish the adjacent tissues; which 
would consequently soon become altered in character. 
The small tubes in the crowded portions of the lungs 
would become diminished in calibre and the free pas- 
sage of air through them would be hindered, and the 
blood that should be aerated at that point would not 
receive its proper supply of oxygen. Also the 
crowded audition of the tubes would not permit the 
proper movement of the mucous secretion they con- 
tain; an J. tnat secretion would become viscid and then 
degenerate. Beside these conditions, the cramping 
of the nerves would play an important part in pro- 
ducing trouble. The sensation of pain would likely 
be produced; or a benumbed condition might follow. 


Thus by a continued inclination forward of the shoul- 
ders it would become impossible to perform many of 
the important functions with that ease which is neces- 
sary to health. Disease would follow, and the struct- 
ures, improperly nourished and rendered incapable of 
action, would soon degenerate and a consumption of 
the lung's would follow. 

Spinal diseases are likewise often caused by a con- 
tinued unnatural position of the body. If forward in- 
clination is persisted in, increased pressure is exerted 
upon the anterior surfaces of the vertebrae or bones of 
the spine, and insufficient pressure is exerted upon the 
posterior surfaces. Consequently the anterior struct- 
ures of the coverings of the bones become too dense, 
while at the same time the posterior portions of the 
coverings become spongy and too thick. This condi- 
tion soon results in permanent curvature of the spine. 
And the altered and unnatural conditions present ef- 
fect a changed condition of the spinal cord of serious 

The Blood. 

The blood current throughout the body is naturally 
active, and the arterial blood free from impurities. 
It contains only such substances as are necessary to 
nourish the various tissues with which it comes in 
contact. Each portion of the body, no matter how 
dense or minute, receives its due amount of nourish- 
ment from the life-giving fluid. As provision is made 
for supplying food, so is it arranged to carry away the 
waste products and effete materials of the system. 
The various organs of secretion and excretion, the 
lymphatics and veins all have their specific duties to 
perform, and are naturally adjusted perfectly to the 
arterial system. The least disturbance in any one of 
these organs disturbs the harmony of the whole and 
produces a condition of disease made manifest by va- 
rious signs, termed symptoms. 

A lean body, a sallow or pale countenance; a redun- 
dancy of flesh, or a continued flushed or purple hue to 
the skin, all denote an unnatural circulation. 

The blood may be deficient in nourishing materials, 
or it may be surcharged with them. The waste mate- 


rials may not be entirely carried away from the sys- 
tem, but may re-enter the circulation and be conveyed 
with arterial blood as a poison, to do damage to tis- 
sues or to be deposited in organs to hinder the per- 
formance of their functions. Again, pressure may be 
exerted by abnormal organs or otherwise upon large 
or small blood vessels, and thus interfere with the 
circulation. In innumerable ways may disease be in- 
curred through the blood current. 

Performance of Functions. 

One of the most important and earliest realized in- 
dication of a disordered condition of an organ or set 
of structures is the consciousness of the performance 
of involuntary actions. The heart is a typical invol- 
untary organ, and whenever its function is performed 
in such a manner as to cause pain or inconvenience or 
even knowledge of its existence there is evidence of 
derangement somewhere in the system, if not in the 
heart itself. The lungs, likewise, should perform 
their functions without effort. Breathing should be 
carried on unconsciously and with regularity. The 
stomach should digest food without pain or inconven- 
ience. The bowels should call for at least daily 
evacuations, which should afford pleasurable sensa- 
tions of relief. In fact, every natural action of the 
body should be freely and easily performed. 

Life is naturally a pleasure, and whenever it be- 
comes otherwise disease is present. If life is burden- 
some on account of the struggle to maintain existence, 
then the social relationship is at fault and must be 
corrected by the laws of political economy. If re- 
morse or fear of futurity renders existence a torture, 
religion or philosophy, or both, are ready to offer 
remedies. But if there is no pleasure in life on ac- 
count of bodily sickness or disease then it becomes 
imperative to -'know thyself, *' search for the cause of 
the difficulty and intelligently seek to overcome it. 

Experiment is a dangerous pastime for those in ill 
health. Experience then becomes invaluable when it 
can be intelligently utilized. In plain words and by 
common sense explanations and directions this volume 
presents the means of recognizing diseases and scien- 


tifically and successfully treating- them. The knowl- 
edge and experience of many years is placed at the 
disposal of all who will receive it. 


Departures from the Healthy Standard. 

To anyone observant, it will be readily seen that 
the functions of the body are rhythmical. The breath- 
ing and the pulse are most manifest illustrations of 
the method of action throughout the body. Under 
the microscope can be seen the smallest particle of 
living matter capable of separate existence — termed 
protoplasm or, more correctly, bioplasm. 

Bioplasm is a minute jelly-like particle, and when 
placed upon the microscopic slide surrounded by a 
nourishing fluid at the temperature of the body its ac- 
tions can be observed, and are most interesting: In- 
voluntarily it alternately contracts and relaxes with 
perfect rhythm; at the same time it appropriates the 
food about it and grows— that is, prolongations are 
put forth which soon separate from the mass and be- 
come independent particles with rhythmical motion. 

Of such particles of matter is the body initially 
composed. These particles throw out about them- 
selves a material (called formed material) which en- 
cases the living matter — the whole being called a cell. 
These cell walls become more and more dense; and 
thus is readily explained the changed conditions 
caused by age and the inevitable approach of death, 
when (if by old age) the amount and condition of 
formed material no longer admits of the natural 
rhythmical action of existence. 

Every organ and tissue of the body — blood, mus- 
cles, bones, ligaments, etc., — are masses of cells and 
living matter, each structure composed of its peculiar 
kind, moving, living and dying constantly. All must 
be nourished, and each must have its peculiar environ- 
ment, including perfect freedom of movement and a 
temperature which can vary only a very few degrees 
with safety. Such is the basis of living tissues; and 
as the smallest particle of gold represents the mass, 


so does the smallest particle of the various kinds of 
living- matter represent the aggregate in method of 
action and in character. 

The Life Power. 

It is impossible to comprehend the force or power 
which controls the actions of the body, builds tissues, 
carries away effete materials and performs the func- 
tions of the various organs. It can be designated as 
the life power, or vital force or vitality; and its pur- 
pose is always conservative — endeavoring - under the 
most unfavorable circumstances to carry on the nat- 
ural actions. This endeavor is the only hope of a res- 
toration to health during" disease; and this endeavor, 
recognized by all, gives us the key to aid the efforts 

Manifestly the power itself cannot be primarily dis- 
abled, for it is always striving to maintain control. 
Therefore the source of unnatural actions or disease 
must lie in unusual conditions of the tissue them- 
selves, which do not permit the life power or vital 
force to use them in a natural manner. This is the 
fact. Fever, spasms, chills, inflammations, etc., are 
not themselves the diseases; they are simply inevitable 
consequences of inability of the vital force to control 
the altered tissues in a natural or healthy manner. • 

Thus, pain, fever, inflammation, etc., are but symp- 
toms of disease which aid us in locating the tissues or 
structures which are altered in character through in- 
fluence at variance with their normal condition. For 
instance it sometimes happens that the surface be- 
comes greatly chilled beyond resistance, and an extra 
quantity of blood is forced inward and crowds into 
the lungs. The pressure of the extra blood upon the 
nerves causes pain in breathing and heat from inflam- 
mation (the increased flow of blood). 

The pain can be relieved by narcotics paralyzing 
the nerves so that they cannot convey impressions; 
but this does not alter the condition which caused the 
pain. A little thought will make it plain that means 
must be employed to put the tissues in such a condi- 
tion that there will no longer be an excess of blood in 
the lungs to disturb the natural relationship there. 


The circulation must be given a chance to be equal- 
ized throughout the system, when the pain and inflam- 
mation will subside and the parts affected be restored 
to their natural condition. 

Unnatural Conditions of Tissues. 

Although there are almost innumerable forms of dis- 
ease, manifested by a great variety of signs or symp- 
toms, varying according to the degree of interference 
to the action of the vital force and according to the 
parts affected, still there are but a few general depart- 
ures from the normal conditions which may occur. 

1. The tissues may become too relaxed or loose, and 
thus be unable to regain their natural tone. In the 
alternate relaxation and contraction of the particles 
of matter composing them there would be evidence of 
a lack of power to contract sufficiently. Such a con- 
dition is present in all cases of general depression — 
fainting, narcotic poisoning, collapse, etc. 

2. The tissues may become too contracted or tense; 
the particles of living matter composing them by no 
means being able to relax sufficiently to carry on the 
normal rate of alternate contraction and relaxation 
necessary to maintain natural function. Such is the 
case in most instances of derangement, and the hard 
pulse of fever is an indication of its existence. 
Cramps, stiffness of the muscles, irritations, etc., all 
indicate too great tenseness of tissues in the parts af- 

3. The tissues may be damaged by miscellaneous 
substances. Without, substances may inflict wounds, 
bruises, cuts, burns, etc. , and within there may be cor- 
rosions or other injuries from poisons, or obstruction 
to normal action by the presence of foreign bodies. 

4. There may be accumulations of effete or waste 
material, or the circulation may be impeded by accumu- 
lations of abscesses, etc., or abscesses and ulcerations 
may destroy vessels and various tissues. 

5. There may be improper environment, which will 
interfere with the control of the vital force over the 
tissues. Too great cold, or too great heat, or too great 
moisture, or a poisonous atmosphere, or filth or other 


coating's over the surface may close the pores of the 
skin and make it irresponsive to vital efforts. 

Conditions of Organs During Disease. 

Before methods of treatment can be intelligently 
agreed upon it becomes a necessity to ascertain what 
organs, structures or tissues are involved and in what 
manner they have departed from the nomal standard 
of health. Total inability of a structure to respond 
to vital action soon results in disintegration or de- 
struction of that structure. Gangrene is one form of 
destruction, and is the surrender of a tissue by the 
vital force to the lower chemical force. Partial in- 
ability is always fraught with danger. 

Whenever there is too great rigidity or tenseness of 
an organ or structure, there is apt to be. an accumula- 
tion of materials which would interfere with normal 
action and themselves become degenerate. This is 
due to the tenseness of the structures diminishing - the 
calibre of the vessels which permeate them. Blood 
accumulates in the capillaries of the lungs during 
pneumonia, in the brain during inflammation and in 
the skin during - inflammatory fever. Whenever there 
is an excess of blood in any one part, there is neces- 
sarily a deficiency elsewhere. 

Too great tonicity or tenseness in organs is danger- 
ous in many ways. Under such a condition the liver 
secretes less bile, the skin eliminates less perspira- 
tion and the kidneys excrete less urine. The continu- 
ance of such a condition causes such waste material 
to accumulate in the system and to degenerate and 
become highly poisonous and capable of producing 
serious trouble elsewhere in the body by being ab- 
sorbed and carried to remote parts by the circulation. 

The reverse of such a condition exists when there is 
too great relaxation of tissues. The functions of 
organs are not performed, from want of sufficient 
organic power. A common instance is the inability to 
perform muscular exertion after a prolonged sickness. 
When a secreting or excreting organ is too greatly re- 
laxed an excessive amount of its fluid may pass 
through it without effort and greatly exhaust the 
whole system. In diabetes the flow of urine is enor- 


mous; in advanced consumption the sweat is over- 
whelming" on account of prostration; and in cholera, 
which is a profound congestion, the serum is drained 
off through the bowels in what is known as the rice- 
water discharges. When the radicles of the veins are 
too relaxed or when they are persistently obstructed 
by external or internal pressure, the fluids accumulate 
in adjoining cellular tissues and constitute what are 
commonly known as dropsies. 

Any influence which may interfere with the free and 
natural performance of a function may become a cause 
of disease. The difficulty does not exist in the irreg- 
ularity of action itself, but rather in the condition of 
the tissues or organs which would not permit the vital 
force to use them in a natural manner. The abnormal 
or irregular actions, then, are but the signs or symp- 
toms of altered conditions of tissues. 

The greater the obstruction to free vital action, and 
the wider the departure of tissues from their normal 
responsive character, the more ardent will be the vital 
struggle to restore the system to its natural condition. 
This struggle of the vital power often succeeds, un- 
aided, in accomplishing the desired object. Fever is 
not desirable, for it always indicates obstruction; still 
where obstruction exists the violence of the arterial 
excitement is an indication of the degree of impedi- 
ment to healthful action, and also of the power of the 
system to overcome abnormal conditions; and the re- 
duction of fever by the administration of antipyretics 
which simply reduce the heart action in nowise aids 
in removing the obstruction, but rather hinders its re- 
moval at the same time it destroys a valuable indica- 
tion of the degree of vital resistance. 

Acute and Chronic Diseases. 

Diseases are usually classified as acute and chronic. 
In acute disease the derangement is sudden and the 
obstructions usually capable of being removed in a 
comparatively short time, or else they are liable to 
quickly cause fatal results. Some acute troubles have 
a definite time of existence — such as measles, small- 
pox, etc., — and the time can rarely be shortened, 
though it can be lengthened by various circumstances. 


Often an acute trouble becomes chronic, or rather the 
obstructions of an acute trouble not being - completely 
removed, remain in the system, and permanently in- 
terfere with natural action. 

Chronic diseases are usually the result of slow 
changes or gradual accumulations throughout the sys- 
tem or in special organs or tissues. They are not 
readily overcome, for tissues altered in character, 
through perhaps years of abnormal influence, cannot 
be easily restored to their natural condition. It is 
usually the case that a number of influences exerted 
slowly are accountable for chronic diseases, rather 
than that such diseases are due to any one special 

First Principles of Medication. 

The departures of tissues from natural conditions 
are few in character and have been briefly stated. 
The methods to be resorted to in restoring them to 
their healthful state may be based upon a few princi- 

I. Tone and stimulate relaxed conditions. 

II. Relax tense and contracted conditions. 

III. Remove accumulations, obstructions, poisons. 

IV. Provide proper environments. 

Such methods involve the employment of hygienic 
measures and all other aids procurable, besides fre- 
quently the administration of true remedies known by 
experience to accomplish desired results. Although 
hundreds of thousands of drugs, chemicals and prep- 
arations are employed by physicians in the treatment 
of disease, the great majority of them are worse than 
useless and many of them absolutely dangerous. 
True remedies aid nature by tending to place tissues 
in a condition that the vital force can utilize. There 
are thousands of such remedies, but they may be sim- 
ply classified as (1) stimulants, (2) astringents or ton- 
ics, (3) relaxants. Under these heads could be enu- 
merated agen:s adapted to special organs or classes 
of tissues, graded according to their power and ac- 
tivity. Their employment therefore is based upon 


scientific principles, and may be confidently relied 


How Performances of Functions May Be Interfered 


Anything that interferes with the natural perform- 
ance of any function of the body may become a cause 
of disease. The organism being the most delicate and 
intricate piece of machinery ever contrived, it neces- 
sarily requires but little to disturb its perfect action. 

Keep the head cool, the feet warm, and the bowels 
open. This may be regarded as the simple rule of 
preserving health, and the object to be attained when 
disease occurs. 

If we consider the distribution of the blood through- 
out the body, it will be realized that the circulation 
may be divided as follows : Upper circulation — from 
the diaphragm upward; lower circulation — from the 
diaphragm downward; outward circulation — through- 
out the surface; inner circulation — through the organs 
and walls of the canals of the body. Naturally the 
blood flows through these various divisions of the 
blood vessels evenly, in proportion to their extent 
and the importance of demands. 

If, for any cause whatever, the proportion of blood 
naturally flowing through the outward circulation is 
diminished or checked there will be a corresponding 
increase in the inner circulation. For instance, it is 
well known that cold contracts; and should the sur- 
face be exposed for a great length of time to cold, or 
for even a short time to severe cold, the minute blood- 
vessels of the skin may become contracted to such an 
extent that blood cannot flow through them naturally, 
and the amount is diminished; consequently the sur- 
face becomes pale and cold, and the blood is crowded 
inward upon internal organs, causing inward inflam- 
mations or obstructions to free performance of func- 
tions by the excess of blood in the organs. 

Pneumonia is an example of a severe disease caused 
by the chilling of the surface, driving the blood in- 


ward upon the lungs. Manifestly an important point 
is gained in such cases when the outward circulation 
has been restored and the inner organs consequently 

The proportion of blood flowing at any one time 
through the head is very small compared with that of 
the rest of the body; and disturbances of circulation 
elsewhere are quickly manifested in the brain by 
"head symptoms' ' being prominent in most of the 
acute diseases. 

The bowels constitute the great canals of the body 
which serve to carry food in a condition ready to be 
absorbed. They are also the canals througn which 
the effete or waste material is carried away. If, from 
any cause, this waste material is allowed to accumu- 
late in the bowels, it not only distends them and 
causes pressure on adjacent organs; and aJso hinders 
the circulation through blood vessels pressed upon; 
but the accumulations are partially re-absorbed, and 
the poisonous effete materials are carried about in the 
circulation — doing damage wherever they go. 

Thus may be realized the great importance of keep- 
ing the head cool, the feet warm and the bowels open. 
And it is plain that during disease a great step toward 
recovery is taken when the circulation has become 
equalized, and the secretions and excretions are free. 

Disease Resulting from Cold. 

A cause of disease is capable of developing de- 
rangements in various ways. Sudden chilling of the 
surface by unnatural environment, for instance, may 
produce one or more of several different troubles. As 
stated, the contraction of superficial blood-vessels re- 
sult in an excess of blood being thrown upon the inner 
circulation. Just what organs will be engorged or 
overburdened by the extra blood directed inward de- 
pends upon various circumstances, or rather upon the 
conditions of the organs themselves. If the lungs are 
sensitive, or small or crowded upon by unnatural po- 
sition, the excess of blood will do damage there, as 
they offer the least resistance to an increased flow. 
In such a case lung trouble would follow exposure to 
cold. Those who indulge in alcoholic beverages will 


find their kidneys least able to withstand disturbance; 
rheumatic persons or those of gouty tendency will 
suffer accordingly; and those who keep their stomach 
and bowels constantly weakened by overindulgence 
will have a diarrhoea follow exposure. A moment's 
reflection reveals nature's rule in succumbing to evil 

When all organs are apparently in health a great de- 
gree of cold may be endured without harm. If ex- 
posures drive the blood inward upon organs not es- 
pecially weak, the excess of blood will usually cause 
the greatest inconvenience in the mucous surfaces 
where the blood vessels yield readily to increased vol- 
ume of blood. Thus it is that cold, wet feet cause 
sore throat by driving the blood of the lower circula- 
tion upward and the easily distended blood vessels of 
the throat (the parts made sensitive by cold air) suffer 
most, and they become engorged and a throat trouble 
follows — a disease or discomfort in that part. 

Thus it may be seen that more than one circum- 
stance is usually necessary to cause disease. There 
are exceptions; for instance, contagious diseases are 
caused by a specific poison. But even then it is evi 
dent that the system must be in a measure deranged 
to permit the specific poison to have its effect, other- 
wise everyone exposed to a contagious disease would 
contract it, which we know is far from being the case. 
Indeed it is doubtful if a person in perfect health 
could contract a contagious disease by simple ex- 


Good and Bad Signs During Disease. 

Much may be known concerning the nature and pro- 
gress of diseases by closely observing the patient; 
and dangers may be averted by an intelligent knowl- 
edge of what are the first indications of danger; and 
anxiety may be relieved by understanding the indica- 
tion of a tendency toward recovery. There is no one 
sign which of itself is sufficient ground for the pass- 
ing of judgment upon a disease; but the association of 


signs and circumstances must be relied upon. What 
would indicate approaching death in an old and feeble 
person might be of little consequence in a robust man 
of middle age, whose resistive powers against disease 
are great. 

The Pulse. 

The manner in which the blood circulates through- 
out the system is an important feature in disease; and 
can be readily ascertained by feeling the pulse. 

Frequency refers to the number of beats per minute. 

Strong or tveak describes the degree of resistance 
offered to pressure of the fingers against the artery. 

Full or small describes the volume of blood appar- 
ently passing through the vessels. 

Hard or soft refers to the apparent condition of the 
walls of the artery. 

Sharp or feeble denotes the character of the stroke 
felt by the finger. 

While the pulse is perhaps the most important aid 
in ascertaining the gravity of diseased conditions, still 
its language must be fully understood to make it valu- 
able. The character of the normal pulse differs in 
different individuals. Age, temperament, sex and 
mental disposition influence it in various ways. It is 
small, soft and frequent in childhood, and slow and 
hard in old age. The frequency of the average pulse 
in health (sitting posture) is as follows: 

From birth to the sixth year 135 to 100 

From the sixth to the fifteenth year ........ 100 to 80 

From the fifteenth to the twenty-fifth year . . 80 to 75 
From the twenty-fifth to the sixtieth year ... 75 to 65 

Standing increases the frequency four to eight beats 
and lying down decreases it two to four beats per min- 
ute. Nervous and full-blooded persons may have a 
higher rate, and bilious and lymphatic persons a lower 
rate by a few beats. In women the frequency is from 
two to four beats in excess of men. 

A full, strong and frequent pulse during disease in- 
dicates extensive obstructions and an ardent effort of 
the vital force to overcome them. 


A frequent and small pulse shows depression, and is 
a bad sign following" the pulse just stated. 

A small, hard and very frequent pulse is an indica- 
tion of internal hemorrhage. 

A small, quick and frequent pulse occurs during" 
nervous prostrations and is unfavorable in low grades 
of fever. 

A strong, slow pulse usually accompanies conges- 
tions, such as apoplexy. 

An irregular pulse usually indicates a feeble con- 
dition of the heart, and irregularity associated with 
great frequency indicates a serious condition. 

The Breathing. 

Respirations vary in direct ratio with the frequency 
of the pulse; being, like it, influenced by age, sex, 
temperament, etc. The frequency of respirations per 
minute range from 35 in infancy to 17 in adult life. 
They are slower during sleep than during wakefulness; 
and in persons of a most decidedly bilious temper- 
ament and sluggish disposition ten and twelve respi- 
rations per minute are not incompatible with health. 
But such instances are exceptional. An increased or 
decreased frequency may occur in anyone through ex- 
citement or otherwise and be of no special importance. 
But when disease is present and there are other signs 
observed, then disturbances of the respirations are 
worthy of note. 

Slow breathing occurs in organic disease of the 
heart and in concussion of the brain or spine, and is a 
bad sign if at the same time the pulse becomes weak 
and the extremities cold; although in temporary faint- 
ing such a condition need cause no alarm. 

Sloiv and very full respirations may indicate pressure 
upon the brain, as in apoplexy. 

Feeble respirations are usually premonitions of death 
in typhoid and typhus fever, consumption and other 
lingering diseases, especially if the pulse at the same 
time becomes feeble, frequent and irregular. 

Labored breathing, where there is a great effort to get 
the breath, is caused by obstructions in the air pas- 
sages, by accumulations or altered conditions in the 


lungs, as in croup, asthma, etc. If inspiration (in- 
ward breathing") is difficult, the obstruction is in the 
larynx. If expiration (breathing out) is difficult, the 
trouble lies in the bronchial tubes. 

Snoring breathing in disease is a bad sign; as also 
is hiccough in lingering maladies unless directly trace- 
able to indigestion or an overloaded stomach. 

Difficult and painful breathing accompanied by a 
smothering sensation always indicates a disturbance 
of the circulation between the heart and lungs. Oc- 
curring temporarily from nervousness it is of but 
little importance; but when it is continuous in throat 
and lung troubles it is bad. When breathing can be 
carried on only in a sitting posture the heart is at 
fault, as a rule; though such a condition in asthma is 
not to be considered serious. 

When, during respiration, the ribs move and the ab- 
domen remains stationary, diseases of the stomach, 
liver or spleen may be suspected; or peritonitis or in- 
flammation of the bowels. Other symptoms will aid 
in determining the structure involved. 

When the ribs remain quiet and the abdomen moves 
during breathing, pneumonia or pluerisy may be the 

If possible, count the respirations without the pa- 
tient's knowledge, for the consciousness of the breath- 
ing being watched often creates a nervousness which 
temporarily alters it. 

The Temperature. 

The natural heat of the body is a slight fraction 
over 98° F. Observations may be taken by a clinical 
thermometer placed under the tongue or in the arm 
pit. A temperature below normal is always bad. A 
high temperature is to be expected in all cases of fever, 
and in some maladies a temperature of 105 : would be 
regarded as serious, while in others it would be ex- 
pected. Under descriptions of the various diseases 
the temperature commonly met with in each will be 

Increase in temperature usually occurs indirect pro- 
portion with increase of pulse frequency and of respi- 



rations. The following table indicates the usual 
ratio of pulse, breathing and temperature in an adult. 

80 Pulsations . . 

18 Respirations 

. . 99° Fahrenheit 


19 (plus) " 



21 (plus) " 




..102° " 


25 (minus) " 






28 (minus) " 





As long as this harmony is maintained there is less 
dread of serious consequences occurring even though 
a temperature of 106° may be reached. But in pro- 
portion as the harmony is broken there is ground for 
fear of serious results. Thus a temperature of 104°, 
with respiration at 18 and the pulse at 136, would be a 
most serious departure from harmony. 

The Tongue. 

The condition of the mucous membrane throughout 
the body is controlled to a great extent by the various 
secretions, the nerves, and the character of morbific 
material in the organism. The tongue has over it a 
continuation of the mucous membrane of the body, 
and therefore its condition is indicative of much in 

A dry tongue denotes internal irritation. It may be 
only temporarily dry, as in acute stomach irritation 
and diarrhoea. But if it continues exceedingly dry 
there is serious internal inflammation. 

The color of the tongue is important. A bluish 
tongue represents interference with respiration, as in 
heart disease, asthma, etc. A scarlet tongue denotes 
acute inflammation, usually of the stomach, if red 
along the edges and at the tip. Redness along the 
center indicates intestinal irritation, and is an early 
sign in typhoid fever, and if glassy it is a very unfavor- 
able omen. A ' ' beefy ' ' tongue usually occurs in 
chronic inflammations of the bowels or liver, or gen- 
eral mucous surfaces. 


A furred tongue occurs in nearly all fevers. If the 
fur is light and moist, simple irritation of the stomach 
is indicated. Heavy fur shows greater disturbance and 
a tendency to more serious trouble. Yellow fur indi- 
cates a liver derangement. Broivn fur is always a bad 
indication, and the deeper the color the worse the 
omen; it points to nervous prostration and a tendency 
to putrefaction, and when accompanied by dryness 
and fissures, a very grave condition is present. 

A trembling tongue denotes nervous prostration, and 
occurring during a tedious sickness is very unpromising. 

A clearing away of the fur from the tongue is usu- 
ally indicative of improvement. If the coating slowly 
disappears, commencing at the tip and edges, and 
leaving a natural appearance, permanent reeovery 
may be expected. If the fur comes away in patches, 
leaving a smooth red surface, recovery will be slow. If 
the fur disappears rapidly and leaves a glassy or 
cracked surface, the sign is unfavorable. 

False membranes, pimples and pustules may cover 
the tongue or its edges or tip. When these are angry 
or malignant looking they are bad, especially if they 
occur during diseases. A red cracked tongue, not the 
accompaniment of an acute malady, points to kidney 

The Surface. 

Coldness of the surface always indicates recession of 
the blood to internal organs; and the greater the de- 
gree and length of a cold surface, the more severe 
is liable to be the malady which follows. Chills and 
coldness in the latter stages of acute troubles are bad. 
A cold face with hot body is unfavorable. A warm 
face with cold extremities indicates brain trouble. 
Heat over the chest or upper portion of the back, with 
cold extremities, denotes lung trouble. A cold fore- 
head is usually unfavorable, and a cold nose is not a 
good sign in acute internal inflammations or acute 
troubles of any kind. One cheek hot and the other 
cool shows hectic or nervous fever. 

The color of the skin is important. A purplish hue 
shows interference with circulation through the lungs. 
In intermittent fevers and pneumonia it is very bad; 


and at the close of any acute difficulty it is undesira- 
ble; though in asthma and in typhus fever it is com- 
mon. A livid appearance is unfavorable; and an al- 
most black skin in eruptive diseases is bad. Yellowness 
indicates the absorption of bile and points to liver de- 
rangement. An ashy countenance indicates malignant 
difficulty, cancer, scrofula, Bright 's disease, etc. 
Paleness may be due to sudden nervous prostration, or 
to a deficiency of the*red blood-corpuscles, as in drop- 
sy, paralysis, etc. When paleness is accompanied by 
heat it is unfavorable. Red spots upon pale cheeks 
suggest tubercular difficulties; though ordinary cases 
of worms may occasion them. Local redness may be 
occasioned by inflammations of adjacent organs; or 
by diseases of the skin. A clear red color to the skin 
is favorable, and a dark red unfavorable. 

Sweating. — A warm, free perspiration, not too wa- 
tery, is always favorable, especially following fever. 
Cold sweats indicate nervous prostration, and clammy 
sweats and watery sweats are always unfavorable. 

The Countenance. 

A quiet, peaceful expression is favorable, unless it 
occurs suddenly after long continued pain. An indif- 
ferent expression and fixed, bright eyes are bad. 
Contortions of the face indicate abdominal trouble. 
Paleness, with cold ears, a sharp nose, and a sunken 
look to the temples constitute what has been called 
the Hippocratic countenance. Such a countenance is 
unfavorable. Wrinkling of the forehead indicates 
brain trouble, as also do firmly contracted eyelids. 
Sleeping with the eyelids only partially closed is not 
good. A pinched nose, and rapid movements of the 
wings of the nose are unpromising. Shrunken cheeks 
and an emaciated appearance of the face and tem- 
ples may be regarded as serious signs in chronic dis- 
eases and in acute bowel troubles. 

The Position. 

Quietude with great weakness in acute fevers is un- 
favorable, unless such quietude is resorted to from 
fear of pain or for enforced rest. Quietude with 


strength and consciousness is good. Inability to lie 
down indicates heart or lung - troubles, and is unfavor- 
able if persistent. Lying constantly on the back de- 
notes abdominal tenderness. A position on the abdo- 
men indicates pain in that region; and lying on the 
right side may be resorted to in organic heart trouble. 
Tossing about occurs during pain. Sliding dozen in the 
bed during a serious sickness, is a most unfavorable 


When natural, sleep is encouraging and should be 
obtained if possible. Sleeplessness is unpromising, un- 
less caused by local pains from difficulties not of them- 
selves serious. Uneasiness in sleeping is bad; sud- 
denly waking soon after going to sleep may indicate 
heart troubles. Intestinal irritations, such as worms, 
may cause sudden startings in sleep with confusion of 
the mind. Unusually long and heavy sleep indicates 
pressure on the brain. A very long and easy sleep 
after restlessness or pain and during convalescence is 
favorable. A very profound sleep, termed sopor, coma 
or lethargy is always bad, especially when it follows 
convulsions or delirium. 

The Nerves. 

Delirium is usually a bad sign, though it is to be ex- 
pected during even slight fever in nervous children, 
and in all acute cases delirium coming and going with 
the rise and fall of temperature need not be regarded 
seriously. Delirium following hemorrhage or profuse 
sweating, accompanied with prostration and paleness, 
is bad. Furious delirium may occur during high fever, 
and a low, muttering delirium (a serious thing) often 
occurs in low grades of fever. A quiet delirium with 
sinking pulse is bad; as also is the sudden cessation 
of delirium with continued unnatural pulse and respi- 
rations. Quiet and natural sleep after delirium is 
always good. 


A fixed pain denotes a derangement at one special 
point; and the sharper the pain the deeper the seat of 


trouble. Continuous pain shows persistent obstruc- 
tion, and a tendency to suppuration. Increase of 
pain by pressure indicates inflammation. In colic, 
neuralgia and simple irritation, pressure does not in- 
crease pain, but often diminishes it. Remitting pain is 
usually not unfavorable. Absence of pain in troubles 
that should be painful, denotes pressure on the brain. 
The sudden abatement of pain, while other serious 
symptoms continue, is bad. Pain in the front of the 
head indicates intestinal or liver derangement, unless 
known to be from catarrh. Great mental exertion or 
sympathetic irritation may cause pain in the fore- 
head. Pain in the top of the head denotes sexual dis- 
orders, or may accompany hypochondria or hysteria. 
Restlessness is unfavorable during acute troubles, 
except occurring just before a critical discharge. 
General uneasiness precedes the reaction of fever, and 
when long continued points to extensive obstruction. 
Anxiety about the heart during respiration indicates 
organic disease of that organ. A feeling of local 
anxiety after acute pain points to suppuration; or in 
typhoid or nervous fevers it precedes great prostra- 


Precautions which Should Be Observed. 

In any case of contagious disease the patient should 
be placed in a room apart from the rooms occupied by 
other members of the family. Where it is possible 
the adjoining room, between the sick-room and other 
rooms on the same floor, should be completely emptied 
and its doors and windows kept open as much as 

The sick-room should be large, easily aired and have 
a good sunlight exposure. The patient must have 
plenty of fresh air night and day. Sunshine and fresh 
air are potent remedial agencies in any contagious 
disease. If possible, when the weather is too cool for 
open windows, heat the room with an open fire. If 
there is a fire-place have a fire in it, even if other heat 
must be used. A stove makes the worst kind of heat 


for the sick-room. If it must be used keep a pan or a 
kettle of water on it. Place the bed near the center of 
the room without letting- the air blow directly on the 


If the room connects with others which must be 
occupied lock all the doors but one for exit and en- 
trance, and fasten to their frames — top and sides — 
sheets of cheap cotton cloth, kept wet with a disin- 
fecting fluid. These sheets must be long* enough to 
allow two or three inches to lie on the floor. This 
will prevent the contagion from getting" into the ad- 
joining rooms through the crevices of the doors. Over 
the door to be used the sheet on the outside must not 
be tacked at the bottom nor along the full length of 
the lock-side of the frame, but about five feet may be 
left free to be pushed aside; this sheet must also be 
long enough to lie in folds on the floor and must be 
kept wet with the disinfectant. 

No article of furniture — carpets, rugs, curtains, or- 
naments, books, etc. — except the things actually nec- 
essary for the care and comfort of the patient should 
be left in the sick-room. Exclude cats, dogs and other 
pets, including birds, from the room, since these are 
liable to contract and carry some of the contagious 

No person except the strictly necessary attendants 
should be allowed to enter the sick-room. These 
should wear only such clothing as can be washed in 
boiling water; especially avoid garments made of 
rough woolen material. The hands should be rinsed 
in a disinfecting fluid immediately after every atten- 
tion to the patient. The attendants should avoid 
inhaling the patient's breath; and in case of diphtheria 
or croup, if the patient coughs in the attendant's 
face she should notify the physician as soon as prac- 


The floor of the sick-room must not be dry-swept. 
If it becomes necessary to sweep, first sprinkle the 
floor thoroughly with t ea-leaves or sawdust wet with 


a strong" disinfectant — and burn the sweepings at once. 
Instead of sweeping, it is better to go over the floor 
with a mop or cloth wrung out of the disinfectant. 
And instead of dusting', all accessible surfaces — as of 
doors, wainscots, window frames and ledges, tables, 
chairs, and exposed parts of the bed-frame — should be 
wiped off at least once a day — door-knobs oftener — 
with a cloth dampened with the disinfectant. 

All dishes and table utensils used in the sick-room 
must be washed in boiling water or rinsed in a disin- 
fecting" fluid before being" taken from the room. Boil- 
ing" water is entirely sufficient and is preferable, on 
account of the usual disinfecting" fluid being" hig"hly 
poisonous and tarnishing" silverware. 

A sufficient quantity of g"ood disinfectant should be 
kept in the sick-room in a wooden pail, slop jar or 
or other vessel — not metal — and into this all towels, 
napkins, handkerchiefs, pillow-slips, sheets, etc., and 
all articles of clothing" used in the room, must be 
dipped and wrung" out before removal. They should 
be taken to the laundry while still wet and there be 
thoroug"hly boiled before they dry. 


The night vessel should be kept one-third full of a 
strong disinfectant fluid, to be emptied not sooner than 
half an hour after each use, and then immediately re- 
supplied with fresh fluid. All discharges should be 
disinfected in this way before being emptied into 
water-closets or otherwise disposed of. This is espe- 
cially important in typhoid fever. 

In diphtheria, scarlet fever, membranous croup, 
measles, or whooping cough — all discharges from the 
mouth and nose should be received upon pieces of old 
soft cotton or linen, worn handkerchiefs, etc., and 
burned at once. Do not allow a cuspidor or other spit- 
vessel to be used in the sick-room, and especially do 
not allow the patient to spit on the floor. If this 
should accidentally happen, wash the place immedi- 
ately with a strong disinfectant. 

After Recovery. 

When the case is ended, soak all sheets, pillow-slips, 


towels and other washable articles in the room, in 
strong disinfectant and remove them while wet to the 
laundry, to be boiled at least thirty minutes. Sprinkle 
thoroughly all surfaces of pillows and of the mattress 
with strong disinfectant and then carry into the open 
air, to be exposed to sunshine for at least six hours — 
frequently turning - the articles. Mattresses and pil- 
lows should be burned or sterilized by heat if soiled 
by discharges from the patient. 

Wash the floor and all wood-work, first, with a 
strong disinfectant and immediately after with hot wa- 
ter and German green soap — to be had at the drug 
store. Treat the furniture in the same way. Brush 
the ceiling and walls thoroughly with the disinfectant 
and then re-paper or calcimine, after two or three 
days' exposure by open doors and windows. Do not 
neglect closets, shelves, ledges, cornices, or other sur- 
faces on which dust may settle. 

If the above advice is carefully followed there will 
be no necessity for fumigating the rooms with sul- 

The objects of this advice are two-fold: First, to 
facilitate the recovery of the patient. Second, to 
prevent other members of the family from contract- 
ing the disease. 

It is confidently believed that both these ends will 
be attained wherever these instructions are faithfully 
carried out. 


Articles Useful for the Purpose. 

The destruction of the poisonous products of de- 
composition and disease is termed disinfection. Vari- 
ous methods and agents are employed for the accom- 
plishment of this purpose, and each year new sub- 
stances are devised and placed upon the market as 
disinfectants; so there are an almost endless variety to 
choose from. Many of these are highly poisonous and 
too dangerous to be employed for household purposes; 
many others are so expensive that they are on that ac- 
count excluded from general use. It is not necessary 


tnat a disinfectant should be offensive in order to be 
effective, though most disinfectants do possess dis- 
agreeable qualities. As a rule it is the best plan to use 
the disinfectant which is least dangerous, provided its 
powers are sufficiently strong to answer the purpose. 
The following may be mentioned as within the reach 
of all: 

Chlorine Gas. — This is one of the most powerful 
of disinfectants and may be obtained very cheaply. 
It is a greenish and highly irritating gas given off 
from chloride of lime and most abundantly so when 
that article is mixed with an acid. But on account of 
its irritating properties chlorine cannot be used in 
rooms' where persons are confined. It is best em- 
ployed to disinfect a room where there has been an in- 
fectious disease. For this purpose place at least a 
pound and a half of chloride of lime in a large vessel 
and pour upon it three pints of vinegar, taking care 
not to inhale the gas which is rapidly given off. All 
doors and windows must be tightly closed and the gas 
allowed to remain in the room four or five hours. 
Colored articles of clothing will usually be faded 
by chlorine, which is an objection. A pound of sul- 
phuric acid in a quart of water (slowly mixed) will be 
better than vinegar to pour on the chloride of lime, 
though more dangerous to handle. 

Chloride of Lime. — This familiar article can be ob- 
tained in pound and half-pound packages. Its virtue 
depends upon the chlorine liberated from it. This is 
given off slowly when the chloride of lime is spread 
over a plate or surface so as to be acted upon by the 
carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere. It is a most ex- 
cellent disinfectant for cellars, vaults and damp and 
unhealthy places. Care must be taken in using it in 
the cellar lest too great a quantity of the gas perme- 
ate the house and prove irritating to the inmates. 

Chloride of Zinc (Burnett's Solution) is a powerful 
agent, although dangerous. 

Chloride of Iron is valuable, although too expen- 
sive for common use. 


Chloride of Arsenic and Chloride of Antimony are 
powerful disinfectants, but they are highly dangerous 
and should not be used about the house. 

Chloride of Sodium is the technical name for com- 
mon salt. It is excellent to prevent putrefaction of 
animal substances, but is not strong enough for pur- 
poses of disinfection. 

Carbolic Acid. — This is an offensive smelling chem- 
ical extensively used for disinfection, nearly altogether 
in the form of solution. It is a very mild disinfectant, 
and is not to be compared with the powers of sulphur 
gas and chlorine. Its powerful odor will overcome 
other disagreeable odors and be serviceable in that 
way. It is a dangerous article and many deaths have 
accidentally occurred from its being employed. It 
will corrode the skin with which it may come in con- 

Creosote very much resembles carbolic acid and is 
of more value in arresting putrefaction than in disin- 
fection. Very weak solutions are used. 

Copperas. — This is also known as green vitriol or 
sulphate of iron. Its solution, two pounds to a gallon 
of water, is a most valuable and powerful disinfectant 
to pour into offensive drains, vaults, etc. A jug of 
this solution kept in the sick room is excellent to use 
on offensive discharges of all kinds. It is very cheap 
and should be freely used in drains and vaults. It 
easily stains clothing and vessels and for that reason 
is often objectionable about the house. It has no 

Charcoal. — This article has the power of absorb- 
ing gases, and may be used to great advantage. A 
sieve filled with broken charcoal and placed over an 
open sewer trap will render it inoffensive. Finely di- 
vided charcoal scattered around a cellar will remove 
offensive gases. Its useful properties in water filters 
are well known. 

Corrosive Sublimate (Bi-chloride of Mercury) is a 
most powerful disinfectant, but it is so highly poison- 



ous that it should not be kept about the household. 
Its solution (1 part in 2,000 of water) is extensively 
used as an antiseptic in surgery. 

Platt's Chlorides and Bromo-Chloralum are dis- 
infectant preparations extensively advertised. They 
are most excellent, especially about the sick room; 
and although comparatively expensive are preferable 
to cheaper articles on account of their being - almost 
non-poisonous and very convenient, being colorless 
solutions which do not stain and which possess no 

Listerine sprayed about a sick room makes an 
agreeable odor in the atmosphere and is mildly disin- 

Sulphurous Gas. — There is probably no better dis- 
infectant than the gas caused by burning sulphur. It 
is suffocating and therefore cannot be used where the 
atmosphere must be breathed. But as a disinfectant 
for rooms just occupied by persons suffering from con- 
tagious or infectious diseases it cannot be excelled. 
It is best used in the form of "Sulphur Candles," 
which are readily obtained at drug stores. Two one- 
pound candles burned in a closed room and the gas 
kept in for three or four hours will disinfect a room 
containing the worst form of small pox or diphtheria 
poison. When the sulphur candles cannot be procured, 
ordinary powdered sulphur may be thrown upon burn- 
ing coals or placed in a vessel over a stove or alcohol 
lamp. Sulphur and chlorine cannot be used together, 
as they form a compound. 

Sulphate of Zinc. — This is also imown as white 
vitriol. It is the most valuable of all disinfectants 
for disinfection of clothing. Clothes worn by persons 
suffering from contagious or infectious diseases, as 
well as their bed clothing should be soaked for at 
least forty-eight hours in water containing sulphate of 

Sulphite of Soda. — This is too mild to use as a 
general disinfectant, but it serves a useful purpose in 


preventing 1 putrefaction in discharges and other sub- 

Sulpho-Naphthol. — This preparation is cheap and 
very efficient and possesses a not disagreeable odor. It 
is excellent when placed in water used for washing 
walls and floors. It is comparatively harmless and 
may be used with safety. There is no reason why this 
should not become a most popular article, for it pos- 
sesses strength and agreeableness and is inexpensive. 

Thymol is a most pleasant though rather expensive 
disinfectant for the sick room. Put one drachm in 
four ounces of alcohol and when dissolved add a gal- 
lon of water. Sprinkled freely over the floor and 
about the bed it will be found agreeable and effectual. 

Coffee. — Ordinary coffee, browned and ground, is a 
most excellent disinfectant and one which is obtain- 
able quickly in nearly every house. Of course its 
powers are not great when compared with many of 
the pronounced disinfectants, but for ordinary pur- 
poses it is excellent. It is used by simply sprinkling 
some of the ground coffee upon a hot stove or upon a 
red-hot shovel. The odor is not disagreeable and for 
that reason it can be used in the sick room, especially 
to overcome the odor of offensive discharges. 

Sugar. — With many the burning of sugar answers 
the purpose of disinfection in mild cases. It is cheap 
and convenient, but cannot be relied upon in con- 
tagious diseases, although it may be used advantage- 
ously to overcome disagreeable odors. 



I. Breathe pure air. 

There is nothing more abundant than air; it is the 
requisite environment of mankind. It enters the 
lungs, carrying with it the principle of life; it enters 
the pores of the skin, and is indispensable to existence. 
When it is laden with impurities these are carried into 


the system and deposited to produce disease or to pre- 
vent the natural performance of functions. 

II. Eat pure food. 

Tissues are builded and life sustained by the food 
taken into the body. Impure foods produce disease 
and choke up the system. Avoid adulterated foods as 
you would poison. These adulterated foods are 
everywhere upon the market. Take nothing- on faith, 
but first be satisfied it is pure. He who sells you 
adulterated food is destroying* your body for his per- 
sonal gain. You must not permit it. 

III. Eat properly. 

It is not enough to choose pure food; it must be 
eaten as Nature intended it should. Use the teeth to 
grind it well; mix the saliva with it thoroughly and do 
not destroy its value by mixing it with improper sub- 
stances. Choose a properly diversified diet. 

IV. Brink pure water. 

Remember that water laden with lime or various 
other mineral substances cannot act as the solvent of 
bodily impurities which drinking water should be. 
Cold distilled water is best. If it cannot be obtained, 
use boiled and filtered water. Use plenty of water; 
it will permeate every part of the body, and by its 
solvent properties, dissolve and carry away the 
earthy impurities which are the cause of much disease 
and of premature old age and early death. Avoid 
wines and alcoholic liquors. Drink no tea or coffee — 
they are abominations that few can use without in- 
jury. Their use is a habit and never a necessity. 

V. Keep the body clean. 

It is indispensable that the whole body should be 
kept clean, so that the functions of the skin may be 
properly performed and effete material carried off 
through this medium. 

VI. Exercise properly. 

Activity within reasonable limits is necessary for 
proper development, perfect living and old age. 
Never strain the muscles, but let every one of them 
be used sufficiently to insure their healthy condition. 


VII. Be cheerful. 

Worry wears worse than work, and a morose dispo- 
sition is fatal to health. Laugh and grow fat, and 
look upon the bright side of everything at all times. 

VIII. Let no poison enter the body. 

Every poison, whether taken from habit or as a 
medicine is stamped as a destroyer of health and life. 
Division of the dose will not alter its inherent de- 
structive properties. Nature has supplied an abun- 
dance of harmless means for overcoming disease. 

IX. Have no evil habits. 

The use of wines and alcoholic liquors and of to- 
bacco and other narcotics are habits which tend to de- 
stroy health. Then there are many other habits 
which tend to degrade the mind and body. All must 
be abandoned, for perfect self control is a most im- 
portant factor for health. 

X. Take appropriate rest. 

The body must have seasons of perfect rest for re- 
pair and recuperation. Such seasons of rest should be 
regularly allowed. Sleep is tired nature's sweet re- 
storer and cannot be dispensed with. Do not carry 
your cares and anxieties to bed. Acquire the power 
of going to sleep almost as soon as the head touches 
the pillow. 

XI. Avoid strife and passion. 

Anger is an all-consuming fire which weakens the 
seat of mental activity and saps the strength from the 
body. Swear not at all, and live peaceably with all 


General Characteristics and Classification. 

Proper living, hygienic surroundings, good habits, 
pure food and water, cleanliness, temperance in all 
things, exercise, fresh air, a good conscience and con- 
tented mind, sociability and the enjoyment within 
bounds of natural pleasures, together with the avoid- 
ance of anger, grief and strains of all kinds will in- 


sure long life, health and happiness without the use 
of drugs. And even, when through the impossibility 
of avoiding disease on account of forced circum- 
stances, it actually endangers life, will-power and hy- 
gienic methods, directed by a proper knowledge of 
the character of the disorder, will often be all suffi- 
cient to aid Nature in her efforts to restore the normal 
condition of affairs within the organism. But, unfor- 
tunately, very few have attained that knowledge and 
degree of control over the will to enable them to ex- 
ercise it for the eradication of disease; and other 
methods must be resorted to in order to bring about 
the desired effect. 

The employment of any agency which will aid Na- 
ture in her restorative efforts during disease is termed 
Medication. By many it is believed that in every 
habitable locality may be found remedies sufficient to 
overcome the diseases peculiar to that locality. It is 
a pity that this belief is not universal; for the multi- 
plicity of so-called remedies increases every year; and 
not content with using roots and herbs and barks and 
minerals of all kinds from every locality of the globe, 
druggists and chemists and physicians are constantly 
concocting new agents in the laboratory to swell the 
list and add to the confusion of the practice of medi- 
cine. And so poisonous and dangerous are many of 
the agents employed in modern practice that their use 
by the laity becomes an impossibility, and their use 
by the profession should be prohibited by general pub- 
lic opinion. 

But were it not for the mystery surrounding the 
use of death-producing substances in disease, the 
medical profession would soon cease to hold over the 
people the power they now assume. And it is a 
question whether we should consider the continued 
use of violent poisons by the medical profession as 
due to their ignorance or to their adherence through 
reverence to the so-called mysteries of the dark ages. 
In all instances where disease disappears and nor- 
mal conditions return Nature accomplishes the work 
by well established laws — laws which as yet are not 
fully understood, but of which enough is known to 
enable us to render aid. 



Tenderness. Local and General Enlargement. 

The abdomen is the portion of the body between 
the chest and pelvis, and encloses the large cavity 
containing the digestive and urinary organs and a 
portion of the generative organs. It is evident that 
many conditions of the organs mentioned will pro- 
duce noticeable abdominal symptoms, and the obser- 
vation of these and of their particular localities and 
characteristics will often lead to the recognition of 
the seat and nature of diseased conditions. 

Tenderness usually denotes inflammation. If the 
tenderness is superficial the muscular structures only 
are involved; but if it is deep seated and increased by 
continued pressure the internal organs are affected. 

Local enlargement of the abdomen is very frequent. 
If it is in the upper and center portion, the stomach 
is usually affected. If it is upon the right side, the 
liver is involved. If it is upon the left side spleenic 
trouble should be suspected. If it is toward the 
groins, ovarian troubles or appendicitis or obstruc- 
tions of the bowels may be the cause. If it is low 
down, the bladder or the womb may be the source of 

General enlargement of the abdomen may be due to 
inflammations of the bowels or womb or peritoneum 
(peritonitis). Dropsy may also give general enlarge- 
ment; but in that case a doughy feeling and fluctua- 
tion may be readily recognized. Pregnancy will, of 



course, enlarge the abdomen, and in the cases of wo- 
men, must always be borne in mind when no other 
cause of the enlargement is manifest. 

Many acute diseases are at times accompanied by 
abdominal enlargements, and such enlargements are 
usually of serious import. They not infrequently 
occur in typhus and typhoid fever. But it must be 
remembered that abdominal enlargement does not 
always signify serious difficulties; for instance, it 
usually accompanies ordinary colic, from the intes- 
tines being distended with gas. 

Treatment. — It is evident that no general treatment 
can be given for the removal of abdominal symptoms, 
as they may be the result of a variety of causes which 
must be removed according to the treatment given for 
the diseases of the special organs affected. But, as a 
rule, tenderness and pain in the abdomen, accompa- 
nied by enlargement may be relieved by the outward 
application of stimulating liniments or washes, or the 
laying on of flannel cloths wrung out of hot water, or 
the application of mustard or capsicum plasters. 
Such relief would, of course, be but temporary when 
deep seated organs are involved. To resort to the 
use of hypodermic injections or other methods of 
using opiates, would be more detrimental than bene- 

Abdominal Dropsy. — This condition is technically 
known as Ascites. It is usually dependent upon dis- 
eases of the liver or portal vein, or of the kidney or 
the peritoneal membranes of the abdomen. In all 
cases the accumulation of fluid is the direct result of 
pressure upon the veins. For descriptions of symp- 
toms and treatment, see article on Dropsy. 


Bruises, Contusions, Incisions, Lacerations. 

The abdomen is liable to be injured in various ways; 
and if extensive injuries are neglected or improperly 
treated fatal results may follow. Falls and blows 


upon the abdomen may cause but slight external in- 
dications while they may severely injure internal or- 
gans. Deep seated pain, especially of a dull charac- 
ter, increased by pressure, and following - an injury to 
the abdomen, would point to internal difficulty. 
When pain becomes intense and of a throbbing* nature, 
preceded by chills and some fever, several days after 
the injury, internal abscess should be suspected. 

Incised wounds and larcerations are extremely lia- 
ble to produce peritonitis, which is fully described 
under the article on Peritonitis. In all such cases the 
greatest precautions for quietude and cleanliness 
should be taken, and the case placed in the hands of 
a skilful surgeon at once. 

Bruises and contusions require immediate applica- 
tions of cold compresses; but if these have been neg- 
lected in the start hot compresses are best along with 
applications of stimulating liniment. 

Abortion. — This accident not infrequently happens 
during the course of acute or chronic diseases. It is 
especially liable to occur during small-pox, relapsing 
fever, bilious-remittent fever, syphilis, St. Vitus dance 
and infectuous diseases. Its proper treatment is 
given in the article on Abortion in the section on Dis- 
eases of Women. 


Acute and Chronic, Superficial and Deep-Seated. 

An abscess is an accumulation of pus at some par- 
ticular spot, the pus being formed by the degeneration 
of tissue the result of congestion. Abscess may be 
caused by obstructions to the circulation, injury, irri- 
tation from foreign bodies or the absorption of poison, 
as in dissection work. 

Acute Abscess. 

Symptoms. — The formation of an abscess is preceded 
by pain, inflammation, redness, heat and swelling and 
in deep-seated abscess there may be general fever — 
the temperature perhaps reaching 104°. The swelling, 


hard at first, gradually softens before destruction 
commences. The brighter the redness the smaller 
will be the abscess, and the softer the feeling and the 
darker the appearance the more extensive will be the 
destruction of tissue. When pus begins to form there 
is usually a pronounced chill and a local throbbing, 
with increasing and constant pain. The pus always 
endeavors to get to the surface, causing elevation and 
a point to be raised which eventually ulcerates and 
bursts, allowing the pus to be naturally discharged. 
The deeper seated the abscess the longer will it be in 
"coming to a head," and the more liable is the pus to 
become poisonous. Thick yellow pus is termed 
' ' healthy, ' ' and after it is discharged healing is usually 
rapid. Thin, greenish or watery pus is always bad, 
indicating prostration and difficulty in after healing. 
Treatment. — If there is much fever, sweating should 
be induced by the use of diffusive drinks, such as 
ginger and sage or pleurisy root tea. In large ab- 
scess where the surface is dark, composition (see form- 
ulas) should be used freely. Poultices of ground flax 
seed, sprinkled over with lobelia and golden seal will 
hasten pus toward the surface. After an abscess is 
opened dressing of poultices are usually sufficient. 
Keep the wound open by gentle pressure occasionally, 
and if there is a tendency to degeneration, shown by a 
dark look of the part, compound tincture of myrrh 
should be used freely around the opening, and when 
the pus is poisonous, the tincture diluted can be in- 
jected into the wound by a small syringe. Deep 
seated or extensive abscesses should be opened with a 
thin and sharp pointed surgical knife as soon as pus 
forms, taking great care to avoid injuring blood ves- 
sels and important structures. 

Chronic Abscess. 

When the system is in an unhealthy condition dur- 
ing an ordinary abscess, a chronic abscess may result. 
Scrofulous persons are liable to be such sufferers. Decay 
of a bone, or of a small particle of bone broken off by 
fracture may likewise cause chronic abscess. The du- 
ration of such a trouble is very protracted, possibly 
continuing for years. When caused by bone decay 


there is usually considerable pain, and when there is 
an involvement of the nerve, spasms are liable to occur. 
Chronic abscesses may burrow into important struct- 
ures and cause death, or decomposition of pus may 
cause fatal trouble, preceded by hectic fever, septi- 
caemia, etc. 

Treatment. — Ascertain the cause and remove it if 
possible. Pieces of decayed bone should be extracted. 
If there is a tendency to septicaemia, composition 
should be used freely, and the compound tincture of 
myrrh externally and internally. Do not open such 
abscesses prematurely. Let the diet be plain but 
nourishing, and keep the bowels open and the habits 
regular and temperate. 

Abscesses in Special Localities. 

An abscess may form in any organ as a result of in- 
jury or disease or obstructions to free circulation. 
The brain, stomach, liver, kidneys, spleen, bowels and 
lungs are especially liable to abscesses, and descrip- 
tions of these difficulties and their treatment are given 
in the articles upon diseases of those organs. Faecal 
abscess is mentioned under Appendicitis, and strum- 
ous abscess in the article on Scrofula. 

Acid Poisoning. — See article on Poisons. 

Acholia. — This signifies a deficiency of bile, result- 
ing from disease of the liver and causing constipation 
and other symptoms mentioned in the article on Dis- 
eases of the Liver. 


Blackheads, Pimples, Flesh Worms, Whiskey Nose. 

There are several forms of skin disease included 
under the general name of Acne. They are never 
fatal, but are very annoying, and cause the afflicted 
person to present an unsightly appearance. The dif- 
ficulty is also very persistent, often baffling every en- 
deavor to overcome it. 


Acne Punctata is caused by a retention in the skin 
of the secretion of the sebaceous glands. This secre- 
tion chokes up the little ducts and becomes hardened. 
These ducts are situated alongside of the hair folli- 
cles. The tips of the little masses of hardened secre- 
tion become black when exposed to the air, giving 
rise to the ordinary name of Mack heads or flesh worms. 
Some suppose these are actual worms in the skin, and 
they do look very much like them, for by pressure the 
ducts may be emptied of their contents, which look 
like yellowish worms with black heads. This form of 
acne is most common between the ages of fourteen 
and twenty-five, and usually makes its appearance 
over the face, and sometimes on the chest and back. 
Sometimes the retained secretion is deeper seated 
where air and dirt cannot reach it, and it remains 

Treatment — Permanent relief can not be obtained 
until the system is regulated. Over eating and im- 
proper diet are often causes. Eating fats or cheese 
or rich foods usually aggravate the trouble. Com- 
pound Syrup of Stillingia is an excellent internal 
remedy. Locally much may often be accomplished. 
Unskillful squeezing out of the ' ' worms, " is more 
detrimental than beneficial on account of increasing 
the inflammation present. First apply over the af- 
fected part a cloth wrung out of very hot water, let it 
remain a few minutes to relax the structures, then 
gently squeeze out the accumulations, taking care not 
to abrade the skin by pins or finger nails, then apply 
cloths wet with cold water and extract of witch. hazel 
in which borax has been dissolved. 

Acne Rosacea, often spoken of as "whiskey 
nose," is a condition of enlargement and redness al- 
most invariably at the tip of the nose, often causing 
the skin to look mottled by the dark blood in the 
minute venous capillaries of the parts. Indulgence in 
alcoholic liquors is the usual cause, though derange- 
ments through the system of special organs, such as 
the kidneys, liver and womb, may be indicated by its 
appearance. From whatever cause, this unsightly ap- 
pearance of the nose is very annoying. 


Treatment. — If from alcoholic drinking, it is an indi- 
cation that should at once force the drinker to aban- 
don his habit; for acne rosacea always indicates that 
damage is being done some organ or organs of the 
body. When caused by diseases of the kidneys, liver 
cr other organic difficulty, the seat of the derange- 
ment must be found and attended to as mentioned un- 
der general diseases. Often this condition lasts for 
life despite all treatment, and occasionally it is seem- 
ingly inherited. Locally, but little can be accom- 
plished. An ointment of sulphur and a very little 
boracic acid rubbed up in vaseline could be applied. 

Acne Vulgaris very much resembles punctata and 
appears at the same places, but is a more aggravating 
difficulty. The retained secretions cause inflammation 
of a high degree, and as a result there is hardening of 
the parts or nodules formed in the skin, or else suppu- 
ration or pustules. Bad habits may cause acne vul- 
garis, but not always. Persons of scrofulous tenden- 
cies are most prone to be affected. The disease 
rarely exists or continues after the twenty-fifth year. 

Treatment. — Constitutional treatment, as the use of 
Compound Syrup of Stillingia, is good. Locally use 
the treatment for acne punctata, but if the pustules 
are profuse or the tissues hardened and swollen, as is 
usually the case, a thin lancet should be plunged into 
the seat of each induration and then a rubber " cup ' 
applied to draw out the pus and congested blood. 
This is a most effectual method and should be per- 
sisted in until relief is obtained. 

Acne Sycosis is a form of acne attacking the 
hairy portions of the skin. Little tubercles or pus- 
tules are formed by suppuration of the hair follicles, 
and the exudated pus, drying in masses, forms scabs 
in which the hair becomes matted. Acne sycosis usu- 
ally occurs on the chin in the follicles of the beard, 
from which it gets its name of "Barbers' Itch." It 
often follows eczema. After the scabs come off scars 
are left, upon which hair does not again grow, causing 
an unsightly appearance. By some this is regarded 
as a parasitic disease. It is contagious, and razors, 


combs, towels, etc., used by sufferers from it should 
be carefully kept from others. This disease of itself 
is never fatal, though erysipelas may follow. 

Treatment, — It must be treated about the same as 
acne punctata, though more energetically. The hairs 
about the roots of which pustules are formed should 
be drawn out early, and the pustules themselves 
pricked as soon as they "come to a head." Persons 
afflicted with barber's itch should keep well shaven 
and very cleanly. Borax and ammonia dissolved in 
water can be used freely to advantage. The follow- 
ing ointment is of great benefit: Take sublimed sul- 
phur, 40 grains; starch, 1 drachm, and mix thor- 
oughly, then add to it glycerine, 1 fluid ounce; borax, 
20 grains, previously heated together; rub all these to 
the consistence of ointment with vaseline. Occasion- 
ally persons afflicted with acne sycosis bear the ap- 
pearance at first glance of those afflicted with small- 
pox or with syphilis. But it may be always readily 
known because it attacks only hairy parts. Persons 
who never shave may have the disease, and women 
may have the difficulty make its appearance among 
the hairs of the temples. 

Aconite Poisoning.— See Poisons. 

Acrodynia. — Painful Joints. — Acrodynia is a name 
given to a peculiarly painful disease affecting the 
joints, causing swelling of the wrists and ankles, ac- 
companied by an eruption and fever. It is mentioned 
by several authors as identical with breakbone fever 
or dengue, which is described elsewhere. 


Enlargement of Bones. 

This is an unusual disease, in which the prominences 
upon the bony structures of the body become enlarged 
to an enormous extent. The growth may be rapid or 
extend over several years. The lower jaw and the 
feet and hands are chiefly affected, though any bony 
prominence may be involved. The nose and ears may 


at the same time greatly increase in size. The skin 
and muscles of the body remain unchanged, which 
causes the morbid growths to appear Hideous. The 
sufferer grows distressed and his mind weakens. He 
usually leans his enlarged head forward, presenting 
an ungainly sight as it is carried between his enorm- 
ous shoulders. Nothing is known regarding the cause 
of the trouble, and no method of alleviation has yet 
been devised. The patient may live for years, though 
he is an easy prey to fatal disease; if not, exhaustion 
eventually causes death. 


Disease from Vegetable Fundus. 

This disease belongs properly to animals, and is 
caused by a fungus growth being - established in the 
tissues and causing" irritation and suppuration. Man 
cannot easily catch the disease directly from animals, 
the fungus requiring nourishment from vegetable fibre 
before it is dangerous to human beings; for that rea- 
son persons much about horses or cattle may become 
afflicted by the habit of eating bits of straws or hay 
taken from the manger. The fungus is made up of 
masses of very small particles, and altogether looks 
like a minute yellow chrysanthemum. The spores 
may get into the stomach or intestines or the lungs 
and cause fatal abscesses. Usually they are confined 
to the tissues beneath the jaw. Abscesses formed 
have a tendency to open outward. If they can be 
evacuated and the sacs thoroughly cleansed, recovery 
will follow; but if they are too deeply internal to be 
accessible the case is hopeless. Treatment consists 
of outward applications of compound tincture of 
myrrh, and the free internal use of composition in- 

Bronzed Skin. Defeneration of Renal CaDsule. 

By many this is known as bronzed skin. It is a dis- 
ease of the capsules over the kidneys — they undergo 


cheesy degeneration and themselves become dark, en- 
larged and hardened. The cause of the disease is not 
definitely known, but it is often present during cancer 
or tuberculosis. 

Symptoms. — Great prostration and a bronzed olive- 
green hue to the skin are the prominent characteristics. 
The whites of the eyes assume a pearly look. The 
hands and feet become spotted, and dark spots may be 
seen about the mouth and on the lips. The heart beat 
is usually very feeble, especially in protracted cases. 
There is dyspepsia and pain over the stomach and in 
the back. Obstinate diarrhoea and vomiting may be 
present. Epilepsy or dementia may occur before 

Treatment. — As far as known this disease is always 
fatal. Symptoms point to methods that might be re- 
sorted to for relief of diarrhoea, dyspepsia, etc. Hy- 
gienic surroundings, nourishing food, frequent baths 
and the use of tonics may prolong life, but recovery 
cannot be hoped for. 

Adenitis. — See article on Gland Fever. 

Adenoma. — Small Tumors. — These are morbid 
growths developed from tissues of glands; they are 
usually common around the throat and are about the 
size of a bean or pea. They are of no importance. 
The same character of growth may be found else- 
where involving glands that are important. See poly- 
pus, bronchocele, cysts, tumors. 


Abnormal Fear of Strangers. 

This is a species of nerve exhaustion, or rather a se- 
ries of symptoms designating an ill-defined weakness 
of the brain or spinal cord, or of nerve-ganglia. The 
person afflicted fears to walk the streets or fields 
alone or to mingle in a crowd of strangers, or to 
travel where unacquainted. Such feelings are uncon- 
trollable and agonizing; they may accompany other 
diseases, or they may be experienced by persons in 


apparently good health and for that reason call forth 
ridicule. But it should be remembered that the feel- 
ings are the result of nervous disturbance at some 

Treatment. — Persons cannot be forced to overcome 
these feelings, and children especially should be 
treated with great kindness. The mind must be 
turned upon other thoughts and tact used in accustom- 
ing the person to situations dreaded. Diet should be 
nourishing; milk and eggs are good. Exercise should 
be regular in the open air, and an interest awakened 
that will turn the thoughts to subjects other than self. 

Agraphia. — Inability to Write. — A condition follow- 
ing certain injuries of the brain by which the person 
afflicted loses the power of conveying his thoughts in 
writing. He may even be unable to form a single let- 
ter of the alphabet and still realize his inability. 


Intermittent Fever. Chills and Fever. 

Malaria (bad air) is- responsible for the great num- 
ber of cases of ague. The precise nature of the spe- 
cific poison which causes ague is not fully known; but 
it is generally believed to be a vegetable spore, the 
breathing of which into the lungs causes the poison 
to enter the circulation and produce disease — the nerv- 
ous system, the liver and the spleen suffering most. 
Under the title of Malaria more will be found concern- 
ing this specific poison. 

Ague proper, or intermittent fever, is a disease 
which, during its course, manifests itself in parox- 
ysms which occur at regular intervals. The disease is 
most common in the fall, though when once the poison 
saturates the system ague may manifest itself at 
other times. 

Symptoms. — Before a paroxysm of ague commences 
there are usually signs to warn of its approach. 
These are: A general feeling of lassitude, constipa- 
tion, loss of appetite and perhaps nausea or sensitive- 
ness of the stomach, a dull headache and dull aching 


pains in the lower part of the back and possibly in 
the joints, and a yellow colored fur on the tongue. 
These symptoms may last several hours or perhaps 
several days, and be followed by the paroxysm char- 
acteristic of the disease, which may be described as 

(1.) Gold Stage. — A creeping feeling along the back, 
increasing to decided chilliness, which .no amount of 
heat or clothing overcomes, finally ending in a shak- 
ing chill, the teeth chattering, the hands and feet like 
ice, and the lips and finger tips blue, the face pinched 
and the whole skin seeming to be shrivelled. Great 
thirst and headache are present and sometimes nausea 
and vomiting. Breathing becomes difficult, and the 
pulse small and rapid and sometimes irregular. 
Altogether the condition seems to the patient a most 
deathly one. Its duration varies greatly from ten 
minutes to four or five hours, when gradually (some- 
times suddenly) reaction commences. 

(2.) Hot or Fever Stage. — Usually this starts in with 
alternate flushing and coldness over various parts of 
the body, soon developing into intense general fever. 
The face becomes red and hot and the lips dry and 
parched; thirst is intense and headache is violent, of- 
ten causing delirium or convulsions in children; the 
urine is scanty and the pulse full and strong, the ar- 
teries of the neck seeming about to burst. This con- 
dition of high fever may last from two to eighteen 
hours, usually four or six hours. 

(3.) Sweating Stage. — Gradually the skin becomes 
moist, and, commencing on the forehead, a warm per- 
spiration breaks out and extends over the whole body, 
becoming very profuse and occasionally possessing a 
peculiar odor; the urine is passed freely and often has 
a reddish sediment; all the symptoms of fever subside 
and the patient usually falls asleep to awaken feeling 
comparatively well and with a good appetite. With 
the exception of a general feeling of weakness an in- 
termission (varying in duration in different forms of 
ague) is enjoyed without any indications of disease. 

The length of the intermission designates the class 
of the paroxysm. (1.) Quotidian ague gives a parox- 
ysm every twenty-four hours. (2.) Tertian, every 


forty-eight hours, or every other day (the most com- 
mon form). (3.) Quartan, every seventy- two hours, 
or every third day. (4.) Irregular ague, in which the 
paroxysms seem to have no definite time of attack. 

Treatment. — Ague and quinine or other salts of Pe- 
ruvian bark are usually associated in the minds of 
most people. In households where ague prevails the 
bottle of quinine will usually be found on the pantry 
shelf, and sole reliance is placed in from five to thirty 
grains daily, in small doses, during a " spell of ague. " 
There is no question but that quinine or its equivalent 
form of Peruvian bark will aid in treatment of ague; 
but many can not take it, and there are better methods 
to be adopted. During a first paroxysm little can be 
done. Always during the cold stage rest and warmth 
should be provided, and, if the surface is very blue, 
composition should be given. During the hot stage, 
hot lemonade with ginger essence or infusion of pleu- 
risy root will hasten the sweating stage of relief. 
Commencing as soon as the fever is gone tonics should 
be given in anticipation of another attack. The fol- 
lowing will be found a prescription far superior to any 
salt of Peruvian bark. 

Take Fluid Ext. Gentian four drachms. 

" " Goldenseal four drachms. 

" " Cascara tivo drachms. 

Salicin twenty grains. 

Comp. Tinct. Myrrh one drachm. 

Simple Syrup eight ounces. 

Mix. Take one teaspoonful every three hours during the 
intermission, and every hour in the day of the paroxysms 
before the chill commences. 

This is bitter, but can be relied upon. Complications 
may occur during ague, but they must be appropri- 
ately treated. Nourishing diet, fresh air and frequent 
baths should be provided. Removal from a malarial 
region is of course desirable. Under all circumstances 
keep the bowels from constipation. 

Dumb Ague. — Occasionally a form of ague is met 
with where the chill or cold stage is not especially 


marked and the other stages perhaps but feebly mani- 
fested. Great depression and dull aching being pro- 
nounced in regular paroxysms. Such forms of the 
trouble require the same treatment as the regular 

Ague Cake. — Very often the spleen becomes enor- 
mously enlarged in those persons subject to ague, 
due to the crowding of blood upon the organs, driven 
inward by the repeated chills and consequent contrac- 
tions of the surface. In nearly every sufferer from 
ague the spleen will be found hardened and the liver 

Anemia following Ague.— Improper condition of 
the blood and excessive proportion of white corpuscles 
may follow ague; giving a pronounced and continued 
paleness to the countenance. Persons afflicted with 
ague and coming from a warm to a cold climate, per- 
haps to escape malaria, are very liable upon exposure 
to be attacked with pneumonia of a serious nature 
and often rapidly fatal. Such persons cannot be too 
cautious in guarding against such a difficulty. 


Albinoism. Albinismus. 

This is a condition where the coloring material is ab- 
sent from the various tissues of the body, such as the 
skin, iris, middle coat of the eye and the hair. 

Symptoms. — Partial Albinoism presents a mottled ap- 
pearance of the skin and is most frequently met 
among negroes. Persons suffering from general albi- 
noism are termed albinos, and may be of any race. 
Their skin will be found very delicate and sensitive 
and of a peculiar lead white; the iris is pink, and 
there being no black coating within the eyes the pupil 
will appear red. The hair is very fine and a pure 
white or delicate straw color. All these appearances 
manifest themselves at birth. 

Treatment. — So far it has been found impossible to 
devise any beneficial treatment for albinoism. Its 


sufferers are regarded as freaks of nature, but that 
does not imply that they are mentally different from 
others; only their extreme physical sensibility is apt 
to prove very annoying to them. They are very sen- 
sitive to heat and cold, and are far more liable than 
others to suffer from disease. For these reasons par- 
ents should take exceptional precautions in guarding 
albinos and in regulating their diet and clothing. 

Albuminuria. — Albumen in the Urine. — See Bright 's 


Acute. Chronic. Inebriety. Delirium Tremens. 

The introduction of alcohol into the system always 
produces unnatural conditions; moderate quantities 
may cause no immediate appreciable symptoms be- 
cause vitality may be able to overcome the effects, 
but in every instance vitality is weakened by the use 
of alcohol, and sooner or later must succumb in the 
effort to overcome the effects of the poison. When al- 
cohol enters the circulation it is conveyed to every 
tissue, doing damage everywhere. It first irritates 
the nerves, which become depressed; it interferes with 
the proper oxydation of the blood, prevents normal 
tissue changes and interferes with nutrition. 

Acute Alcoholism. — Persons unused to drinking 
alcoholic liquors, or those who consider themselves 
"moderate drinkers, " are subject to acute alcoholism, 
which is commonly known as intoxication. It often 
presents characteristics of disease which are intense 
and often dangerous. 

Symptoms. — After a period of excitement, drowsiness 
occurs, more or less profound, and with persons accus- 
tomed to drinking recovery soon follows. But with 
others drowsiness may run into stupor, the extremities 
become icy cold, breathing is slow and stertorous, and 
the heart action weak and irregular, the face livid and 
the lips blue. 


Treatment. — An emetic of mustard in warm salt 
water should be given, or the stomach pump used; 
then follow by strong" coffee, arouse the patient by 
walking" him about, slapping" nim, or by the applica- 
tion of electricity. Dashing cold water on the head is 
useful. Follow by small doses of third preparation 
of lobelia (see formulas), three drops in water; allow 
quiet after recovery. 

Chronic Alcoholism. — Persons who have long 
been accustomed to the use of alcoholic liquors suffer 
from this disease in one form or another. All the or- 
gans of the body, chiefly the stomach and liver, be- 
ing affected. Symptoms may be summed up as follows: 

The stomach is inflamed (gastritis), there is indiges- 
tion, disgust for food, nausea and thirst; retching and 
vomiting in the morning of stringy mucus, often con- 
taining blood or shreds of membrane. Ulceration of 
the stomach is common. Inflammation in the mouth, 
throat and pharynx is always present. 

The bowels are inflamed and irregular. Stools are 
very offensive and often contain blood. 

The liver becomes altered in character; the bile may 
enter the circulation or the organ may become en- 
larged and undergo fatty degeneration. 

The substance of the kidneys becomes inflamed or 
profoundly congested. 

The heart becomes weakened and the blood vessels 
degenerate; hemorrhages in the brain may occur, 
causing paralysis. The nerves are shattered and will 
power is lost. Trembling of the limbs and mental 
disturbances follow. Cowardice, treachery and un- 
truthfulness take possesssion of the mind and the 
victim is a physical and mental wreck. 

The outward appearances are familiar to all — bloat- 
ing, redness of the face and congested veins over the 
nose and cheeks. 

Treatment. — Various combinations of poisonous drugs 
have been employed to overcome the desire for drink; 
such as strychnine, atropine, daturine, chloride of gold, 
etc. These destroy the nervous system and only add 
to the deplorable condition. The only hope seems to 
be to confine the victim in some retreat, and there to 


endeavor gradually to overcome the various disordered 
conditions of the liver, stomach, bowels, kidneys, etc., 
and sustain the strength by tonics and most nourish- 
ing- food. 

Delirium Tremens. — This usually occurs after a 
prolonged spell of drinking in persons already suf- 
fering from chronic alcoholism; sometimes it occurs 
with persons not in the habit of drinking, but who 
have taken perhaps their first large drink; and again, 
persons long accustomed to drink and who have been 
deprived of it may have an attack. 

Symptoms. — Premonitory symptoms are usually man- 
ifested — sleeplessness, weakness, trembling, fear, bad 
taste in the mouth, constipation, and bad breath. 
The attack itself is accompanied by horrible delu- 
sions—usually most violent fear of reptiles, devils or 
other objects about to destroy the victim, who en- 
deavors to escape them. The eyes stare, the body is 
covered with cold perspiration, the pulse is small and 
frequent, and violent trembling occurs. These symp- 
toms may last several hours, and be followed by great 
physical and mental exhaustion. 

Treatment. — Perfect quiet must be secured in a room 
well guarded, for the patient is liable to jump from 
the window or otherwise endeavor to escape imagi- 
nary enemies. For that reason a strong nurse should 
be present. Arguments are useless, strength alone 
can conquer. Often it is well to coincide with his 
ideas and bar the doors and windows and thus en- 
courage the belief that the enemies are without, and 
he is safe within. Administer a strong infusion of 
scull-cap and cramp bark in tablespoonful doses every 
hour, or by injection every two hours. For the injec- 
tion half an ounce of each in a pint of starch water is 
not too much. Give most nourishing food — broths, 
raw eggs, milk, etc., highly seasoned. Give no nar- 
cotic, and above all do not administer liquor to " grad- 
ually wean him. ' ': Sleep' is to be desired, but never 
by narcotics. The following will be found most ex- 
cellent to administer in a capsule every three hours 
for the general exhaustion and heart weakness follow- 
ing delirium tremens: Sulphate of hydrastia, cap- 


sicum and salicin, each one grain. Weeks may possi- 
bly be required for complete recovery from an attack 
of delirium tremens. 

Alexia. — Inability to Bead. — The loss of all power to 
read — written words conveying no idea to the patient. 
The result of lesion in the brain. See Myelitis. 

Allocheiria. — Imperfect Sense of Touch. — This is a 
rare and peculiar nervous phenomenon in which im- 
pressions, such as handling- or applications of heat, 
made upon one side of the body are recognized as 
though they were made upon the other side. It is 
caused by sclerosis of the spinal cord or cerebellum, 
and the treatment for myelitis (chronic inflammation 
of the spinal cord) is proper to be pursued. 

Alopecia. — See Hair Diseases. 

Alveolar Cancer.— This disease is fully described 
in the article on Cancer. 

Amaurosis. — See section of Eye Diseases. 

Amenorrhoea. — See section of Diseases of Women. 

Amimia. — This is the loss of all ability to convey 
thoughts by the employment of gestures and may fol- 
low certain injuries or lesions in the brain, the relief 
of which can alone overcome this peculiar loss of 

Amyloid Disease. — Frequently after prolonged 
suppuration, internal organs undergo a form of de- 
generation known as amyloid or lardaceous or waxy, 
which is liable to occur in phthisis, syphilis and dis- 
eases of the kidneys, liver and spleen. It is more 
fully mentioned in the articles treating of those dis- 



Thin Blood. Chlorosis. Green Sickness. 

From a great many causes the blood may become im- 
poverished or be altered in character to such an ex- 
tent as to prevent the proper sustenance of tissues 
and thus permit degenerate changes to take place. 
Sometimes the general amount of blood is less than it 
should be, and again there is a deficiency of albumen 
in the liquor sanguinis. As a rule the term anaemia is 
used to designate a deficiency of the red blood cor- 

The causes of anaemia are numerous; improper diet; 
too great an amount of starchy foods and too little 
meats being eaten; deficiency of food; poor surround- 
ings; too little sunlight; impure air; over study or too 
great mental exertion with insufficient bodily exercise; 
too rapid growth; excessive discharges, as in profuse 
menstruation or chronic abscesses, etc. ; all these may 
bring about anaemia. But there is often anaemia with 
certain chronic diseases, such as cancer, scrofula, con- 
sumption, syphilis, Bright's disease, bleeding piles, 
etc.; also it may arise from impoverishment of the 
blood by the use of mercury, arsenic, antimony and 
other poisons. Men are not as liable to it as women. 
Girls just after puberty are peculiarly apt to manifest 

Symptoms. — Paleness of the face is always present, 
and general muscular weakness and a loss of energy 
are complained of, with exhaustion after slight exer- 
tion. Cold extremities, fainting, dizziness and palpi- 
tation are frequent, the pulse growing weaker and 
more easily varying as the condition advances. Con- 
stipation and headache are almost invariable symp- 
toms. Girls are apt to have a waxy and greenish ap- 
pearance of the face with the skin extremely soft and 
loose and the whites of the eyes looking pearly. In 
long continued cases dropsy may follow and functional 
derangements of various organs may become manifest; 
exhaustive diarrhoea may set in, and the peculiarities 
of appetite may become so great, or the stomach so 
sensitive that it may be impossible to take sufficient 
nourishment. Bleeding from the nose is common; and 


menstruation is interfered with, irregular and deficient 
in quantity and painful. It is possible for death to 
occur during" a prolonged faint which may happen in 
severe cases of anaemia. 

Treatment. — Rest from compulsory labors, such as 
business and study, must be obtained. An abundance 
of fresh air and moderate outdoor exercise should be 
provided. Going to the sea shore or up in the moun- 
tains is beneficial. Sunshine must be admitted freely 
to the house and must be courted outside. Salt water 
baths with friction are of advantage. Nourishing 
food must be supplied — broths, lean meats, game, egg- 
nog (without alcoholic liquor) and other simple foods 
should be taken frequently. Care and hygienic meas- 
ures can be almost entirely depended upon. Medi- 
cines may aid. The bowels should be kept open by 
mild but laxative liver pills. Iron is often praised as 
a maker of red blood corpuscles, but its reputation is 
not well founded. Tartrate of iron and potassa two 
grains and sulphate of hydrastia one grain, put to- 
gether in a capsule and taken one hour after each meal, 
will aid intestinal digestion and thus nourishment will 
enter into the blood. The Compound Syrup of Mitch- 
ella (see formulas) often serves as a good tonic. Of 
course, if anaemia is the result of cancer, consumption, 
etc., no medication will avail, Often it is a result, as 
mentioned, of other troubles which may be overcome, 
and then the blood with proper care will return to its 
normal condition. 

Anaemia Of the Brain. — See Brain Diseases. 


Analgesia. Loss of Sensation. 

This is a loss of sensation caused by disease of the 
nerves of sensation, and may therefore occur in any 
part of the body. Most commonly anaesthesia of the 
skin is met with — one half the surface, laterally, may 
be involved, or the upper or lower part of the body 
may be affected, or the whole surface. Anaesthesia 


may be confined to the sense of touch or the sense of 
pain. In testing for anaesthesia the patient should be 
blindfolded and various portions of the surface 
touched with the fingers, pencils, or heated keys or 
particles of ice. It will often be noticed that only 
some regions have lost feeling - , and thus the exact 
nerves affected may be traced. 

Analgesia is the term used to denote absence of 
power to realize pain. It may exist even when there 
is sensitiveness to touch, though usually loss of power 
to experience touch accompanies it. Blindfolding - the 
patient and then running - points of pins in him, or 
pinching - him unawares, will give proof of analgesia. 
The cause of the difficulty must be ascertained and re- 
moved. When due to ''lethargy" of the skin or local 
causes, baths and friction and stimulating liniments 
are advisable. Electric baths are especially benefi- 
cial, and the electric brush attached to a battery and 
used freely over the skin will often accomplish perma- 
nent cure. For artificial anaesthesia see section on 
Remedies and Applications. 

Anasarca. — This term is used to designate exten- 
sive dropsy of the subcutaneous cellular tissue. See 
article on Dropsy. 


Stiffness of the Joints. 

This is a stiffening of the joints or of some special 
joint, caused by diseases of the joints, rheumatism, 
and by keeping a limb fixed in one position. If the 
stiffness involves the bony union in the joint, nothing 
can be done to relieve it. If from deposits steaming 
the part and rubbing over it tincture of lobelia and 
then making motion vigorously may break up adhe- 
sions. When there is injury near a joint and anchylo- 
sis is feared, it is advisable to make proper passive 
motion frequently. Stiffness of fingers and limbs 
might thus often be prevented. Serious cases of an- 
chylosis are often overcome by surgical operations. 


Chest Spasm. Breast Pan£. 

It is supposed that this dangerous and most fright- 
ful difficulty is due to spasm of the nerves of circula- 
tion and motion due to over stimulation of the vaso- 
motor center. It is not regarded as a disease of itself, 
but as a consequence of diseased conditions, especially 
but not necessarily of the heart. There is always 
contraction of the blood vessels and consequent 
crowding of blood in the left side of the heart, caus- 
ing th? cavities to become distended and unable to 
perfectly empty themselves. 

Symptoms. — Angina pectoris, or " Chest Spasm," is 
spasmodic and neuralgic in character. A first attack 
comes on without warning, usually after exertion, es- 
pecially after eating, or walking up hill or against the 
wind, or bicycle riding by elderly persons soon after 
eating; or an attack may be caused by sudden and in- 
tense emotion. There is intense pain near the heart 
and under the breast-bone. The agony experienced is 
excruciating and indescribable. A sensation of pres- 
sure and constricture about the chest is felt; a feeling 
of suffocation, although breathing is not really inter- 
fered with. Pain may shoot from the region of the 
heart in various directions, and possibly tingling and 
numbness of the fingers may follow. There are indi- 
cations of general disturbance. The pulse, at first 
strong, soon becomes feeble, or irregular. The coun- 
tenance assumes an anxious and distressed expression, 
and the patient realizes the liability of death. The 
face is pale and covered with perspiration — cold and 
bead-like — while the rest of the body is cold and dry. 
Very nervous persons may have chattering of the 
teeth, and fainting or convulsions may follow. An 
attack may itself be made up of several spasms. The 
difficulty ceases as suddenly as it commences; but it 
is always liable to recur under very little excitement 
or over-exertion. Death rarely follows the first at- 
tack. A short attack may last only five minutes and 
a very long one two or more hours. 

Treatment. — Nitrate of Amyl, or nitro-glycerine are 
often administered in very small doses, one or two 


drops of the former, or a single pellet of the latter. 
These give relief, bat are not sanative agents. Five 
drop doses of equal parts of compound spirits of lav- 
ender and of third preparation of lobelia may be 
safely administered in frequent doses and will be found 
a valuable and efficient antispasmodic. In severe 
cases the same preparation in warm water may be 
used as an injection to the bowels. If the stomach is 
filled with indigestible food a quick emetic of salt 
water and mustard should be given. The patient 
should be placed upright in an open place and his 
clothing about the neck, chest and waist loosened. 
Hot water to the feet and hot applications or stimu- 
lating liniment over the chest will be found advisable. 
Between attacks persons subject to them should live 
most carefully and avoid all excesses in diet, habits 
and emotions. They should carry with them the anti- 
spasmodic mentioned in order to ward off the first 
symptoms of an attack. Eheumatism, gout or heart 
disease, often the cause of angina pectoris, should be 
treated appropriately. 

False, or Pseudo Angina Pectoris.— This is a 

disease with symptoms similar to the above, only mod- 
ified. It occurs chiefly in women, after a meal, in hys- 
teria, or at the change of life. The absence of in- 
tense pain distinguishes it from true angina pectoris. 
Treatment should be similar in character, only milder. 
The false is never fatal, although the symptoms are 
very distressing. Angina pectoris seldom occurs in 
persons under forty-five years of age. 

Anidrosis is the technical term for diminution of 
perspiration. It may be caused by disease of the 
sweat glands, or it may be a symptom of other dis- 
eases. See Perspiration. 

Ankle Injuries are treated of elsewhere in the ar- 
ticles on Fractures, Sprains, Dislocations. 

Anosmia.— Loss of Sense of Smell. — This may be 
caused by blows or falls, inhalations of pungent va- 


pors or irritating substances, or it may be the result 
of chronic catarrh or of certain forms of paralysis. 
Treatment has been very unsatisfactory. 

Malignant Pustule. Charbon. Wool-Sorters' Disease. 

This disease is primarily caused by a micro-organ- 
ism which in certain localities develops upon grass or 
stalks of grain or hay; thus it finds its way into ani- 
mals by way of the lungs or stomach and goes through 
every portion of the body, soon causing death. Their 
dead bodies and everything the diseased animal came 
in contact with reeks with contagion. Men who han- 
dle them are extremely liable to be poisoned, and 
even flies from such animals may convey the poison to 
human beings. 

Symxrtoms.— Wherever the poison of anthrax enters 
the system, usually at some abraded point on the skin, 
a malignant pustule is formed on the fourth day after 
inoculation, and quickly enlarges and ulcerates and 
looks malignant, and the nearest glands become en- 
larged. There is general fever and great prostration, 
which may be followed by collapse and death in four 
or five days. Cases not fatal do not show general 
constitutional symptoms greatly, the difficulty being 
confined to the ulcer, which without aid sometimes 
heals and the disease disappears, leaving a scar. 

Treatment. — As soon as recognized the ulcer mnst be 
cauterized — burned out with caustic or red-hot iron. 
Composition (see formulas) and myrrh must be given 
internally; the bowels kept open, frequent bathing in- 
dulged in and plenty of fresh air provided. Locally 
compound tincture of myrrh should be applied about 
the ulcer and, with an equal quantity of hydrastis 
fluid extract, placed directly in the sore. Ulcers may 
form in the intestines; they have so far as known al- 
ways proved fatal. The extreme contagiousness of 
anthrax should always be borne in mind and the 
greatest precautions taken in handling cases. The 
patients themselves should guard against the poison 
entering the mouth. 


Bloody Tumor. Tumor of the Artery. 

This serious affection is in reality a bursting" of the 
inner coats of an artery causing - the force of the blood 
to bulge outward the remaining* coat, thus forming - a 
tumor or enlargement of the artery itself at some par- 
ticular spot. The most usual place for an aneurism is 
somewhere in the course of the large blood vessel 
leading" from the heart, termed the aorta. Some per- 
sons are so constituted by temperament, predisposi- 
tion or disease that the walls of their arteries are un- 
usually thin or brittle and aneurism with them may 
very easily occur. The most general sources of the 
difficulty, however, are the accidents incident to se- 
vere manual or physical labor. Consequently men in 
middle life and those engaged in trades requiring 
heavy lifting or great exertion are mostly affected. 
Tight clothing, especially about the chest or neck, 
may induce aneurism by interfering with free circula- 

Symptoms. — Occasionally there are no evidences of 
aneurism until the trouble is far advanced; this is es- 
pecially so when the tumor is deep seated. As a rule 
there will be local heat, a sense of fulness and weight, 
throbbing, and tenderness on pressure. Often suffer- 
ers wear a peculiar look of illness and distress and 
appear anxious without knowing the cause of their 
trouble. They may become sallow and be easily irri- 
tated, and yet lose no amount of flesh. They prefer 
to keep off their back and to have their head pretty 
high while in bed. Leaning forward and then sud- 
denly throwing the head backward has been men- 
tioned as indicating aneurism when other signs are 
also present. Also feeling the pulse at both wrists 
will usually show that it differs in force on the two 
sides and that the beats are not in harmony. Often 
the tumor is so large and so located that its enlarge- 
ment is manifested by external swelling in the region. 
Usually this swelling is at the lower part of the chest 
or on one side of the spine. Such a swelling, tender 
on pressure and throbbing and persistent in character, 
will point to aneurism. 


Treatment. — Quietude and freedom from over exer- 
tion and excesses of all kinds are imperative. Avoid 
stimulation by drinks or foods. Do nothing* that 
would increase the blood supply, though anaemia is 
not to be induced. Do not drink too freely, even of 
water. Rest must be secured by very mild nervines. 
All care must be taken against such circumstances as 
would increase distension of the vessels and thus lead 
to rupture of the remaining coats of the affected 
part. Sometimes the blood in the tumor may be coagu- 
lated, especially in small aneurisms, and this should 
be an object in treatment. Tannic acid has been used 
to advantage, but by far the best agent, promising the 
most marked results, is tincture of gum kino. This 
may be given in ten drop doses in water three times a 
day. Keep the bowels open and the skin warm and 
pliant so as to avoid crowding the blood inward. 
Anxiety, emotional excitement and anger must be 
avoided. Operations of various kinds are often re- 
sorted to and sometimes effectual. They are danger- 
ous and difficult of performance. 

Fissures. Prolapsus. Ulceration. 

Fissure Of the Anus. — Very pronounced fissures 
of the anus are frequent in women, the result of acci- 
dent during labor; such belong to the domain of sur- 
gery. But often a fissure or crack in the ring of mus- 
cle about the anus may be the result of disease or 
habit. A small abscess may form and break and be 
the commencement of a fissure. Constipation and 
hardened faeces in the rectum may cause great strain- 
ing in attemps at evacuation and thus lead to fissure. 
Eczema may also produce the trouble. 

Symptoms. — Usually the first knowledge of a fissure 
is after a movement of the bowels — a smarting, sting- 
ing sensation being experienced, and a small particle 
of blood being noticed. In an hour or so after stool 
a dull pain, and burning and throbbing will be felt. 
This may continue for hours. Such sensations return 
as the result of every evacuation of the bowels, caus- 


ing the sufferer to become negligent through dread, 
thus producing constipation and aggravating the dif- 
ficulty. Persons suffering from fissure of the anus 
soon acquire an anxious, care-worn look and grow 
despondent, and serious ill health may follow neglect 
to remedy the trouble. 

Treatment. — Cleanliness and regularity in going to 
stool are of the first importance. Hardened faeces 
should not be allowed to accumulate in the rectum, 
and may be prevented by a liberal diet of fruit and 
succulent vegetables and doses of physic. Small in- 
jections of warm water just before going to stool and 
retained half an hour will soften faeces already hard- 
ened. Some fissures will heal of themselves, though 
the rule is otherwise. Witch hazel ointment is most 
excellent, and in severe cases a drachm of tannic acid 
rubbed into an ounce of vaseline will be found service- 
able. Some cases will not heal without an operation. 
The simplest method of restoration is to touch the 
fissure with lunar caustic, though this may leave a 
scar which feels unpleasant. The usual operation for 
fissure of the anus is cutting into the fissure and super- 
ficial fibres to the depth of one-eighth of an inch and 
thus denuding the surfaces, when rest in bed for a 
week or nine days will permit perfect healing and a 
permanent cure. Oiling the anus or supporting it by 
pressure of the finger during evacuation will often 
prevent fissure. 

Prolapsus. — This usually occurs during childhood 
or old age, and is due to a weakened and relaxed con- 
dition of the rectum and its mucous membrane. Con- 
stipation and irritation of the rectum or urinary or- 
gans may lead to it. 

Symptoms. — Falling of the bowels (prolapsus) is 
readily recognized. During straining at evacuation 
the rectum seems to turn inside out, and form outside 
a round or pear-shaped tumor, with an opening in the 
center, the surface being usually dark red from dis- 
tended venous capillaries. From one to possibly six 
inches of the rectum may protrude. 

Treatment. — First of all return the bowel to its 

proper position. This can easily be done by placing 


the child on its back with the knees apart and after 
oiling the parts protruding - , gently manipulating them 
back to their proper place. Cover the membrane with 
the ointment of tannin named for fissure. Keep the 
liver free and the bowels open. Goldenseal is a good 
tonic. Maintain proper habits, give nourishing food 
and plenty of fresh air. The use of a bed-pan is 
beneficial, preventing prolapsus being aided by gravi- 

Ulceration. — It not infrequently happens that ul- 
ceration occurs about the anus, and this may prove 
very annoying if left unattended to. The first symp- 
toms will closely resemble those of piles, followed by 
a sense of relief when the ulceration becomes marked, 
although there will be pain during defecation, and the 
discharges will be found to contain traces of pus. 

Treatment consists of keeping the parts thoroughly 
cleansed by frequent washing with warm water and 
castile soap and then annointing with equal parts of 
tincture of myrrh and fluid extract of goldenseal and 
applying witch hazel ointment. 

Piles. — Hemorrhoids. — These are fully considered in 
the article on Piles. 


Loss of Power of Speech. 

This is a loss of the power of speaking, and is usu- 
ally caused by a lesion in the brain — in the right 
side of the cerebrum; or by injuries to certain nerve 
fibres. In most cases the patient is entirely conscious 
of his inability and strives to otherwise communicate 
his thoughts. Tumors, injuries and diseased condi- 
tions may be the provoking causes of lesions pro- 
ducing aphasia. The difficulty can be treated only by 
ascertaining the character and seat of the lesion. 
Temporary aphasia is sometimes met with in apoplexy, 
epilepsy, meningitis, hysteria and St. Vitus dance 
(chorea). Occasionally the intestinal irritation caused 
by worms or constipation may be transmitted and re- 
sult in temporary aphasia. 


Aphonia. — This is a loss of voice caused by local 
disturbances. It is likely to occur in bronchitis, 
quinsy, laryngitis and various other affections of the 
throat, and it must be regarded as a symptom of those 
difficulties. It will disappear under the treatment 
proper for the various diseases with which it is associ- 

Aphtha. — See the article on Thrush. 

Aphthous Ulcers. — See article on Mouth Ulcer- 

Aphthous Fever. — See Foot and Mouth Disease. 

Apnoea. — This term literally means without breath, 
and is used to designate the condition which hinders 
air from entering the cells of the lungs in sufficient 
quantities to support life. It may occur in the course 
of many diseases — especially lung troubles. It is also 
frequent in heart affections, and may likewise be 
caused by spasmodic closures of the glottis by for- 
eign substances or throat difficulties, or by the atmos- 
phere inhaled being deficient in its proportion of oxy- 
gen or containing deleterious gases. All cases of 
apnoea must be treated in accordance with the cause 
of the difficulty as directed in the articles devoted to 
the various difficulties and diseases in which apnoea 
is likely to occur. 


Hemorrhage in the Brain. 

So suddenly does an attack of apoplexy come upon 
a person that the ancients not inappropriately called 
it attonitus (thunder-struck). The difficulty always 
is the result of pressure upon the brain caused by an 
excessive amount of blood in the vessels or the rup- 
turing of a blood vessel in the brain. Persons of any 
age may be affected, but those over fifty are the most 
frequent victims, and certain individuals are more lia- 
ble than others to be stricken. 


Persons with a florid complexion, short neck and 
large abdomen and a tendency to rapidly accumulate 
flesh have cause to fear apoplexy, especially if they 
live high and take little exercise. Indulgence in alco- 
holic liquors by such persons is highly dangerous. 
Excessive mental labor, sudden great excitement and 
continued exhaustive physical labor may bring on a 
stroke of apoplexy in anyone. Again, there are pe- 
culiar organizations whose blood vessels seem liable 
to become brittle, and prone to burst readily. Even 
very thin persons and those who live most carefully 
may thus suffer from apoplexy. 

Warning Symptoms. — While a stroke of apoplexy 
comes on with great suddenness, still there are cer- 
tain premonitory symptoms usually manifested which 
should be recognized and heeded as warnings by those 
who are especially inclined to the disease, and should 
cause them to be careful in their habits. These warn- 
ing symptoms are: Headache, dizziness, especially 
when stooping, blurred vision, throbbing sensations 
in the neck or head, ringing in the ears, flushing of 
the face, especially after eating or slight exertion, 
bleeding of the nose. No one of the symptoms alone 
would indicate apoplexy, but many of them together, 
occurring in persons predisposed to the disease, should 
give occasion for great concern. 

Peculiar Symptoms. — A stroke of apoplexy may come 
on in one of three ways. First, the victim experiences 
a sudden pain, darting through the head; he then be- 
comes extremely pale, sick and faint, and perhaps 
vomits freely; his memory rapidly leaves him and his 
countenance appears deathly and his eyes have a va- 
cant stare. He sinks into a most profound stupor and 
dies. These cases are almost hopeless, for there is 
little vitality to be aroused. 

Second. — There may be a sudden paralysis upon one 
side of the body, loss of speech and apparent agony 
of mind. Such cases are slow in developing stupors 
and full recovery from the paralysis is highly improb- 

Third. — Usually the victim falls suddenly as though 


struck and lies in a stupid sleep, having no power of 
speech or thought, the face is flushed, the teeth 
clenched, the veins of the neck large and distended, 
the breathing slow and heavy and snoring, and the 
pulse slow and full and its stroke hard or violent be- 
neath the fingers; the cheeks are distended and often 
the breath passes through them with a puffing sound. 
The pupils of the eyes remain unchanged as light is 
brought near. 

Occasionally there are involuntary discharges from 
the bowels and bladder, though as a rule obstinate 
constipation follows an attack. In mild cases the 
patient endeavors to speak but seems to forget certain 
words necessary to convey his meaning. Swallowing 
in severe cases is extremely difficult. 

Apoplexy from the bursting of a blood vessel gives 
sudden and complete unconsciousness, and is usually 
fatal, some patients dying in four or six hours, most 
living from three to nine days and a very small num- 
ber recovering with the exception of more or less 
paralysis. But no person after a stroke of apoplexy 
can be considered out of danger until ten days after 
the attack. A third attack usually proves fatal; un- 
less manifestly brought on by excessive eating. The. 
older the patient the less chance for recovery. 

Treatment.— This depends upon the immediate cause 
of the attack. If from over-eating, the distended 
stomach is pressing upon the large blood vessels and 
causing an excessive amount of blood to go to the 
brain. Manifestly in such cases the patient must sit 
upright, and not be allowed to lie down — that would 
increase the pressure. Next, the stomach must be un- 
loaded at once — warm water with salt and mustard is 
most useful. The hands and feet will usually be found 
cold; bathe them in hot water containing mustard or 
ginger. Always loosen the clothing about the neck 
and body and allow abundance of fresh air. 

When it is known that the attack is not caused by 
over-eating, the patient may lie down with the head 
raised. Enforce quietude and bathe the extremities 
in hot water containing stimulation. The bowels 
must be moved — injections of warm water containing 


salt and ginger being excellent. Days may elapse be- 
fore improvement is noticed. But the means of relief 
must be persisted in, and the patient sustained by fre- 
quent administration of broths or other soft or liquid 
nourishing foods. If swallowing is too difficult suste- 
nance by injections must be resorted to. Feeble heart 
action may be sustained by small doses of an infusion 
of goldenseal and scullcap or cactus. 

The rules to be observed by persons predisposed to 
apoplexy may be stated as follows: Avoid excessive 
labor, mental strain, anxiety and excitement. Eat 
plain food, and that very moderately; subsist mainly 
on fruits and vegetables. Leave all alcoholic liquors 
alone. Keep the bowels open, exercise moderately 
and keep a cheerful disposition— do not quarrel. 
Never lie down soon after eating, and don't retire at 
night with a full stomach. Avoid exercise before 
breakfast and immediately after meals. Avoid hard 
water, which often makes brittle the blood vessels in 
some persons; and do not indulge in foods or habits 
liable to produce fat. 


Faecal Abscess. Typhlitis. 

At the end of the small intestines above the right 
groin, just before the large intestines commence, there 
is an enlargement of the intestine called the caecum, 
and running out from this pouch-like enlargement is a 
small appendage, called the vermiform appendix on 
account of its worm-like appearance. This appendix 
has a small canal in a portion of it, with an orifice in 
the caecum. The exact use of the vermiform appendix 
has not yet been definitely agreed upon. By the ac- 
cumulation of faecal material and rarely of small 
seeds, etc. , in the caecum, or in the canal of the appen- 
dix, or by inflammation extended from other parts, the 
caecum and vermiform appendix may become in- 
flamed, causing a condition termed typhlitis. Inflam- 
mation of the peritoneum about the caecum is called 
'perityphlitis, that of the caecum's connective tissue is 
known as paratyphlitis, and inflammation of the vermi 


form appendix is termed appendicitis. The last term 
being most generally used and representing the most 
frequent form of the trouble. 

Symptoms. — First of all will be very sharp pain in 
the region just above the right groin and intense suf- 
fering upon pressure or movement. At that point ex- 
amination will reveal tenseness and soon considerable 
swelling - , beneath which may be found an oval tumor, 
and the whole abdomen will become enlarged. The 
patient will be found on the rigvht side with the limbs 
drawn up to relieve all tension of the muscles of the 
affected region. Constipation is marked, and the 
urine is partially suppressed; often there is vomiting 
of offensive material having a faecal odor, the pulse is 
wiry and frequent, the countenance distressed and the 
voice feeble. 

If the appendix alone is inflamed, there will be no 
faecal odor to vomited material and the swelling and 
tumor will be less pronounced, although the pain will 
be intense. The danger in these cases lies in the lia- 
bility of suppuration and perforation into the abdom- 
inal cavity. Sometimes there may be suppuration 
and evacuation outward, or through the bowels, or the 
suppurative materials may be absorbed. 

Treatment. — If the inflammation is caused by accu- 
mulations of faeces in the caecum, large injections of 
warm water or infusion of spearmint (three or four 
quarts in amount) should be given, and repeated if 
necessary until free evacuations are obtained. When 
inflammation of the appendix exists place over the 
affected region a large and hot mullein-leaf poultice, 
containing considerable lobelia herb and sprinkled 
lightly with ginger; and administer by the mouth tea- 
spoonful doses of an infusion of lady slipper, one tea- 
spoonful, and lobelia, half a teaspoonful, to a cup of 
boiling water, every half hour. Sustain the strength 
by broths or malted milk or other liquid foods. En- 
join perfect quietude in bed, and move the bowels by 
injections, never using cathartics. 

The surgical operation for appendicitis is frequently 
resorted to, but in nearly all cases needlessly; the re- 
moval of the vermiform appendix being a fad, very 
remunerative to the surgeon who can persuade others 


to submit to his desires. Persons who eat heartily 
after long" abstinence or while the intestines are 
empty after catharsis or otherwise, are especially lia- 
ble to be attacked by appendicitis. 

Arsenic Poisoning. — See Poisons and their Anti- 

Arthritis. — See Rheumatism of the Joints. 

Articular Rheumatism. — See Rheumatism. 

Ascaris Lumbricoides. — This is the technical 
name for the plain round worm of the intestines so 
common in children. For full description and treat- 
ment see the article on Worms. 

Ascarus Scabies. — This name is that of the in- 
sect which causes the disease known as Itch, by bur- 
rowing - under the skin. Its description and treatment 
will be found in the article on Itch. 

Ascites. — Hydro-peritoneum. — The accumula- 
tion of fluid in the cavity of the peritoneum, a form 
of dropsy distinguished from anasarca, which is an ac- 
cumulation in the cellular tissues. See Dropsy. 

Asiatic Cholera.— See Cholera. 

Asphyxia. — Death from lack of air. See articles 
on Drowning-, Poisoning" by Gas, Suffocation. 

Asthenia. — A condition which may arise during* al- 
most any disease, dependent upon a lack of tone in 
the nervous system. It is characterized by listless- 
ness and inability. A low grade of fever is said to be 
asthenic when there is but feeble resistance made to the 
encroachments of disease. 

Asthenopia. — This is weakness of vision and is of- 
ten spoken of as weak sight. It is described in the 
section on Eye Diseases. 



Phthisic Spasmodic Breathing. 

This is a disease characterized by paroxysms of diffi- 
cult breathing - , and is due to contraction of the 
smaller bronchial tubes, brought about by spasms of 
the bronchial muscular fibres. It is a difficulty reflex 
in character, that is transmitted from a disturbance of 
a nerve center elsewhere. Often it is associated with 
valvular disease of the heart, and it should always be 
regarded as a constitutional malady and not one con- 
fined to the respiratory organs. Attacks may be 
caused by over eating - or over exertion, irritation at 
some point as in the stomach or bladder or upon the 
skin, or in the rectum by constipation, indulgence in 
highly seasoned food, liquors or indigestible foods. 
Sweets of all kinds are also provocative of attacks in 
those disposed to asthma. 

Symptoms. — An attack always comes on suddenly, al- 
though often preceded by an oppressed sensation in 
the chest and a wheezing which is annoying. As a 
rule the patient awakens in the night feeling as 
though being smothered. He can't get his breath and 
sits up or gets out of bed, throws his head back and 
opens his mouth gasping for air, the shoulders drawn 
up. The muscles of the neck and head and over the 
ribs are rigid, while the muscles of the abdomen 
which assist breathing are acting violently. The 
chest is enlarged, as well as the abdomen. There 
seems to be a stagnation of air in the lungs. In severe 
cases the extremities are cold and the face pale, the 
eyes having a terrorized expression, and the surface 
covered with perspiration. A fit of asthma may last 
a few minutes, two or three hours, a whole night, sev- 
eral days or for weeks. It is very rarely immediately 
fatal. As an attack passes away a slight cough com- 
mences and there is expectoration of mucus — some- 
times frothy, sometimes viscid or in the form of little 
dark balls; and in severe cases streaked with blood. 
Recovery from the attack may be gradual, or it may 
terminate as suddenly as it commenced, especially if 
appropriate treatment is pursued. 

It is important to distinguish true asthma from the 


disturbance of breathing - caused by heart troubles. 
The difficult breathing connected with organic heart 
disease may likewise come on in paroxysms, but it is 
of a gasping and panting character and very shallow 
and there is no wheezing sound. The heart is like- 
wise greatly disturbed and the pulse usually weak and 

Treatment. — During a paroxysm of asthma an abund- 
ance of fresh air must be supplied and all tight cloth- 
ing loosened. Dropping a little rosin on a hot stove 
will often cause relief by its vapor being inhaled. The 
most effectual remedy to be used is the following: 

i i 
i i 

Take Tincture of Lobelia 5 drachms. 

Fluid extract Cramp Bark 2 

Essence of Ginger 1 

Mix. Take five drops in water every ten minutes until 
relief is obtained. 

Nausea may follow the use of these drops, but such 
will only hasten the relief. 

Asthmatic persons must avoid excesses ot all kinds 
and use plain but nourishing diet. Usually it will not 
be found difficult to locate the disordered organ which 
is the actual seat of the disturbance, and its appropri- 
ate treatment may lessen the severity of attack and 
perhaps entirely obliterate them. As a rule the kid- 
ne}^s must be carefully watched and the bowels never 
allowed to become constipated. Very little encour- 
agement can be given those who have seemingly in- 
herited the condition, beyond the fact that it is not in- 
compatible with a long life. 

Asthma OF Hay Fever.— This is an entirely dif- 
ferent malady from ordinary asthma, described above. 
Its causes, symptoms and treatment will be found in 
the article on Hay Fever. 

Astigmatism. — An irregularity of vision caused by 
lack of uniformity of the convexity of the lens or 
cornea. Described in the section of Eye Diseases. 

Asymbolia. — Inability to Communicate.— A rare con- 
dition in which the person afflicted is unable to com- 


municate in any way with others. It is a condition 
dependent upon brain lesions; and is usually a symp- 
tom of some pronounced difficulty, which must be ap- 
propriately treated. 


Locomotor Ataxy. Tabes Dorsalis. 

A very peculiar condition of the nervous system is 
known under this name, characterized by loss of sen- 
sitiveness of the skin and inability to control move- 
ments of the limbs. It was formerly classed as a 
form of paralysis. It comes on insiduously. Pains of 
a neuralgic or rheumatic character, headache, im- 
paired vision, frequent desire to urinate and ' ' prick- 
ing " sensations of the limbs or extremities, are early 
symptoms. Soon inability to control the movements 
of the limbs becomes manifest, and trying to walk 
with the eyes shut will cause staggering. Applica- 
tions of heat, pricking with pins, etc., on portions of 
the back fail to cause any sensations. Many other 
symptoms may be manifested. It is a disease of mid- 
dle life, and its causes are various. Long exposure to 
cold and moisture, sexual excesses, syphilis, poison- 
ing by lead, arsenic or ergot, and injuries to the spine 
have been known causes. 

Treatment. — If possible the patient should visit the 
southern mountains or seek an equable and dry cli- 
mate. Electricity to the spine is of great advantage. 
The cause must be ascertained and remedial treatment 
based accordingly. Narcotics must be prohibited. 
Vapor baths and massage are of great value. The 
disease lasts from a few months to twenty-five years 
or even longer. 

Atelectasis. — Pulmonary Collapse. — From compres- 
sion or from obstructions in the lungs, air may be pro- 
hibited from entering the air cells, and the result will 
be collapse of the vesicles. It very frequently occurs 
in children during the course of whooping cougli, 
bronchitis, measles and croup. It is exceedingly fatal 


in very young persons and in the aged. It is fully 
treated of as capillary bronchitis in the article on 

Atheroma. — A degenerate condition of the arteries 
occurring in various diseases, such as apoplexy, 
phthisis, syphilis, etc. 

Athetosis. — Involuntary Muscular Contractions. — In 
this condition, which occasionally accompanies cer- 
tain forms of paralysis, the extremities, especially 
fingers and toes, undergo uncontrollable spasms. 
These spasms may consist in the members being firmly 
separated or flexed. They may occur during sleep 
and may be increased by fright or other emotions. 
Treatment is in accordance with that for paralysis. 

Atrophy. — Under various circumstances and as the 
result of many different causes the condition known as 
atrophy may take place. It is the shrinkage or wast- 
ing away of tissues, and may take place in any part of 
the body. The brain, heart, liver, nerves, spinal 
cord and various organs, and the bones and skin and 
muscles are all subject to atropy. The condition and 
the means taken to prevent it or overcome it are 
fully considered in the articles treating* of the dis- 
eases of the various organs and tissues which may be 
thus affected. 


Stiff Back. Crick in the Back. Sprains. 

In nearly every instance back-ache is a symptom of 
some disease, and can be relieved only by treatment 
appropriate to the real difficulty. Sometimes severe 
back-ache is directly and positively traceable to a cold, 
caused by sitting in a draft, etc., and local treatment 
will afford permanent relief. A good liniment to rub 
over the back is: Tincture of capsicum and essence 


of origanum, each one dram; tincture of lobelia, one 
ounce; alcohol, three ounces. Placing dry, hot flan- 
nel over the back often gives quick relief. It is also 
a good plan to accompany such methods by a good 
drink of hot ginger tea. Many resort to a cold pack 
for relief. This is had by placing on the bed a double 
blanket and upon this a sheet folded up to the size of 
the back and saturated with cold water; place the 
patient on his back upon this and draw the blanket 
around him; and let him remain till the back feels 
very warm. 

Back Sprains. 

These are usually the result of violent exercise of 
unusual character, or of falls or other accidents. 
They oftenest occur in the loins or neck, and may be 
known from dislocations or fractures by the fact that 
in sprains the spine itself is straight, there is no bulg- 
ing at any one point and tenderness is diffused and the 
patient is able, although usually with pain, to 
straighten himself out. Occasionally from strains 
there may be ecchymosis (black and blue appearance) 
and considerable swelling. 

Treatment.— Quietude in the most comfortable po- 
sition, usually lying bent upon the side. A capsicum 
plaster is very beneficial. The treatment given under 
back-ache should be employed. Sprains rarely con- 
fine a person to the bed more than two or three days, 
though occasionally they are obstinate in yielding to 
treatment when the ligaments are involved. 


Bakers' Salt-Rheum. Flour Scabs. 

This difficulty occurs as a result of the irritation 
caused by handling flour, and rarely appears except 
upon persons in ill health or of feeble constitution. 
Bricklayers are often sufferers from this difficulty as a 
result of irritation from handling bricks. It is then 
termed Bricklayers' Itch. The disease resembles 
eczema or salt rheum, causing itching and sometimes 
bleeding sores and scabs to appear over the hands 


and between the fingers. When the irritation is 
caused by lime the disease is called Bricklayers' Itch. 
Treatment. — The cause of ill health must be learned 
and removed. Usually the system will be found over- 
loaded. The bowels must be moved freely and the 
liver evacuated by use of liver pills. The Gentian 
tonic (see formulas) must be given freely and nourish- 
ing - food, fresh air and out-door exercise provided. 
Locally use the following" method of treatment: 
Wash only with borax water. Apply four or more 
times a day a lotion composed of tincture of calendula, 
distilled extract of witch-hazel, white hydrastis and 
glycerine, equal parts, boracic acid, five grains to the 
ounce. Wash the hands thoroughly before each ap- 

Baldness.— ^4fopecm. — This is fully treated of in the 
article upon Diseases of the Hair. 

Barba does' Leg. — Elephantiasis. — An enlargement 
of the integuments, usually of the leg, known as hy- 
pertrophy. In this disease the limb (usually one only) 
may become twice the size of its fellow, or ever larger. 
Its causes and treatment are fully considered in the 
article on Elephantiasis. 

Barber's Itch. — See Eczema of the Beard. 

Barrenness. — Sterility.- — This condition may be 
brought about by many causes and is a symptom of 
disease or malposition of itself. It is fully considered 
in the section on Diseases of Women. 


Gangrene. Mortification. 

These most distressing sores frequently come upon 
persons compelled to lie in bed any length of time and 
are most frequent with the aged and with paralytics. 
They may be hastened by lack of cleanliness, allow- 


ing discharges to remain on the clothing, wrinkled 
sheets and too warm clothing. 

Symptoms. — The first signs are complaints of creases 
in the sheets or of crumbs or particles on the bed 
clothing. An irritated spot appears and soon becomes 
livid and a flat ulcer follows, this may deepen and 
eat into the bone, spreading rapidly. It is one form 
of gangrene. 

Treatment. — Preventive measures are of the highest 
importance; have the sheets perfectly smooth, cleanse 
frequently — borax water is excellent for bathing the 
parts, and if the sores have started, tincture of myrrh 
should be added. Dust the sheets and parts with ox- 
ide of zinc powder, and if the sores develop, use com- 
pound tincture of myrrh in and about them freely. If 
the skin breaks and an ulcer follows, cleanse it fre- 
quently, washing with a syringe and borax water. 
Soaked picked okum in compound tincture of myrrh 
diluted and put into the opening and cover all with 
adhesive plaster. Change dressings often and keep 
adjoining parts as clean as possible. Use no poultices, 
unless to hurry away an ulcer, when one of flaxseed 
and charcoal may be applied for a few hours. 



This annoying difficulty is almost exclusively con- 
fined to children. It is caused by a general nervous 
condition and is to be treated accordingly. Children 
should be trained to evacuate the bladder at stated in- 
tervals during the day, and at night the parents 
should take them from bed at least twice after retiring 
— once about an hour and a half after going to bed 
and again about three o'clock in the morning. This is 
bothersome, but not so annoying as having the child 
wet the bed. Never scold children for this trouble, it 
only aggravates matters; they cannot control them- 
selves or they most gladly would do so. It is not 


necessary to awaken them at night; simply lift them 
onto the vessel and kindly urge them to urinate. 

As the child's nervous system strengthens, the 
habit will be overcome. Give wholesome food and do 
not allow much eating or drinking at night time. But 
do not injure and weaken the system by starvation or 
unsatisfied thirst. A most excellent remedy is as fol- 
lows: Agrimony, corn-silk, lady slipper and shep- 
herd's purse, each one ounce, steep in one quart of 
boiling water, strain and add two pounds of white 
sugar and two fluid ounces of glycerine. Give a tea- 
spoonful before each meal and at bed time. Avoid 
pastry and highly seasoned foods and allow no tea or 


Impoverishment of the Blood. 

This is a disease which is but little known in this 
country, though it is frequent in India. It seems to be 
caused by an impoverished condition of the blood and 
a general failure of nutrition of the nerves. The 
symptoms are: Great weakness, coldness of the ex- 
tremities and deathly paleness. The tongue appears 
bloodless, the pulse is very frequent and weak, there 
are spells of palpitation and of difficult breathing. 
The bowels become obstinately constipated and the 
kidneys inactive. Swelling in different parts of the 
body take place and at last all organs and tissues 
seem filled with fluid, stiffness, numbness and paraly- 
sis follow, and death is usually preceded by fluid 
filling the cavity of the lungs or the heart. 

Treatment. — A nourishing diet is of the greatest im- 
portance, and the assimilation of food must be aided. 
Tartrate of iron and potassa in doses of three grains 
four times daily will be of use. Composition (see 
formulas) should be used freely. Citrate of lithia, two 
grain doses, will be found of advantage, taken with 
ordinary drinking water. Salt water baths and fric- 
tion, fresh air, out-door exercise and plenty of sleep 
should be allowed. The disease comes on slowly and 


may last many months before death takes place or 
convalescence is established. 

Bile Deficiency.— Acholia. — This condition may 
be brought about by many causes, and may result in 
very serious complications. It is fully considered in 
the article on Liver Diseases. 

Biliary Calculi. — These are caused by the harden- 
ing- of gall in the gall-bladder or ducts. See the arti- 
cle on Gail-Stones. 

Bites. — See Poison Wounds. 

Atony. Catarrh. Inflammation. Spasm. Rupture. 

Atony. — This is a general lack of tone in the mus- 
cles of the bladder. It is most usual in old age as a 
result of general weakness. Sometimes it occurs dur- 
ing a protracted fever, or as a consequence of strict- 
ure or of paralysis. 

Symptoms. — A feeling of weight is experienced, due 
to the large accumulation of urine, which is retained 
until the bladder becomes full and is then passed 
without effort, little by little, as an overflow. 

Treatment. — The use of the catheter to draw off the 
urine becomes imperative; this should be done morn- 
ing, noon and evening so as to prevent too large an 
accumulation, which would aggravate the difficulty. 
Following each evacuation the bladder can be washed 
out with cold water with good effect. Tonics should 
be administered internally. Fluid extract of corn- 
silk and tincture of gum kino, five drops each, in a 
little water, are excellent given four times a day. If 
the difficulty is caused by manifest spinal depression, 
five drops of fluid extract of dioscorea (wild yam) 
should be added. Use the nerve liniment (see form- 
ulas), and friction over the lower part of the back and 
over the region of the bladder. Supply nourishing 
food and out-door exercise. Avoid using much fluids 

and refrain from excesses of all kinds. 


Cancer. — The technical name of this affliction is 
Carcinoma Vesicae Urinaria^. The inner coats of the 
bladder are usually involved. The disease is rare and 
is always caused by the spread of cancer from some 
other part. 

Symptoms. — Bloody urine and lancinating - pain in the 
region and through the perineum. Pain is as acute 
and sharp when quiet as when stirring about, by which 
fact it may be distinguished from stone in the bladder. 
Little can be done in the way of treatment, as cancer 
of the bladder is fatal. Soothing nervines may be 
used to allay suffering (see cancer), and hemorrhages 
may be checked by injections into the bladder of in- 
fusion of gum kino. 

Catarrh Of the Bladder. — Chronic Cystitis. Vesicu- 
lar Catarrh. — This is also known as chronic inflamma- 
tion of the bladder. It is usually the result of neg- 
lected acute inflammation, but may be caused by 
stone in the bladder, cancer, tumors, stricture, or dis- 
eases of adjacent parts. 

Symptoms. — There is a dull aching pain through the 
perineum and region of the bladder, a straining feel- 
ing and desire to urinate, sometimes the urine dribbles 
away. The urine itself has a strong odor of ammonia, 
and is usually cloudy and may contain shreds. 

Treatment. — The diet is the most important thing to 
be regulated. Coffee and alcoholic liquors must be 
abandoned. Sweets, starchy foods and meats must be 
avoided. Vegetables, such as asparagus, turnips, 
onions and others that are succulent are excellent; 
fish and milk may be taken freely; bathing frequently 
should be indulged in. 

Medication. — Uvi ursa and peach leaves in infusion 
are most excellent. If there is great straining to urin- 
ate and irritation, marsh-mallow root will be found 
soothing. In protracted cases buchu should be used. 
If there is a tendency to suppuration, as will be shown 
by the presence of pus in the urine, baptisia and com- 
pound tincture of myrrh should be added to the in- 
fusions. Salicin, in five grain doses four times a day, 
will be a suitable tonic. 


Acute Inflammation. — This is the ordinary acute 
cystitis. It is simply an inflammation of the inner 
membranes of the bladder. It may occur at any time, 
though most common in male adults. Exposure to 
cold, intemperance, prolonged retention of urine, for- 
eign bodies and injuries and diseases of the adjacent 
organs are all causes of cystitis. 

Symptoms. — These are: Frequent desire to urinate 
and pain in the thighs and groins. The urine is 
passed spasmodically as soon as it enters the bladder; 
it is laden with mucus and in severe cases may con- 
tain pus and blood. The chief distress seems to be 
about the neck of the bladder. It is seldom fatal, ex- 
cept in the aged and infirm, when severe cases may be 
followed by gangrene of the bladder. 

Treatment. — Keep the bowels well open and drink 
freely demulcent infusions — flaxseed and lemon are 
good. The following will be found most useful: 
Marsh-mallow root, couch grass, shepherd's purse, 
each one-half ounce, steeped in boiling water, one 
quart, strained and half a cupful taken every three 
or four hours. Persons afflicted with inflammation of 
the bladder will find it an excellent plan to carry in 
the pocket chopped-up pieces of marsh-mallow root 
to be eaten off and on during the day. Hot wet cloths 
over the region of the bladder will relieve pain. 

Paralysis. — Gystoplegia. — This may occur in the 
course of a nervous disease, due to lesions of the brain 
or spinal cord. Symptoms are: Retention of urine and 
a tumor over the bladder from its distension. Invol- 
untary discharges of urine may occur in protracted 

Treatment beyond the general treatment of paralysis 
is of little use. Washing out the bladder with cold 
water or external application of cold water, or using 
electricity, may prove of tonic effect. The urine 
should be drawn off with a catheter and not allowed 
to accumulate. If incontinence of urine occurs, the 
patient should wear a rubber urinal. 

Spasm. — Hypercesthesia. — This is sometimes spoken 
of as stammering of the bladder. The person afflicted 


seems to have no control over the act of urinating. 
Sometimes the desire to urinate will be painfully in- 
tense and uncontrollable several times an hour. Often 
when voiding- urine sudden pain will shoot through 
the parts, and the neck of the bladder may quickly 
close before the organ is emptied. In some cases it 
resembles stammering of the voice, insomuch as the 
effort to perform the act of urination or the mere 
thought of it brings on the symptoms mentioned. 

Treatment should be directed toward quieting the 
nervous system in general. Fluid extract of cramp 
bark in ten drop doses is excellent to relieve the 
local spasms. Third preparation of lobelia, two 
drops in water every hour, will be found serviceable. 
Strengthen the patient by nourishing diet and fresh 
air; and turn the thoughts to other subjects. 

Rupture. — The bladder may be ruptured by a fall 
upon the abdomen, or a wheel running over it when it 
is fulL There will be sudden and intense pain, and 
great desire to urinate; passing a catheter will draw 
off little or no urine, or else some blood. A condition 
of collapse follows, and afterward peritonitis. No 
treatment will be of avail. Under some circumstances 
a skilled surgeon might operate. 

Stone in the Bladder.— See Calculi. 

Black Death. — See article on Plague. 


Haemophilia. Haemorrhage Diathesis. 

This is more a peculiarity of the organization than 
a disease. It is characterized by a great tendency to 
bleed upon the slightest provocation. A mere scratch 
of a pin may cause disagreeable results, and an ordi- 
nary deep cut of the finger may cause death from loss 
of blood if not properly attended to. The disposition 
is usually a family characteristic, far more frequent 
with males than females. It is often called the hasm- 
orrhagic diathesis. 


Treatment. — Caution against accident is of first im- 
portance. Persons afflicted should avoid mountainous 
regions, as the rare atmosphere permits the thin blood- 
vessels to be more readily distended and more easily 
broken. Hard water should not be used, but fatty 
foods and most nourishing diet should be the rule. 
Medication is of little if any direct value, beyond 
prompt remedial agents in time of trouble. Gum kino 
infusion taken daily will strengthen the blood vessels, 
but care must be taken to keep the bowels open. 



This is usually a trifling matter and is often a relief 
after severe mental labor or to persons of apoplectic 
tendencies. But occasionally the bleeding is so pro- 
fuse as to cause alarm or weakness. The application 
of cold water or ice just above the nose and behind 
the ears, pressure of the nose, plugging the nostril, 
etc. , are usually sufficient. In severe cases roll a mass 
of cob-webs into a wad and run up the nostril, press 
on the large artery of the temple, throw the head 
back, or grate salted dried beef and put in the nostril, 
or spray into it an infusion of kino. 

Some persons are especially prone to bleeding of 
the nose. They are either sickly, and should be 
treated according to their ailment, or are of the " haem- 
orrhagic diathesis," known by transparent skin, thin 
nostrils and sandy hair. Such persons should not re- 
side or travel in mountainous regions where the light 
atmosphere allows distension of the blood vessels and 
easy rupture of the capillaries. 


Pyaemia. Septicaemia. 

Under certain circumstances during the existence of 
ulceration - in various parts of the skin or mucous 
membrane, the poisonous pus is liable to be carried 
around in the circulation, causing a most serious con- 


dition, known as the septic condition, septicaemia, 
pyaemia or blood poisoning - . 

Among the circumstances rendering* blood poisDning 
liable may be mentioned carelessness, uncleanliness, 
improper dressing" of sores, feeble constitution and 
bad habits. The poison of wounds may be conveyed 
to others through knives, instruments, dressings, etc., 
coming in contact with abrasions. Blood poisoning is 
a serious matter and often trifling difficulties are thus 
designated which bear no resemblance to pyaemia. 
All ulcerations must be carefully watched lest blood 
poisoning should follow. 

Symptoms. — At the onset there will be a decided 
chill or perceptible shiverings and a feeling of depres- 
sion. These shivering sensations may be frequently 
repeated and their intervals be characterized by pro- 
fuse perspiration. The pulse becomes very frequent, 
possibly 140 or more per minute. The glands become 
swollen, and the regions about the wounds look red 
and angry. The breathing grows rapid, and there is 
an anxious expression to the countenance. The sur- 
face is pale, and prostration is marked. Death may 
result within a week. Prolonged cases may give pro- 
gressive emaciation, frequent chills and hectic fever, 
swellings of the joints, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, 
yellowish or spotted skin, furred tongue, great thirst, 
cough with distress in the chest, great prostration, 
both mental and physical, and death. 

Treatment. — This must be based upon an effort to sus- 
tain the patient 's strength. The best preparation that 
can be devised is infusion of composition (an ounce to 
the pint) given in doses of a quarter of a cupful every 
hour. In severe cases add a small amount of com- 
pound tincture of myrrh. With this give every three 
hours a teaspoonful of fluid extract of gentian 
sprinkled with cayenne pepper. Wash the wounds 
thoroughly with borax solution, and if the discharge 
is thin and unhealthy looking apply pulverized myrrh 
directly to the sore. Keep the bowels open by means 
of mild laxatives; frequently bathe the body and en- 
join quietude. The diet must be light and of easy di- 


gestion. Keep the temperature as even as possible 
and allow an abundance of fresh air. Septicaemia 
may prove fatal in a few days, or by care it may be 
quickly overcome in the robust. 

Blenorrhea. — Fully described in the section on 
Diseases of the Generative Organs. 


Blepharitis. — This is an inflammation of the eye- 
lids and is considered in the section on Diseases of 
the Eye. 

Blood in the Urine. — Hematuria. — A condition 
brought about by various causes, considered in the ar- 
ticle on Urinary diseases. 

Bloody Tumor. — See article on Aneurism. 

Bloody Vomiting. — Hematemesis. — See article on 
Diseases of the Stomach. 

Blue Disease. — Cyanosis. — This condition is 
brought about through interference with free respira- 
tion. It is fully considered in the article on Cyanosis. 


Job's Comforters. 

Anyone may suffer from boils, and they are not al- 
ways indications of bad blood. They occur on almost 
any part of the body and are usually excited by por- 
tions of the clothing rubbing against the skin. The 
neck seems to be a favorite spot, perhaps, on account 
of the chafing caused by the collar. Boils seldom 
come singly; one is usually the forerunner of several 
others. The symptoms are well known. A redness 
commences at some one spot, followed by swelling and 
tenderness and theu suppuration and great pain. In 
four or six days the boil " comes to a head " and dis- 
charges its "core " and then slowly heals, leaving a 
red, depressed scar. Boils may have no ''core,'' but 
subside without ulceration. 


Treatment. — In the midst of the elevated red spot of 
an initial boil will be found a hair. Extracting- this 
hair at the beginning - may stop development, as it is 
at the root of this hair follicle that ulceration com- 
mences. When the boil is formed cover it with a 
plaster of black salve (see formulas). Poultices of 
flaxseed sprinkled over with pulverized lobelia will 
hasten development. Tardy boils, if deep seated, 
should be lanced. If a person is subject to successive 
"crops of boils," he should take a compound syrup of 
sarsaparilla and avoid fat meats and stimulants. Fre- 
quent applications of cloths wrung - out of very hot 
water to the parts usually afflicted will be found ef- 
ficient in stopping - their return. 


Abscess. Inflammation. Hypertrophy. Caries. Ne- 

The bones of the body are dense tissues, having - a 
circulation and also nervous structures like other tis- 
sues, and are subject to various diseases. The struct- 
ures of the bones themselves may become altered in 
character or the covering's of the bones may be dis- 

Abscess OF Bone. — This is of rare occurrence, and 
usually forms at the head of the larg*e bone of the leg - 
just below the knee joint. The cause of the abscess 
is not always to be recognized, though injury is the 
most common cause. Scrofulous persons may have 
abscess of the bones without any directly exciting - 

Symptoms. — There is a constant and continued deep- 
seated pain in the region of the abscess. There is a 
great tenderness upon pressure, and the use of the af- 
fected bone causes great suffering - . Often the whole 
system feels weak and there may be nausea and fever, 
and all symptoms manifestly having - their origin in the 
condition of the bone. 

Treatment. — When the presence of an abscess of the 
bone is definitely ascertained, there should not be lost 


anytime in procuring- proper instruments and proceed- 
ing- to trephine, that is, cut into the bone itself and 
thus reach the abscess and allow evacuation of the 
pus. Usually the abscess may be readily reached. 
After the cavity has been entered and pus is ascer- 
tained to be present, it should be drawn off by the as- 
pirator, and a solution of boracic acid containing 
tincture of myrrh should be injected. A plaster of 
black-salve (see formulas) should be applied over the 
opening-. Alterative syrup should be used freely and 
especially so with scrofulous persons. If abscess of 
the bone near a joint occurs, it is apt to involve the 
joint itself unless properly attended to early. It will 
be many weeks before recovery commences, and dur- 
ing- that period fresh air, cleanliness, rest and whole- 
some diet must be provided. 

Inflammation. — Ostitis is the name given to in- 
flammation of the bone proper. It is usually caused 
by a blow or other injury to persons who are afflicted 
with syphilis or other constitutional disease or dis- 

Symptoms. — There is usually swelling and redness 
over the bone, and deep-seated or dull pain, becoming- 
severe at night, causing- wakefulness and consequent 
exhaustion of the system. The bone itself will be- 
come enlarg-ed, and if unattended to will result in de- 

Treatment. — Ostitis being almost universally trace- 
able to constitutional difficulty, the especial disease 
must be ascertained and treated. In addition it will 
be found advantageous to give the afflicted limb fre- 
quent hot vapor baths, and directly after each bath 
apply a liniment composed of equal parts of com- 
pound tincture of myrrh and essence of origanum. 
Keep the limb elevated. The compound syrup of 
stillingia (see formulas) is a most excellent alterative 
to be used internally. 

Periostitis. — This is inflammation of the covering 
of a bone, and it occurs usually in boys of scrofulous 
tendencies or in ill health about the age of fourteen 


years, The large bone of the leg* or the femur (bone 
of the thigh) is usually the one affected. It is an ex- 
tremely dangerous disease. Death may occur from ex- 
haustion or as the result of blood poisoning. 

Symptoms. — There is general feverishness and local 
swelling and great pain, which is very deep-seated, in 
character like that of a bone felon. Some may mis- 
take the difficulty for rheumatism, though periostitis 
does not affect the joints. When suppuration com- 
mences the limb swells and becomes red and glassy, 
and the skin may seem about to burst. There are fre- 
quent chills followed by fever of a low grade, and 
great weakness and nervousness. If death does not 
occur early, there will be great emaciation and ex- 
haustion as the result of intense suffering. 

Treatment. — Locally there should be applied hot fo- 
mentations composed of mullein leaves and smart 
weed, equal parts, and sprinkled over with powdered 
lobelia. These should be changed frequently. Inter- 
nally should be administered, hourly during severe 
symptoms, an infusion of lady slipper and ginger. If 
chills occur, indicating suppuration, composition 
should be used abundantly, with occasional addition 
of compound tincture of myrrh. If possible, an in- 
cision in to the bone should be made and an outlet 
thus made for the pus when suppuration takes place; 
the incision being frequently dressed with Number Six 
and fluid extract of goldenseal. Recovery will al- 
ways be very slow, when convalescence is established. 
During that period compound syrup of yellow-dock 
and gentian compound should be used alternately (see 

Hypertrophy. — Often following inflammation or in- 
juries hypertrophy or enlargement of the bones may 
occur. Beyond the mere fact of enlargement made 
apparent to the senses, there are no appreciable 
symptoms beyond inconvenience. 

Treatment must be in accordance with the primary 
cause. Usually the administration of compound 
syrup of stillingia will be found serviceable and the 
outward application of nervine liniment (see formulas). 


Tumors or Nodes. — Sometimes as the result of 
blows or injuries, or unaccountably, there may be 
formed bony tumors or prominences upon a bone. 
They may be distinctly felt by pressure. They cause 
no pain and need no attention unless their position 
renders them a decided inconvenience or interferes with 
the movement of muscles or ligaments. In such cases 
the tumors or exostoses may be successfully removed 
by a surgical operation. 

Atrophy of bones may follow injuries or be the re- 
sult of scrofulous diseases, to be treated according - to 
the cause. 

Osteomalacia. — This is a disease of old age or 
adult life and is a degeneration of the bony struct 
ures — the earthy or calcareous portions becoming 
greatly deficient and the fatty portions becoming ex- 
cessive. Thus is caused a softening and weakening 
of the bones. This difficulty not infrequently occurs 
during pregnancy or as a result of too frequent child 
bearing — the earthy elements by some process being 
directed toward building up the skeleton of the foetus. 
Improper diet during the nursing period or too long 
nursing may cause women to suffer osteomalacia. 

Symptoms. — Pains through the back, about the shoul- 
ders and the hips, of a rheumatic or neulalgic charac- 
ter, are experienced, and aggravated by remaining in 
one position. The pain is dull and constant and is 
soon realized to be other than rheumatic. In women 
the share bone is pushed forward and the hips flat- 
tened. In old persons the softening of the bones 
cause the spine to become bent. The shoulders be- 
come elevated and crooked and the chest projected. 
The head is thrown forward and downward. By un- 
natural crowding the free action of the heart and of 
the lungs is interfered with, and the bones of the 
body are easily broken and unite with great difficulty, 
if at all. 

Frequently death is the result of disorders made 
more liable on account of general disturbance — such 
as consumption, pneumonia, kidney disease, exhaust- 
ion, etc. Recovery very seldom follows osteomalacia, 


though the disease may be insidious and very pro- 
longed, making life miserable for a number of years. 
Occasionally death may occur in a few months. 

Treatment. — Strict attention must be paid to the diet, 
making it most nourishing and of a suitable charac- 
ter. The pure white flour of the present day should 
be avoided, and only that used which is made from the 
whole wheat; oat meal is excellent, egg-nog without 
alcohol, bone soup, etc., should be given in abundance. 
Hard drinking water should be used. Fresh air in 
abundance, salt water baths and massage cannot be 
too highly recommended. The hypophosphites of 
lime and soda (the sirup is manufactured) may be used, 
and the gentian tonic will aid in sustaining strength. 
But the main reliance must be placed upon dietery and 
hygiene. Women should positively avoid pregnancy. 

Caries. — This is a breaking down of the bony 
structures and an increase in proportion of the soft 
parts of the bones. There is little tendency toward 
repair. It is usually a result of scrofulous or syphi- 
litic affections, though it may follow injury. 

The symptoms are about the same as those described 
under ostitis. An abscess soon forms, through the 
opening of which the diseased bone may usually be 
reached. The bones of the fingers or toes or of the 
spinal column are the ones usually affected by scrof- 
ula; while caries from syphilis usually affects the 
bones of the nose or palate, or leg or cranium. 

Treatment must be constitutional as directed for the 
maladies causing the trouble. Locally, the treatment 
for ostitis must be employed, and the abscesses thor- 
oughly and frequently dressed and cleansed with anti- 
septics. When possible the diseased portions of the 
bones must be removed. Recovery depends upon age 
and strength and the extent and importance of the 
tissues involved. Rest, nourishing diet and hygienic 
surroundings are essential. 

Necrosis. — This is absolute death of a part or 
whole of a bone. It is caused by injury or as a result 
of scrofulous or syphilitic affections. Death may oc- 
cur to a superficial portion or a central portion of the 


bone. The dead structure is bloodless and white, 
though when exposed to air or surrounded by pus it is 
black. The living bone usualty forms a wall about 
the necrosed part, completely cutting it off, and it 
may lie thus for years. Often pus is formed about it, 
so that the dead particles lie in an abscess. Occasion- 
ally a particle of necrosed bone, a result of injury, 
disappears by absorption. 

Symptoms.— These are the symptoms of periostitus 
and the existence of necrosis can be absolutely deter- 
mined only by using the probe, though it may be sus- 
pected when the pus from an opening during perios- 
titis is thick and yellow, or when an attack of perios- 
titus is very severe or prolonged, or when extensive 
thickening has taken place in one of the long bones. 
Occasionally necrosis may occur without any previous 
history of ostitis or periostitis. 

Treatment. — Every means possible should be used 
calculated to restore the portion of bone threatened 
with necrosis. Stimulating emetics (see emetics) 
should be given to cleanse the system and relieve it of 
the double burden of removing impurities while striv- 
ing to repair damages. Internally composition should 
be used freely, and the bowels and kidneys should 
maintain their functions regularly. Stimulating lini- 
ment should be applied. Kerosene bandages have 
been highly recommended as a preventive of necrosis. 
When an abscess has formed it must be opened. 

When there is every evidence of necrosis, the ne- 
crosed portion of bone must be removed, but only 
after it has been completely separated from the rest 
of the bone by its own destruction. It may require 
very many weeks for this to happen. The operation 
of removing a necrosed bone of any importance should 
be performed only by a skillful surgeon. If there is 
considerable prostration while awaiting the time for 
operation scullcap should be added to the composi- 
tion. Number Six should be used freely in dressing 
the open wound. Necrosis from scrofula or syphilis 
will require appropriate constitutional treatment. 

Cancer. — Sarcoma of the bone is usually designated 
as cancer, and is fully described under cancer in gen- 


eral, with appropriate treatment. Removing" the af- 
fected bone or the portion involved is the only certain 
means of checking" the disease, and it is possible that 
after successful removal of the bone sarcoma will not 
reappear, and it may not enter into the system at all. 

Syphilitic Disease of the bones may occur in vari- 
ous forms, caries, necrosis, ostitis, periostitis, etc. 
Frequently during" the course of the malady little 
nodes will appear on the bones, usually deep-seated, 
or in the cranium; they do but little damage. Ulcera- 
tion and destruction of bones or portions of bones 
during" syphilis are not uncommon. They of them- 
selves seldom prove fatal, but they leave deformities 
as a rule, such as a flattened nose, a depressed jaw, 
etc. The treatment must be according" to the charac- 
ter of the difficulty in addition to the treatment for 
syphilis given elsewhere. 

Scrofulous Diseases of the bones are frequent in 
children, and are of varieties mentioned. The treat- 
ment for scrofula is given elsewhere. See also the 
article on White Swelling. 


Acute Inflammation. 

This difficulty is also known as enteritis and acute 
catarrhal inflammation of the bowels. The whole in- 
testinal tract may be involved or the difficulty may be 
confined to a limited portion. If it is confined to the 
rectum it is termed dysentery, and if confined to the 
colon it is known as colonitis. These varieties of in- 
flammation of the bowels are spoken of in their re- 
spective places. 

Impure water, improper diet, sudden chilling of the 
body when hot, and drinking too much iced water are 
common causes. Using violent cathartics, injuries or 
worms may sometimes produce serious inflammation. 

Symptoms. — There is a sense of distress through the 
abdomen, increased by pressure. The passages from 


the bowels are usually very frequent though small 
and contain considerable mucus, and are yellow or 
greenish in color, and in protracted and severe cases 
become almost clear water. The skin is usually hot 
and dry and thirst is urgent. But if the upper bowels 
alone are involved there is usually decided constipa- 
tion and occasionally nausea and vomiting, and in- 
stead of fever, the hands, feet and face may be cold 
and the abdomen hot. The pulse is small and fre- 
quent and there is great prostration, and in children 
the signs of collapse. In some the abdomen is dis- 
tended with gas, while in others the abdomen may be- 
come hollow and the movements of the intestines 
plainly visible. 

Treatment. — Never give physic in inflammation of 
the bowels, no matter how obstinate the constipation; 
rather administer injections of spearmint and boneset 
infusion. Milk of magnesia may be used if there are 
irritating substances in the bowels. Administer every 
hour a tablespoonful of the following infusion: Marsh- 
mallow root or hollyhock flowers and laly slipper 
each one-half ounce to a pint of boiling water, to 
which a teaspoonful of cooking soda may be added. 
Do not allow cold drinks, but if there is thirst give 
frequently a swallow or so of cool water in which 
gum arabic has been dissolved. 

If there is diarrhoea neutralizing cordial (see formu- 
las) should be given in small doses every hour. Keep 
the extremities warm and the head cool and allow 
plenty of fresh air and absolute quiet. Feed very 
lightly on thin foods, allow no meats; sea-moss is 
most excellent. Rubbing cocoanut oil over the abdo- 
men is nourishing and grateful. A return to solid 
food should be made with great caution. 

Chronic Inflammation. 

Known also by the term catarrhal enteritis, this dis- 
ease is usually a sequence of the acute form; or it 
may occur gradually from derangements of intestinal 
circulation, or be present during malarial scrofulous 
or tubercular diseases. 

Symptoms. — These may vary considerably during the 


months or years involved in chronic inflammation. 
There is considerable wind on the bowels and oc- 
casional colic pains. Emaciation increases along 
with general weakness. There is headache, indiges- 
tion and cold extremities with feeble pulse. The 
bowels are usually very irregular, often there will be 
two or three discharges daily of thin material mingled 
with mucus and possibly streaked with blood and con- 
taining shreds, these discharges occurring close to- 
gether in the morning. Sometimes there is constipa- 

Treatment. — For constipation use compound syrup of 
rhubarb (see formulas). A general soothing tonic 
should be given three times a day, such as fluid ex- 
tract of peach leaves and of Colombo each one-half 
ounce, syrup of wild cherry bark seven ounces. Keep 
the surface at an equable temperature, avoid harsh 
foods, supply plenty of fresh air and hygienic sur- 
roundings with frequent salt water baths. 

Invagination or Stoppage of the Bowels. 

This difficulty, also known as intussusception, is a 
condition in which one portion of the intestines is 
pushed into another portion, causing what is termed 
"knot of the bowels;" usually the upper portion is 
pushed into the lower, causing the lower to serve as a 
sheath. Inflammation sets in quickly, causing the 
neck to become more and more constricted until it 
entirely closes. The weight of faeces above presses 
the upper portion of the intestine still farther down- 
ward, sometimes forcing it down into the rectum and 
even through the anus. The complete constriction in- 
terrupts the circulation of blood and may lead to de- 
struction of the parts, causing the invaginated por- 
tion of the intestine to become separated and passed 
from the body — from two inches to ten feet have been 
known to be thus discharged. 

Invagination is most likely to occur at the point 
where the small intestine enters into the large bowels, 
situated in the right groin, but it may happen at al- 
most any place. It may be caused by a severe blow, 
or fall or wrench of the body, by foreign bodies, by 
constipation or as a result of the weak and relaxed 


condition of the bowels caused by protracted diarrhoea 
or intestinal paralysis. Children are the usual suf- 
ferers, though persons of any age are liable, and in- 
testinal tumors may by pressure produce it. 

Symptoms. — As a rule intussusception is mistaken at 
first for colic and constipation, and physics are re- 
sorted to, which give no relief and produce stools 
small in quantity and containing mucus often streaked 
with blood. The pain becomes intense and there may 
be convulsions in children. There is great straining 
and frequent vomiting, sometimes of faeces. The 
bowels below the invagination being emptied, efforts 
at stool result in the passage of only mucus and 
blood, which as the case progresses become very of- 

The abdomen becomes extremely tender to pressure 
and is swollen and distended, the navel being drawn 
in. Often the invagination may be felt by pressure as 
a deep elongated tumor, usually running toward the 
navel, sometimes across the whole abdomen. Occa- 
sionally the anus will be found greatly relaxed and 
through it the invaginated bowel may possibly be felt. 
Great exhaustion follows such a condition. The suf- 
ferer's countenance is pale and pinched and anxious 
looking; food cannot be retained. The symptoms of 
'peritonitis may be manifested and collapse precede death 
a few days after the first pronounced symptoms. 

Sometimes without treatment the bowel returns to 
its normal condition suddenly, giving instant relief, 
followed by abundant discharges. Occasionally the 
invaginated portion becomes severed by suppuration 
and is passed away and recovery follows during the 
second or third week. The great majority of cases 
terminate fatally through improper treatment; though 
probably many more would recover should the real 
nature of the difficulty be early known; the trouble at 
first often being mistaken for colic or dysentery or 
some form of hernia. 

Treatment. — Large doses of opium have been usually 
employed; but such treatment only quiets pain and is 
vastly more harmful than beneficial and cannot be too 



highly condemned. Operation is often resorted to, 
but with most unsatisfactory results. The object 
must be to soothe the inflamed bowel, relax the con- 
striction muscles and force the invaginated portion to 
its proper position. This is best accomplished by in- 
jections. The following method of treatment will 
usually be found efficient: 

Make an infusion of spearmint or catnip, boneset, 
lobelia and pleurisy root, each one-half ounce to four 
quarts of boiling water; steep for half an hour and 
strain; thicken a very little with starch and cool to 
the temperature of the body. Place the patient on 
the back, the shoulders lower than the buttocks; com- 
plete inversion of the body is best though it cannot 
be endured for a sufficient time. Bend the knees and 
bring the heels to the buttocks. Use a large sized 
fountain syringe; keep the infusion at the proper tem- 
perature and slowly inject it into the bowels. When 
there is any desire to expel it turn off the flow and 
tightly compress the arms, for the fluid must be with- 
held at all hazards. If by accident it is expelled, 
wait an hour or so and then commence over again. 
Five or six hours should be consumed in giving an in- 
jection of three or four quarts. When the large 
bowels are entirely full the fluid will slowly enter the 
small bowels. The abdomen should be carefully ma- 
nipulated during the injection. 

If injections are successful the relaxation of the 
structures and the pressure of the food will reduce 
the invagination, and sudden relief will be experi- 
enced. When the tumor felt in the abdomen has dis- 
appeared, good results have been accomplished, and 
the injection may be allowed to pass away slowly. 
Abundant discharges of offensive material will follow. 
The tenderness of the bowels will necessitate quiet in 
a recumbent position for several days, and the gen- 
eral treatment and diet for inflammation of the bowels. 

Some practitioners use air injections, but they are 
not so serviceable. Occasionally, when the invagi- 
nated bowel can be felt by the finger in the rectum 
bougies can be employed to replace it, the patient be- 
ing inverted during the operation. But the injections 


are always preterable. If suppuration has taken 
place a very little boracic acid (half a drachm) can be 
added to the injection. 


Anaemia. Atrophy. Conjestion. Hypertrophy, in- 
flammation. Softening. 

Anaemia. — This means a deficiency of normal 
blood in the brain, either in quantity or quality. It 
may be caused ' by anything which decreases the 
amount of blood in the system — hemorrhages, etc., or 
by interruption of the blood current passing to the 
brain — tumors, heart troubles, etc., or by conditions 
which impoverish or alter the character of the blood. 
Exhaustive diarrhoea may also be a cause. 

Symptoms. — Fainting and dizziness, accompanied by 
great paleness and cold extremities and small pulse, 
are indications of brain anaemia. Those who have per- 
manent anaemia of the brain are subject to spasms of 
the brain's blood vessels, recognized by coldness over 
the body, ringing in the ears, a swimming feeling in 
the head, palpitation, perhaps nausea, and then un- 
consciousness which may last several minutes or more, 
or may prove fatal. 

Treatment. — Ascertain the cause and remove it, 
whenever possible. During spells of unconsciousness 
the patient should be placed on the back with the 
head low, cold water sprinkled on the face and am- 
monia or smelling salts placed to the nose. If severe, 
and death is feared, an injection of ginger in warm 
water may be given. As soon as consciousness re- 
turns administer a stimulant internally. These pa- 
tients should have an abundance of fresh air and lead 
a quiet life. The gentian tonic (see formulas) will 
prove excellent in building up the system. 

Atrophy. — This is a shrinking of the brain sub- 
stance or a deficiency in development. It may result 
from wasting diseases or injuries, or as a result of old 
age; often it is congenital — a child being born with one- 
half or the whole brain deficient in size — in which case 


idiocy is present and epilepsy liable. In old age loss 
of memory and childishness are present with atrophy 
of the brain. Children who have the limbs remain 
undeveloped, as is occasionally seen, usually have 
atrophy of the brain. The disease itself is not fatal, 
though it renders the afflicted person more liable to 
diseases. Remedies are of no avail, though in chil- 
dren hygienic measures and careful training may ren- 
der life more bearable. 

Congestion. — This is a sluggishness of circulation 
through the brain, caused by over eating, anxiety, 
continued mental strain, etc. 

Symptoms. — Sleeplessness, delusions, fear of death, 
dizziness, feeling of fullness in the head, disturbances 
of sight and hearing, irregular bowels and attacks of 
melancholy, or apparent apoplectic symptoms. 

Treatment. — The object should be to divert the blood 
from the head. Have the head high during sleep, fre- 
quently bathe the feet in very hot water, relieve the 
bowels, administer stimulants and nervines, such as 
ginger and blue cohosh and allow perfect rest. Sal- 
icin in five grain doses will sustain the strength. An 
attack lasts about twelve days. 

Hypertrophy. — This is an abnormal enlargement of 
the brain substance and is usually met with in chil- 
dren born diseased. The head slowly enlarges in 
length and the eyes become sunken. Convulsions and 
spells of stupor usually precede death. In adults 
alcoholism is the most frequent cause, though injuries 
and diseases may possibly cause it. The bones of the 
skull being firm the head does not enlarge, and conse- 
quently pressure results, producing apoplectic-like at- 
tacks, or symptoms of paralysis. Often epileptic seiz- 
ures occur and cause death. There is no known cause 
for the difficulty. In elderly persons discontinuance 
of bad habits may stop further abnormal development. 

Inflammation. — Encephalitis or inflammation of 
the brain, also known as brain fever, is not of fre- 
quent occurrence and is rarely met unless as the re- 
sult of injury, though prolonged mental strain, vene- 


rial excesses or over-indulgence in alcoholic liquors 
may produce it, and it may also be a sequence of scar- 
let fever or other disease, or of inflammation of the 
internal ear. 

Symptoms. — Sometimes the symptoms are obscure, 
inflammation progressing until exhaustion causes 
death, or until epileptiform convulsions declare the 
seriousness of the condition. Usually, though, the 
symptoms are well marked and are as follows: First, 
there is headache and dizziness and vomiting; fol- 
lowed by great weakness, sleeplessness and a highly 
exalted condition of the nerves of special sense — the 
eyes are very sensitive, hearing is acute and great ir- 
ritability upon the least disturbance is manifested. 
The pulse at first is rapid and strong, the arteries of 
the neck beating violently. The head is very hot and 
delirium is often present, and toward death stupor 
follows. Convulsions are not infrequent. It is a seri- 
ous malady, usually fatal in from six to twelve days; 
and those cases which are not lost often are afflicted 
with paralysis. 

Treatment. — Throughout the trouble constipation is 
persistent, and injections of boneset infusion should 
be used to evacuate the bowels or senna and ginger 
may be given internally. An infusion of one ounce 
each of pleurisy root and lady slipper, and one-fourth 
ounce lobelia, steeped in one quart of boiling water 
and strained, may be given in tablespoonful doses 
every two hours; or by injection to the bowels, one- 
half pint at a time every three hours. Bathe the feet 
and limbs in warm water, place a towel wet with vin- 
egar and cold water to the head, rub nervine liniment 
(see formulas) over the spine, and feed frequently of 
nourishing, light food, very little at a time. Abso- 
lute quietude is imperative. When the disease occurs 
from fracture of the skull, surgical aid will be found 
to be necessary. 

Softening. — This usually occurs in old persons and 
may follow injuries, exposure, continued mental exer- 
tion or anxiety. 


Symptoms. — General or special diminution of power 
of organs is noticed. Memory becomes deficient, 
childishness may follow, and partial paralysis is com- 
mon. Often these symptoms are preceded by reckless 
ventures in business or the building of high hopes of 
success upon apparently no basis, efforts in various 
lines may be made and abandoned as though forgot- 
ten. A dwelling upon one line of thought and a lack 
of consecutive thought. Dizziness, listlessness and a 
sense of constriction in the head precedes the serious 
conditions of paralysis and coma. 

Treatment. — Slowly developing cases present hope 
of recovery. Freedom from anxiety and mental exer- 
tion are imperative. Perfect rest away from home, 
amusement and quiet companionship are advisable. 
Stimulating tonics should be used and plenty of sleep 
taken. Warmth of the body should be maintained. 
Tropical life is most beneficial. The hypophosphites 
are excellent. Alcoholic liquors should be avoided 
and nourishing food taken in concentrated form. 
Softening from injury or pressure can offer but little 

Tumors. — Cerebral tumors may be caused by blows, 
falls or other accidental injuries. They may result 
from disease — such as cancer, tuberculosis or syphilis, 
or they may be caused by parasites. 

Symptoms. — In nearly all cases there is intense and 
usually constant headache and tenderness at some one 
point on pressure. Vomiting is frequent, convulsions 
and paralysis, especially of special organs, may oc- 
cur. Hearing, seeing and power of speech are usually 
interfered with, and various other irregularities may 
occur according to the location of the tumor. 

Treatment. — Medication is of no service beyond pos- 
sibly quieting the system through nervines and regu- 
lating the functions of the body as they become de- 
ranged. Occasionally operations are performed when 
the tumor is located at the surface. Quietude and 
care may prolong life two or more years. Unless 
caused by disease tumors of the brain do not cause 
the general health to be apparently interfered with. 


Bread Poisoning. — Ergotism. — This is a serious dif- 
ficulty brought about by the eating* of bread made 
from poisoned rye. It is fully considered in the arti- 
cle on Poisons and their Antidotes. 


Dengue. Acrodynia. Dandy Fever. 

This is an epidemic disease common to tropical or 
semi-tropical countries. It is common in the West 
Indies and South America and occasionally occurs in 
the southern portion of the United States. The dis- 
ease is very seldom fatal, though the severity of its 
character may so weaken the constitution as to cause 
poor health ever after. 

Symptoms.- — There is a period of twelve to twenty- 
four hours after exposure before the symptoms of the 
disease manifest themselves, and these commence very 
suddenly, often during- sleep. The skin becomes very 
hot, the temperature may reach 103°; the pulse 110; 
the face is red and swollen, the head and joints ache, 
and it seems as though every bone in the body would 
break. The suffering is so intense that the counte- 
nance bears a look of agony, and prostration is over- 
whelming. The tongue is white with red edges. Con- 
stipation or diarrhoea may be pronounced, and the 
urine in some cases is scanty and in others abundant 
and limped. A scarlet rash makes its appearance dif- 
fused or in spots over the body and continues from 
five to twenty hours. After from twelve to seventy- 
two hours of such fever and pain these symptoms 
subside and a period of remission follows for one or 
three days — partial or complete in character. Then 
comes a relapse of the former symptoms greatly mod- 
ified in character, often consisting simply of a return 
or the eruption, which now more closely resembles 
measles. It continues from one to three days, com- 
mencing on the hands and extending over the body 
and causing intense itching. It is followed by desqua- 
mation or peeling off of the skin in scales. Pain in 
the joints, small abscesses of the skin and swellings 


may occur during" the period of convalescence which 
is protracted. 

Treatment. — At the first stage a stimulating- emetic 
(see emetics) should be given; nothing will equal it in 
efficiency. Follow this by an infusion of ginger, 
pleurisy root and lady slipper every two hours. Bathe 
the body with water of a temperature most comfort- 
able to the patient, and rub nervine liniment (see 
formulas) over the joints. A very mild laxative may 
be given if the bowels are constipated. After the 
fever has subsided give, as a strengthening tonic, 
composition and gentian, either as infusion or made 
into syrup. A light and nourishing diet, absolute rest 
and abundance of fresh air and freedom from care and 
excitement must be provided for many weeks after the 
attack. Change to a mountainous or northern region 
is advisable for those whose debility continues any 
length of time. 

Breast Pang. — Chest Spasm. — See Angina Pectoris. 

Bricklayers' Itch. — The same as Bakers' Itch, 
only the irritation is caused by lime 


Chronic Albuminuria. 

This is a serious trouble and may approach insidi- 
ously and not be recognized until far advanced. The 
early symptoms — headache, indigestion, impaired vis- 
ion, etc.— are common to many maladies, so that many 
symptoms must be taken together to ascertain the 
certainty of Bright 's disease. Some of the most 
prominent disturbances are as follows: 

Symptoms. — Loss of appetite, sometimes amounting 
to loathing of food, or fondness for an article and 
then disgust at sight of it. Accumulations of gas in 
the stomach, causing belching of gas, often violent 
enough to bring up part of the stomach's contents; 
there may be also retching and vomiting. 


Diarrhoea is frequent, alternating with pronounced 
constipation. The skin is inclined to become very dry, 
and perspiration seldom occurs; in serious cases there 
is feverishness and great debility and occasional 
"creepy" feelings of chilliness over the surface. 

Shortness of breath after slight exertion is an early 
symptom, palpitation is apt to accompany it, and par- 
oxysms may occur at night time, though most frequent 
during the day. There may be pain in the region of 
the kidneys, though not always, and as a rule such 
pain is not experienced until the more severe symp- 
toms, especially dropsy, are developed. 

Dropsy of more or less extent is a characteristic 
symptom, commencing as a rule with puffiness of the 
eyelids or face and becoming general throughout the 
body, starting about the ankles and extending up- 

The pulse is quick and hard and denotes a nervous 
and circulator disturbance. Great paleness is a most 
prominent symptom, and persons of middle age who 
are habitually pale should at once have their urine ex-, 

The urine is lessened in quantity at first, but in- 
creases as the affection progresses. Albumen is al- 
ways present, as may be ascertained by heating a 
small quantity of urine containing a few drops of 
nitric acid in a test tube over an alcohol flame, when 
cloudiness will appear. Microscopical examinations 
of the urine reveal casts, denoting breaking down of 
the structures of the kidneys. There is an increasing 
desire to urinate, especially at night time, accom- 
panied by burning sensations along the urethra. In 
advanced cases the urine may be hazy or smoky. 

Hypertrophy of the heart, with its annoying symptoms, 
is likely to accompany Bright 's disease. 

Treatment. — While most cases terminate fatally after 
months or years of suffering, still life may be pro- 
longed and recovery possibly follow appropriate man- 
agement. Fresh air, quietude of mind and out-door 
exercise are beneficial. An equable climate is to be 
preferred; chilling of the surface must be avoided; 
tea, coffee, alcoholic drinks, cheese and fats must be 


prohibited. Frequent warm baths are useful, and the 
skin's action may be promoted by pleurisy root infu- 
sion. Marsh-mallow root and peach leaves are sooth- 
ing and promote the flow of urine. The bowels are 
best kept open by effervescing aperients, and should 
diarrhoea occur neutralizing cordial will be efficient. 
Stimulating liniment may be rubbed over the region of 
the kidneys. All irritating or highly stimulating 
agents should be avoided. 

Acute Bright's Disease. — Acute Inflammation of the 
Kidneys. — This form of Bright's disease may result 
from injuries, over-exertion, scarlet fever, or diphthe- 
ria, or it may follow the the use of certain drugs used 
to act upon the kidneys, such as oil of turpentine, 
resin, saltpetre, salicylic acid, etc. The excessive 
use of alcohol is a common cause of renal inflamma- 
tion and many diseases also favor it. 

Symptoms of acute inflammation are pain in the re- 
gion of the kidneys, vomiting, headache, constipation, 
paleness and a disposition to dropsical swellings. 
Urasmia is apt to follow, denoted by dizziness, head- 
ache and probably convulsions. The urine contains 
albumen, which gives a cloudiness when a few drops 
of nitric acid are added and heat applied. 

Treatment consists of soothing diuretics, such as 
marsh-mallow root and peach leaves in infusion. The 
bowels must be kept open and a light diet directed — 
tea, coffee and alcohol must be forbidden. The skin 
must be kept warm and perspiration favored by hot 
baths and the drinking of pleurisy root infusion. A 
vapor bath or Turkish bath is most excellent. Quie- 
tude in bed is imperative. Broth, lean meats and 
milk may be allowed. Cheese, fats and salt foods 
must be forbidden. 


Dilation of the Bronchi. 

This is an enlargement of the bronchi. They may 
become almost funnel shaped or bulge out at various 
places. Internally they become uneven and there are 


in them accumulations of mucus which may become 
purulent and ulceration follow. This difficulty is al- 
ways preceded by some other bronchial trouble, such 
as bronchial catarrh, capillary bronchitis, etc. 

Symptoms. — Apparently, outside of the cough, there 
is little the matter with the patient. But the cough 
comes on in severe paroxysms and expectoration is 
profuse; sometimes a quart of thick mucus will be 
coughed up in a single day. There may be thick 
chunks of mucus which sink in water, and also cheesy 
material may be expectorated possessing a foul odor, 
and the breath given off from the lungs during cough- 
ing is very offensive. The sleep may not be disturbed, 
but upon rising in the morning a paroxysm of cough- 
ing occurs, often so severe as to cause vomiting, and 
always accompanied by profuse expectoration. 

Treatmeat. — The disease does not present a hopeful 
condition of affairs. The aim must be to keep the 
bronchi free from accumulations; to prevent putrefac- 
tion and to lessen the amount of the secretion of mu- 
cus in the tubes. A most excellent preparation is: 
Fluid extract of aralia racemosa (spikenard) one 
ounce, in syrup of wild cherry seven ounces; take a 
teaspoonful every four hours. Have the patient carry 
with" him eucalyptol and menthol each one-half ounce; 
place a little on the hand every few hours and placing 
in front of the nose and mouth inhale deeply. Inhal- 
ation of sprays of listerine and tincture of myrrh, 
greatly diluted with water, will be found serviceable. 

The diet should be carefully regulated, and most 
scrupulous attention paid to sanitary matters. The 
bowels must be kept open; and an even temperature 
maintained. When there is evidence that great accu- 
mulations of mucus cannot be thrown off, a stimulating 
emetic (see emetics) should be administered 


Acute Bronchial Catarrh. 

This is a catarrhal inflammation of the air passages. 
One or more of the large tubes may be involved, or it 
may affect the medium sized tubes of the lungs, or the 


very minute tubes may suffer (capillary bronchitis). 
One portion only, or one side or both sides of the 
lungs may be the seat of the difficulty, and the char- 
acter of the disease varies greatly from the symptoms 
of an ordinary cold to those of a dangerous malady. 
The causes may be mentioned as cold, damp weather, 
changeable temperature, chilling of the surface by 
exposure, especially insufficient protection to the 
limbs of children and irritating gases or particles in 
the atmosphere. Bronchitis may also be a conse- 
quence of diminished secretions and therefore is likely 
to occur during the course of several diseases. Irrita- 
ting medicines may cause it, and some persons are 
more subject to it than others. 

Symptoms. — The most frequent cases involve, the 
large tubes, causing a feeling of tenderness in the 
middle of the chest accompanied by a tight feeling in 
the upper part of the lungs. There is always cough, 
especially upon lying down or early in the morning. 
Violent coughing spells cause soreness through the 
muscles of the chest and the sides. At first there is 
little expectoration, but after a while mucus of a 
frothy nature is thrown out; this changes to stringy 
and tenacious mucus, and sometimes pus or blood 
may be present. Chunks of mucus, like v Tound balls, 
may be coughed up, which shows the difficulty is 
abating and relief will soon come. There may be 
general feverishness, red and watery eyes and hoarse- 
ness. Children may have delirium or convulsions. 
Constipation, headache and a furred tongue are usu- 
ally present. The pulse is full and rather frequent in 
ordinary cases. 

Treatment. — The first object must be to increase the 
action of the skin and divert the circulation outward. 
Ginger and a little pleurisy root in an infusion are ex- 
cellent during feverishness. When there is irritation 
and tenderness and the tubes seem full of mucus a 
syrup may be made of flax seed, ginger, licorice and 
spikenard infusion — only a small proportion of spike- 
nard being needed. After free expectoration is se- 
cured syrup of wild cherry bark is most excellent. 


Hollyhock leaves or marsh-mallow root or slippery 
elm bark may be used instead of the flax seed which 
is disagreeable to some. The patient should be kept 
in an even temperature of about 70° or a little over, 
and the air not too dry; but avoid too great moisture. 
Camphorated oil or goose grease may be rubbed over 
the chest. The bowels must be kept open, and quie- 
tude and a light diet provided. Care must be taken 
against exposure after recovery to avoid return in a 
serious or chronic form. 

Capillary Bronchitis. — This is a serious form of 
the disease, rarely affecting any but those of feeble 
constitution or small children or old persons; though 
occasionally the most robust may succumb. It starts 
as ordinary bronchitis, but the minute tubes of the 
lungs become involved, and suffer engorgement from 
the mass of tenacious mucus which they are unable to 
throw off. As a consequence the blood does not re- 
ceive sufficient air, and symptoms characteristic of 
such a condition soon manifest themselves; they may 
come on slowly or all at once by a sudden engorge- 

Fever is at first high, but soon diminishes; and the 
nose and extremities become cold and there is a very 
pale followed by a livid appearance of the skin and 
lips. The pulse grows very rapid and small, and 
great listlessness or stupor follows. There is a 
wheezing or rattling sound in the chest and great dif- 
ficuly of breathing. The lower part of the chest ap- 
pears sunken, the shoulders are drawn upward and 
the head thrown back; the mouth is opened and the 
sides of the nose are dilated. Breathing is very shal- 
low or gasping, and the mucus may accumulate rap- 
idly; in small children it may fill the mouth after a 
coughing spell and by its tenaciousness threaten 

Treatment. — There is no time to be lost in capillary 
bronchitis — it is always a dangerous condition. Re- 
laxants and demulcents must not be used. Quickly 
apply stimulation over the lungs; — essence of ginger, 
cloths rung out of red pepper water or stimulating 


liniment must be used freely. Administer, in tea- 
spoonful doses to a child, an infusion of ginger, pleu- 
risy root and spikenard, equal parts. 

In desperate cases where there is stupor and cold- 
ness an injection of ginger and skull cap should be 
given, and capsicum may be used instead of ginger in 
the infusion. The head should be elevated and hot 
water or hot irons placed to the feet. Children should 
be carried upright in the arms and should not be al- 
lowed to sleep until danger is past, which may be 
known by the skin assuming a natural color and 
warmth returning and the breathing becoming natu- 
ral, otherwise strangulation or suffocation may occur. 

An excellent tonic to use for some time after a spell 
of bronchitis is: Fluid extracts of blue cohosh and 
golden seal each two drachms in eight ounces of syrup 
of wild cherry. Dose for a child may be half a tea- 
spoonful every three hours. An adult may use double 
the quantity. 


Winter Cou^h. Chronic Bronchial Catarrh. 

This difficulty is usually the result of a protracted 
attack of acute bronchitis or of frequent attacks of 
that difficulty. It is chiefly confined to elderly per- 
sons and is very persistent — recurring with regularity 
every winter or upon the least exposure to cold. The 
larger bronchi are chiefly affected, and the disease of 
itself is rarely fatal, though it may result in emphy- 
sema or consumption (which see). 

Symptoms. — There is seldom any fever or other gen- 
eral disturbance. A sense of constriction in the chest 
and a feeling of soreness behind the breast-bone are 
complained of. Cough is always present; it is parox- 
ysmal in character, mostly occurring soon after retir- 
ing and rising. Expectoration is usually abundant, 
consisting of stringy mucus, sometimes streaked with 
blood and sometimes containing pus, and as a rule it 
is difficult to expel. Sometimes there may be almost 
no expectoration except little lumps like boiled sago, 


and there may be great wheezing- and difficulty of 
breathing - . This form is known as dry catarrh and is 
usually suffered by gouty persons or those inhaling 
irritating particles, such as file-makers, sand-paper- 
ers, etc. 

Persons having heart trouble, or feeble old people 
may have a form of bronchitis known as bronchorrhcea, 
in which the expectoration is profuse, possibly two 
quarts a day. 

Putrid bronchitis may occur, when the expectoration 
becomes gray or brown and horribly offensive, caus- 
ing by its odor nausea or vomiting and loss of appetite. 
As a rule sufferers from chronic bronchitis grow thin 
and weak from exhaustive coughing. While the dis- 
ease is seldom fatal, yet the putrid form may cause 
suppurative fever or a fatal diarrhoea, or destroy por- 
tions of the bronchi sufficiently to produce fatal hem- 

Treatment. — The maintenance of the patient's health 
and the increase of his resistive powers must be the 
first aim of treatment. An even temperature of 
about 70° F. is most desirable and every precaution 
against drafts and sudden changes must be taken. A 
sustaining diet, a free mind and rest must be provided. 
Every precaution should be taken against inhaling 
dust or vapors that are obnoxious. There must be an 
abundance of pure air and the best of hygienic sur- 
roundings. The mountains of North and South Caro- 
lina and of Georgia cannot be excelled for such 

Medication must be made appropriate to the various 
classes of cases. Persons suffering from dyspepsia, 
liver troubles or heart difficulties must have such con- 
ditions appropriately treated. All cases should wear 
a flannel over the chest which should be frequently 
saturated with a liniment composed of fluid extract of 
black cohosh, one ounce; tincture of lobelia, two ounces; 
tincture of capsicum, two drachms; alcohol, five ounces. 

When the cough is loose and the expectoration 
abundant a syrup may be used, made of equal parts of 
spikenard and cramp bark and hops in syrup of tolu. 

Where there is irritation and insufficient expectora- 


tion mullein leaves, comfrey and spikenard equal 
parts and a little lobelia may be made into a syrup 
with licorice. 

A most pleasant preparation for old cases may be 
made as follows: Fluid extract of Mexican sage, four 
drachms; fluid extract osha root, one ounce; fluid ex- 
tract hops, two drachms; syrup of licorice, six ounces; 
dose, a teaspoonful every six hours, or during 1 of par- 
oxysm of coughing*. 

Purulent Bronchitis. — In this form of chronic 
bronchitis expectoration is purulent and laden with 
pus and fatty particles. The treatment must be the 
same as for chronic bronchitis, only the tendency to 
absorption of purulent material must be guarded 
against by the employment of antiseptics, such as 
compound tincture of myrrh, along with the other 

Dry Bronchitis. — In this form of chronic bronchi- 
tis, there is little if any expectoration. Old persons 
are usually the ones affected, and their coughing spells 
seem to afford no relief, and if not treated properly the 
serious condition known as emphysema will follow. 

Treatment. — In addition to general hygienic, dietary 
and other precautions mentioned under Chronic Bron- 
chitis there should be administered every two hours, 
or during a coughing spell: Fluid extract osha root, 
one ounce; tincture of lobelia, one drachm; syrup of 
licorice, seven ounces. 

Bronchocele. — See article on Goitre. 

Broncho-Pneumonia. — Catarrhal or Lobular Pneu- 
monia. — ^See article on Pneumonia. 


Constriction of the Bronchi. 

This condition may be caused by the pressure of tu- 
mors, by foreign bodies entering the lungs, or as the 


result of abscess or of inflammation from constitu- 
tional disease. 

Symptoms. — The most prominent symptom is a feel- 
ing of inability to get sufficient breath. Inspiration 
is very long- and expiration short. There may be 
great pain on inspiration, and the countenance always 
looks distressed and anxious. Sometimes there is 
cough accompanied by expectoration. Inflammation 
of the lungs may follow, causing a swelling and clos- 
ing of the bronchial tubes. The closure may be so 
great as to cut off nourishment through blood vessels, 
and abscesses or gangrene may follow. Some cases 
may cause early death by suffocation. The difficulty, 
no matter what is its origin, is always serious: espe- 
cially so when caused by the presence of foreign 

Treatment. — When constriction of the bronchi is due 
to the presence of foreign bodies, every effort should 
be made for their expulsion. Exciting the act of 
sneezing by the use of snuff or tickling inside the 
nose by a feather may expel an object. Emetics may 
be serviceable. Turning the patient upside down and 
pounding on his back may produce good results. Diffi- 
cult and painful breathing may often be relieved by 
tincture of lobelia, two drops on sugar every hour or 
oftener. The aim must be to ascertain the cause and 
remove it as quickly. When the trouble follows 
syphilis it can be relieved only by employing proper 
treatment for that disease. 

Brow Ague. — Tic Douloureux. — This is a form of neu- 
ralgia associated with pain about the temples and 
above the orbit. It is described in the article on Tic 


Black-and-BIue Condition. Ecchymosis. 

These may follow injuries, abscesses, etc. Often 
where there is paralysis bruises become dangerous by 
breaking down of tissues into decay. Ecchymosis is 
the term used to signify the purple or black-and-blue 



appearance of the skin so common after injuries. 
This may be made to disappear, or rather not to ap- 
pear at all by applications of cold water or cloths 
saturated with ice water to the parts immediately af- 
ter injury, such application being constant for hours. 
Where there are lacerations or tendency to general 
congestion warmth should be applied. Compound 
tincture of myrrh is best when decomposition of tissue 
is feared. In all cases exclusion from the air by cot- 
ton and bandages is advisable. When ecchymosis re- 
mains persistently, and it is evident that an accumula- 
tion of dark blood is present that will not be absorbed, 
the spot should be punctured in several places with a 
thin lance and a dry cup applied to draw away the 
stagnated blood and witch hazel extract then applied. 



This difficulty is frequently met with in mild form. 
It is a skin trouble characterized by the formation of 
little round blisters or vesicles, usually upon the 
hands or feet. Persons in ill health, or those of a 
nervous temperament usually are the sufferers. The 
disease seems to be dependent upon insufficient action 
of the nervous peripheries of the skin. 

Symptoms. — These commence with a burning or itch- 
ing between the fingers or toes or on their sides, fol- 
lowed in twelve or twenty four hours by minute 
rounded vesicles filled with a clear fluid and having no 
redness about them. They dry up in a few days, 
leaving a little flat scale. Occasional^, in severe 
cases, several bullae run together and they may cover 
the soles or palms. 

Treatment. — Oxide of zinc rubbed up with vaseline 
and applied every six hours will relieve the itching. 
The vesicles should not be opened. Nervine tonics 
(see formulas) should be given, and plenty of fresh air 
and healthful food supplied. Keep the mind cheerful 
and provide rest. 

Bunions. — See Feet Diseases. 



Blisters. Deep and Destructive Burns. Slou£hin£. 

These are of frequent occurrence and their proper 
treatment should be familiar to all. The extent of 
damage done and the tissues involved in the destruc- 
tion must be considered. There may be only a 
slight burn or scald, causing simple redness of the 
skin, resembling erysipelas; nevertheless the pain 
may be intense. The handiest one of several methods 
of relief should be adopted. Bathe the parts with 
lukewarm water containing cooking-soda in abun- 
dance, or with witch-hazel extract, or cover the burn 
with butter, or smear over it a mixture of flour and 
molasses or honey, or apply dry flour. Vaseline or 
cod liver oil or sweet oil may be used. 

Blisters. — There may be blistering of the skin 
without the deep skin being involved. Use on the 
spur of the moment any one of the methods of relief. 
Afterward prick the blister in several places w T ith a 
fine needle and let out the water. Soak cotton in a 
mixture of lime water and linseed oil shaken into an 
emulsion and apply to the wound and keep in place 
by bandage or adhesive plaster. 

Deep Burns. — There may be injury to the deeper 
structures of the skin, making a permanent scar prob- 
able. After relief by one of the first mentioned 
methods the wound should be dressed by applying 
abundantly vaseline containing a little borax and gold- 
enseal, and then covering- with cotton. 

u f> 

Destructive Burns. — There may be the complete 
destruction of the deep layers of the skin and possi- 
bly the muscles, followed by a pronounced scar and 
great deformity. This is a serious condition. Such 
an accident happening to a child or elderly person 
may produce sufficient shock to produce death. When 
there is no loss of sensibility from shock the pain will 
oe of the most agonizing character and liable to pro- 
duce exhaustion. Take the victim to a quiet, com- 
fortable spot as soon as possible; administer such 


stimulents as ginger tea, compound spirits of lavender, 
or composition in small doses. Loosen and remove 
all clothing - about the injured part as quickly and eas- 
ily as possible — cut off garments. Make ready the 
dressings without delay. A good plan is to soak 
bandages in linseed oil and then smear them with 
cooking soda and powdered borax. Apply them with 
the greatest care, for the parts are inconceivably sen- 

So arrange the dressings that they may remain un- 
disturbed for three or four days. Within two days 
suppuration commences, accompanied by fever. In- 
fusion of equal parts of lady slipper and ginger given 
internally will be beneficial. When the bandages be 
come unpleasant from irritation or odor they should 
be removed with the greatest care and the discharg- 
ing parts washed very carefully with warm water con- 
taining borax. Such dressings should then be per- 
formed daily. If the discharge is too abundant and is 
offensive, add pulverized myrrh. 

Sloughing. — A whole limb may be involved, and 
sloughing of the parts may soon commence and con- 
tinue two or more weeks even under the best manage- 
ment. Proceed as in the last mentioned form. But 
in these cases myrrh must be used abundantly, and 
very small doses of the compound tincture of myrrh 
should be given internally to guard against "blood 
poisoning." In dressing such wounds a spray of di- 
luted listerine should be employed. 

All extensive burns cause a disturbance of the whole 
system and require the best of nursing for some time. 
The diet should be light and nourishing and the ut- 
most quietude and cleanliness maintained. If the ex- 
tremities should have a tendency to grow cold, hot 
irons or other articles retaining heat should be placed 
at the feet. If there is great weakness from exhaust- 
ive discharges, give every three hours a ca£>sule con- 
taining sulphate of hydrastia and salicin, each one 
grain, and capsicum one-half grain. 

It is possible that complications may arise during 
the fever stage, and symptoms may point to bronchitis, 
pneumonia, pleurisy, inflammation or congestion of 


the brain, erysipelas, etc. Should such results occur, 
they must be treated according to rules prescribed for 
such difficulties. 


Degenerate Condition of the Blood. 

Very frequently during- the course of lingering - or 
malignant diseases, the blood becomes laden with 
poisonous impurities, and itself undergoes degener- 
ation. The signs of this degeneration soon manifest 
themselves. There will be an ashy or death-like hue 
to the countenance and the skin everywhere. Usu- 
ally the breath will be offensive. Weakness and gen- 
eral indications of departing life will be noticed. 
This condition of cachexia may occur in cancer, con- 
sumption, paralysis, gout, scurvy, etc. As it is a symp- 
tom only, treatment must be directed toward the dis- 
ease with which it is associated. 


Congenital Skin Disease. 

This is a very persistent, though not severe, form of 
skin disease; usually making its appearance on the 
arms above the elbows; though other parts of the 
body may be affected. Small pink pimples and mi- 
nute and closely adherent scales at the hair follicles, 
death of the hair at such places and perfectly healthy 
skin between the diseased follicles, characterize the 
disease. There is little if any itching, and the trouble 
extends slowly and yields to treatment with difficulty. 
It is a congenital disease and is not contagious. 
. Treatment. — Hot baths in water containing borax 
and cooking soda should be employed frequently, and 
after each bath there should be thoroughly rubbed 
over the affected parts an embrocation made of oil of 
lobelia, one drachm, mixed thoroughly with one pint 


of cocoanut oil. Internally should be administered 
twice a day the compound syrup of Stillingia (see 
formulas) to which can be added a little fluid extract 
of gentian. In diet the stimulating foods should be 
avoided, and those of a nourishing order should be 

Caisson Disease. — Divers' Paralysis. — This diffi- 
culty is liable to occur to divers immediately or soon 
after reaching the ordinary atmosphere after being 
confined in compressed air. There will be dizziness 
and headache, accompanied by pain and tenderness of 
the limbs, and frequently partial or complete paraly- 
sis of motion and sensation. Persons who thus suffer 
should at once change their occupation, as treatment 
is very unsatisfactory and serious consequences may 
result although most sufferers have frequent attacks 
and recovery after change of occupation. 

Calcareous Defeneration. 

Not infrequently elderly persons or those suffering 
from disease, especially rheumatism, have certain tis- 
sues of the body undergo a degenerate change termed 
calcification. It consists in very minute particles of 
lime-like material being deposited in the interstices of 
bones or muscles, or valves of the heart, or arteries or 
other tissues, hardening them and causing them to be- 
come brittle and liable to rupture or incapable of be- 
ing used. 

The drinking of lime-water or mineral waters may 
hasten such changes, as also will the eating of vege- 
tables or foods containing earthy material, and all 
such should be avoided by persons suffering calcifica- 
tion. In nearly all cases a previous disease will de- 
mand attention medically. As a means of stopping 
deposits and of removing further degeneration the 
drinking abundantly of pure distilled water and of 
lemonade will prove beneficial. 

In a few instances persons suffering from tuberculo- 


sis have had destruction of the lung's stopped by de- 
posits of earthy material causing calcification of the 
lung- tissues and thus saving life for many years. 


Stone in the Bladder and Kidneys. 

Deposits of a mineral character may occur from the 
urine and form a nucleus for the formation of a stone 
in the bladder or kidneys. Usually the stone forms in 
the kidney and passes through the ureter into the 
bladder, and there increases in size. Occasionally 
the stone may become fastened in the ureter or in the 
uretha near the prostate gland. There are several 
forms of calculi, namely: 

Uric Acid. — The most common; smooth and hard, 
yellow and brown, showing' their formation to be in 
layers by a series of dark and light rings. Sometimes 
covered with warts. 

Mulberry. — Oxalate oy Lime. — Very dark and warty 
looking; usually stained with blood. 

Phosphates. — Lime, Ammonium, Magnesium. — Soft, 
chalky, scale-like and easily broken. 

Cystin. — Dull white, changing by age to gray, yel- 
lowish, green or blue; have a wavy look; are ex- 
tremely rare. 

Carbonate Of Lime. — Gray or brown; look like 
balls of earth; very rare, though frequent in cattle. 

Indigo. — Seldom seen; of dark blue color and ex- 
tremely friable. 

Xanthin. — Yellow or brown, and bright when 
broken; are extremely rare. 

Symptoms. — These may be at first so slight as to at- 
tract no attention. A gritty deposit or an earthy 
coating in the vessel, may be noticed long before act- 
ive symptoms commence. Sometimes gravel is passed 
without any pain or difficulty, or a very small stone 
may be voided with the urine. 


If situated in the kidney, there may be pain in the 
back, retching and vomiting, blood and sometimes 
pus in the urine. The intense agony of renal colic is 
often experienced (see Colic of the Kidneys). 

The calculus or gravel may choke up the ureters 
and cause a retention of urine, which if continued any 
length of time is exceedingly dangerous, causing ab- 
sorption of urine and blood poisoning. After reten- 
tion the urine will often burst forth abundantly, car- 
rying with it a stone or an amount of gravel, and re- 
lief will follow. If a stone or gravel becomes lodged 
in the ureter, it is liable, by the irritation produced, to 
cause suppuration and consequent perforation, and 
peritonitis (which see) will follow. 

Stone in the Bladder may develop very slowly 
and may exist for a long time, perhaps years, before 
any inconvenience is felt. Several symptoms may be 
prominent, together or singly, such as: Frequent de- 
sire to urinate, and occasionally sudden interruption 
of the flow by the stone getting over the urethral 
opening of the bladder; children may be troubled with 
incontinence; there may be considerable mucus, often 
streaked with blood, and all the signs of catarrh of 
the bladder (which see). 

There is usually dull aching pain through the back, 
and during urination pain of a rather sharp character 
runs from the bladder through the perineum, and there 
is an intense burning sensation at the neck of the 
bladder and along the urethra, and a smarting at the 
external opening of the urethra. Riding may jolt the 
stone about and cause great unpleasantness. There 
may be dyspepsia and other sympathetic troubles, 
and prolapsus of the bowel may occur. Occasionally 
without warning severe and most distressing spasm 
of the bladder may occur and last for many hours. 

The composition of the stone may often be recog- 
nized by the character of the sediment of the urine; 
and a stone in the bladder can usually be recognized 
by introducing a sound (a metallic instrument resem- 
bling a small catheter). It is well to bear in mind 
that irritation caused by disease of the bladder is rec- 
ognized as being in the bladder; in irritation caused 


by disease of the prostate gland, the perineum or rec- 
tum seems to be the point of trouble; while irritation 
caused by stone in the bladder gives the most acute 
symptoms as though due to trouble at the external 
mouth of the urethra or glans of the penis. 

Treatment. — in all cases an abundance of pure soft 
water should be used in the hope of literally washing" 
out the gravel. It is a good thing to drink or sip 
slowly a pint of hot water (not luke warm) before 
breakfast and at bed time. Excess of food, especially 
meats, must be avoided. Rhubarb, tomatoes, spinach, 
grapes and wines and beer are liable to aggravate 
most cases. Hard water must not be used. Bathing 
should be frequent and a free action of the skin main- 
tained and the surface kept warm. Marsh-mallow 
root, cut into small pieces, or dried hollyhock leaves 
should be kept in the pocket and particles frequently 
chewed slowly and swallowed; this will soothe the pas- 
sages and allay irritation. Strong infusion or fluid ex- 
tract of couch grass (triticum repens) is of especial 
value. The following" will be found unexcelled: 

Take Fluid Ext. hydrangea 2 ounces, 

" couch grass {triticum), 
hollyhock (Althea Rosea) 

each 1 ounce, 

Mucilage of gum Arabic 3 ounces, 

Glycerine 1 ounce. 

Mix. Take one teaspoonful in water every four hours for 
three consecutive days. 

By this means gravel and small calculi which have 
been retained for a great length of time, will be ex- 
pelled. Large stones in the bladder will, of course, 
not be expelled in this way; they can be removed only 
by surgical operations, such as crushing them, or cut- 
ting into the bladder and extracting them. Citrate of 
lithia, about three grains in every glass of water 
taken, will often dissolve some forms of calculi; but 
it should not be used persistently as the stomach tires 
of it. 

Vichy and lithia spring waters may be used freely 


for a month at a time. When spasm of the bladder 
occurs from the stone getting into the neck of the 
bladder, the patient should lie down, and drink freely 
of an infusion of hollyhock leaves and spearmint, 
containing a very little fluid extract of cramp bark. 
An injection of lobelia herb and boneset will afford 
great relief. Should these attacks become frequent, 
the treatment mentioned for inflammation of the blad- 
der should be pursued. 

For the spells of colic and extreme suffering which 
may occur when the stone or gravel is in the kidneys, 
the treatment should be as mentioned under the head- 
ing of Kidney Diseases — Renal Colic. Should hem- 
orrhage from the kidneys or bladder occur, kino in- 
fusion or witch hazel extract should be taken inter- 
nally, or may be injected into the bladder in severe 
hemorrhage from that organ. Pain is often relieved 
by external hot applications. Small calculi of the 
bladder may be expelled by urinating with the body 
upside down, easily done with children. 

Calculi (Biliary). — See article on Gall-Stones. 


Carcinoma. Malignant Tumors. 

Cancer, carcinoma and other allied malignant 
tumors consist of deposits of morbific materials, usu- 
ally at some gland, forming a mass which becomes de- 
generate, enlarges with varying degrees of rapidity, 
usually suppurates, and undermines the constitution 
and results in death. Women are more especially lia- 
ble to the disease, and with them the breasts and 
womb usually are involved. No portion of the body 
is exempt from cancer, and although those under 
twenty-five rarely suffer, occasionally even children 
are afflicted. The change of life in women is the age 
at which they are most liable. 

Predisposition, from hereditary influence, has an in- 
fluence as a cause of cancer, though the immediate 
cause of the malignant growth is nearly always local 


. — such as an injury, a blow or irritation. Decayed or 
roughened teeth, smoking, irritation of corset blades, 
or other clothing have been known to start cancerous 
growths. Often without any apparent local irritation 
the disease may develop, especially in those whose 
constitutions have been undermined by improper liv- 
ing — too high or too low — mental worry and nervous 
strain. Likewise overcrowding the system with gross 
foods, such as excessive eating of pork, has been an 
acknowledged source of cancer. 

There are several kinds of malignant tumors classi- 
fied under the general name of Cancer or Carcinoma. 

Hard Or Scirrhus cancer is the most common form. 
These commence as small, hard kernels, which en- 
large very slowly, perhaps occupying months or years 
in what is known as the indolent or inactive period. 
Then follows the malignant period. 

The growth softens rapidly and ulcerates, the skin 
covering it breaks down and an open sore results. 
The edges are inverted or everted and firm and angry 
looking; one portion of the sore may be healing while 
the other is undergoing decomposition. The odor be- 
comes most disgusting in character. There appear to 
be prolongations or roots running out from the cancer, 
giving a crab-like appearance, from which it derived 
its name— cancer being the Latin for crab. The open 
surface of the sore is usually ashy color and some- 
times bleeding, 

Strength fails rapidly; the countenance assumes a 
peculiar hue and cast, and pain is intense and of a 
gnawing character. Death may ensue quickly or it 
may be prolonged for many months. This is the 
form of cancer which usually appears upon the breast. 

Soft Or Eucephaloid cancer is not common. It 
develops rapidly and may cause death in a few months. 
It is soft from the beginning, the surface usually 
creamy in color and covered by distended veins. It is 
liable to hemorrhage, ulcerates in a few weeks after 
its commencement, and as a rule is very painful. 
This is the form of cancer to which young people are 
most liable. It may develop upon any part of the 


body and involve any class of tissues. Cancer of in- 
ternal organs is usually of this character. 

Colloid Or Alveolar cancers have an apparent 
jelly-like consistence. They are frequent in the ova- 
ries, salivary glands and breasts, and have by some 
been considered not of a carcinomatous nature. 

Epithelial or Squamous cancer, known also as 
epithelioma, is the least malignant form of cancer. It 
commenees as a dry wart on the surface, usually on 
the cheek or lower lip. This soon forms a pustule and 
develops very slowly, rarely enlarging to over an inch 
in diameter, occasionally growing large and sometimes 
covering a period of eight or ten years in its devel- 
opment. It usually occurs where the skin and mu- 
cous membrane meet; and the lips and lower eyelids 
are favorite localities. Secondary cancers may follow 
elsewhere in the body, or death may be the result of 

Melanotic cancer, or melanosis, is extremely rare. 
Its characteristic is its dark brown or black appear- 
ance. Sometimes the whole surface of the body or 
large spots upon it become entirely black. It may 
likewise be confined to a single warty growth resem- 
bling a blackberry. 

Osteoid cancer usually commences in the bone, 
though the developed tumor may contain bony sub- 

Villous cancer is the term used to designate cancer 
in the mucous membrane covered with a velvet-like 
growth. It not infrequently occurs in the bladder or 
inside the cheek. 

General Treatment of Cancer. 

Treatment has usually been found very ineffectual, 
beyond general relief and retarding of death, which 
seems inevitable. Early (very early) removal by the 
knife has been the usual method. Constitutional 
treatment must be employed. The compound syrup of 
yellow dock (see formulas) is most excellent. Locally, 


when the sore is opened, a salve compound of solid ex- 
tract of red clover and a very little each of sulphate 
of hydrastia and boracic acid rubbed into vaseline 
will be found serviceable. Thorough cleanliness, 
nourishing* diet, regular habits and plenty of fresh 
air should be provided for every cancer sufferer. 
Hemorrhage of the surface can usually be controlled 
by applications of very hot water, or by perchloride 
of iron. 

Cancer of the Stomach. — This affliction is most 

frequent in men, caused by blows over the stomach, 
excesses in eating" or drinking - , use of alcohol, heredi- 
tary predisposition or long" continued nervous strain or 
mental anxiety. 

Symptoms. — The first symptoms are those of simple 
indigestion. These continue persistently for perhaps 
several months and then there are experienced sharp, 
cutting" pains, extending to the back and loins. Two 
or three hours after eating there arise great pain and 
nausea in the stomach, followed by vomiting. This 
may occur sooner after eating if the cancer is near 
the opening of the gullet into the stomach. Or if it 
is situated elsewhere in the stomach the vomiting may 
be delayed. There is great tenderness upon pressure, 
and usually the tumor may be distinctly felt, often 
lower than one would suppose the stomach to be situ- 
ated, that organ being usually enlarged when affected 
with cancer. As a rule small quantities of brownish 
blood, looking like coffee grounds, are vomited. 

Constipation, great thirst and sleeplessness are 
usual symptoms. Frequently the symptoms subside 
for brief periods. The distress after eating increases, 
and to such an extent that the patient is liable to 
starve to death from inability to retain nourishment. 

Treatment. — A perfect cure cannot be hoped for. 
Foods of the mildest and most nourishing character 
consistent with their mildness must be relied upon — 
such as beef tea, malted milk, ordinary milk or whey 
are excellent; mutton broth, veal broth, soft gelatin 
and farinaceous foods in general are usually accept- 


able. When the stomach refuses food, strength may 
be sustained by injections of barley water, etc. Medic- 
inal treatment must be as laid down for ulceration of 
the stomach (which see), in addition to compound 
syrup of yellow dock as an alterative. Operation for 
removal of the cancer is sometimes resorted to, but it 
is an unwarranted torture to inflict upon a dying per- 

Cancer Of the Womb. — This disease seldoms ap- 
pears until after the change of life in women, between 
the ages of forty and fifty years. It usually attacks 
the mouth of the womb; but it may be the result of 
an internal tumor or polypus. As a rule this form of 
cancer proves rapidly fatal, especially in the young; 
although in some persons it may exist for years before 

It has been the author's experience to examine and 
treat and permanently cure many cases pronounced as 
cancer of the womb by prominent physicians, which 
proved to be maladies of an entirely different nature, 
entirely amenable to thorough treatment. Women 
should not submit themselves to operations and treat- 
ment for cancer of the womb unless that disease has 
been positively proven to exist. 

Symptoms. — Usually profuse flooding, followed by 
the "whites, " which discharge in time becomes offen- 
sive and of a greenish color. There are dragging and 
bearing down sensations, and pain through the back, 
loins and lower part of the abdomen, becoming excru- 
ciating as the disease progresses. Exhaustion soon 
follows, aggravated by frequent hemorrhages and 
persistent vomiting. The odor from the cancer be- 
comes intolerable, and the growth may extend into 
the bladder or rectum. 

The general treatment laid down for cancer must be 
followed. Injections of thymol solution should be 
used for cleansing the womb and vagina. Cutting out 
of the womb in the early stages of cancer affords the 
only hope of recovery. A diet of nourishing food, 
easily digested, and an abundance of fresh milk and 


pure air and pleasant surroundings must be provided. 
See section on Diseases of Women. 

Ulcerated Sore Mouth. Cancrum Oris. 

This is a dangerous ulceration of the insides of the 
cheeks and the lips. It is confined almost exclusively 
to children under eight years of age and to those of 
scrofulous tendencies or feeble constitutions. Bad air, 
damp sleeping rooms, poor or insufficient food, etc. , 
may be named as causes. 

Symptoms. — The gums become red and the cheeks 
somewhat swollen. Inside the mouth small gray, 
sloughy ulcers make their appearance. In severe 
cases these slowly extend and become ashy and then 
brown, and the breath becomes offensive. The appetite 
fails and the strength sinks rapidly. Sometimes the 
whole cheek is involved; outside being hard and 
swollen and white with a red spot, and inside being a 
foul ulcer, discharging profusely — at first painful and 
tender and afterwards sloughing away. As a rule, 
children experience little suffering, the poison blunt- 
ing sensibility and causing a stupor, which precedes 
death. Mild cases offer hope for recovery. 

Treatment. — Constitutional treatment is a necessity. 
A stimulating emetic (see emetics} should be given 
early and repeated every three days. Every three 
hours a teaspoonful of an infusion of composition and 
golden seal should be given. The mouth should be 
washed out every hour with peroxide of hydrogen, 
one ounce; tincture of myrrh, one drachm; water, 
three ounces. A spray may be found useful. This 
wash should be alternated every hour with a strong in- 
fusion of composition containing a few drops of com- 
pound tincture of myrrh. 

Give a luke-warm sponge bath every day, putting 
salt in the watei (sea salt is best) and using friction. 
Alterative syrup (see formulas) should be given to 
those of scrofulous tendency. Give most nourishing 
food. Broths are excellent. Provide cleanliness and 
abundance of fresh air. 


Capillary Bronchitis. — Fully described in the arti- 
cle on Acute Bronchitis. 


Carbunculus. Anthrax. 

This is a destruction of the skin and the tissues di- 
rectly beneath. It resembles a boil, only it is more 
extensive, and has a number of "cores," and produces 
severe constitutional symptoms. Carbuncles are most 
common to elderly or feeble persons. Their favorite 
localities are the nape of the neck, the buttocks and 
the outsides of the limbs; though occasionally they 
occur on the face. When they appear upon aged per- 
sons suffering from kidney trouble they are of grave 

Symptoms. — At first there is experienced a soreness 
over the part where the carbuncle is forming; slight 
swelling is noticed and the skin becomes red or pur- 
ple; a burning sensation, turning to severe pain, is ex- 
perienced, and general feverishness usually sets in. 
Soon there is local throbbing and several points begin 
to suppurate, first giving a gum-like discharge, soon 
turning to pus. These several points of suppuration 
run together, making one large and open ulcerated 
surface. Meanwhile pus is liable to be absorbed and 
symptoms of blood poisoning manifest themselves. 

After five or eight days or more, the carbuncle pre- 
sents an ashy appearance, surrounded by angry or 
purple edges. The whole suppurated mass is gradually 
discharged, leaving a cavity which heals over slowly 
and leaves an ugly scar. Occasionally more than one 
carbuncle may appear on the body at one time. The 
constitutional symptoms are then apt to be more 
grave. Sometimes when one carbuncle disappears an- 
other may commence at some other place. 

Treatment. — At the start poultice the spot with flax- 
seed sprinkled over with goldenseal. When the 
points of suppuration first manifest themselves, make 
two cross-like incisions across the carbuncle with a 
lance, cut deeply, and then apply a poultice as before, 


only mix with it a little powdered myrrh and glycer- 
ine. Apply around the edges compound tincture of 
myrrh. Change these poultices every four hours, al- 
ways washing out the ulcerated surface with extract 
of witch hazel, one ounce; borax, one drachm; warm 
water, one pint. A small syringe should be used; the 
stream will wash away accumulations. While suppu- 
ration lasts these poultices should be constantly ap- 
plied. When the cavity is emptied the following 
method should be adopted: Saturate absorbent cot- 
ton with a mixture of extract of witch hazel, one 
ounce; fluid extract of golden seal and tincture of 
myrrh, each one-half ounce; borax, twenty grains; rose 
water, one-half pint, and fill the cavity with it and 
apply around the edges compound tincture of myrrh. 
Place a large piece of cotton over all and keep in 
place by strips of adhesive plaster. Change at least 
every six hours, except at night. Sustain the patient 
by light and nourishing diet and a tonic of gentian 
compound (see formulas) every three hours. During 
restlessness, present with the pain, an infusion of 
equal parts of lady slipper and camomile will be 
found useful, given every hour. During convalescence 
the alterative syrup (see formulas) should be adminis- 

Carcinoma. — Malignant Tumors. — See Cancer. 

Cardiac Affections. — See Diseases of the Heart. 

Cardialgia. — Heartburn. — This affection is caused 
entirely by indigestion; and the palpitations of the 
heart and burning sensations in that region often lead 
many to suspect heart troubles, hence its common 
name. It is fully described in the article on Heart- 

Carnification. — Pulmonary Collapse. — This is a con- 
dition of the lungs caused by obstructions hindering 
pure air from reaching the air cells in sufficient quan- 
tities. It is more fully spoken of under Atelectasis 
and Capillary Bronchitis. 



Emasculation. Alteration. 

This is the operation for removal of the testicles, 
and should never be resorted to unless there exists an 
incurable disease of the parts. The skin, from the 
abdominal ring" to the end of the scrotum, is cut open 
by a scalpel. The cord is pulled down and tied, like- 
wise the blood vessels; the testicle is exposed and 
easily removed by severing - the cord and vessels about 
half an inch below where they are tied. The wound 
should be cleansed with boracic acid solution and the 
incision stitched; and all properly dressed. The re- 
moval of both testicles, though unwarranted, is oc- 
casionally resorted to as a means of overcoming ab- 
normal sexual passion. 

Eunichs, so frequent in oriental countries, are cas- 
trated males, frequently employed as guards to wo- 
men. The removal of the testicles, of course, de- 
stroys capacity for procreation. Those who have 
been castrated slowly change in their physical char- 
acteristics. Their voice becomes more effeminate and 
their bodies, as a rule, fatten easily; and their dis- 
positions become more docile, and energy is dimin- 
ished. Otherwise they suffer in no special manner, 
and their lives are not shortened by the operation. 


Death-like Rigidity of the Body. 

This is a peculiar condition during" which tne mus- 
cles of the body become rigid and the whole body 
corpse-like; sensation is generally lost, respiration is 
very feeble and the pulse extremely soft, at times al- 
most imperceptible. An attack of catalepsy may 
come on without warning and may last from a few 
minutes to two weeks. Sometimes there is complete 
loss of consciousness, though in other cases the pa- 
tient is entirely conscious of what is g'oing on, but un- 
able to give expression of sensibility. The limbs usu- 
ally remain fixed in the position last assumed, or in 
any position they may be placed, no matter how em- 


barrassing. The joints are as readily movable as 
though they were artificial. 

Catalepsy is usually a symptom of functional brain 
trouble, and may occur with hysteria, St. Vitus' 
dance or insanity, or may occur during* the course of 
typhoid or other prostrating fevers when the brain be- 
comes involved. Likewise the influence of anaesthet- 
ics upon the brain may cause catalepsy. It can be 
treated only by ascertaining the particular difficulty 
of which it is symptomatic. When catalepsy is pro- 
longed, food should be administered by injections to 
the rectum, such as broths, barley-water, etc. ; and co- 
coanut oil should be rubbed over the abdomen. 

Cataract. — See section upon Diseases of the Eye. 


Coryza. Cold in the Head. 

This is a trifling and well known difficulty, and may 
usually be traced to some imprudency or exposure to 
cold which closes the pores of the skin, not allowing 
free outward circulation, and consequently crowding 
blood on the mucous membrane, which becomes irri- 
tated. The symptoms are sneezing and watery dis- 
charge from the nose. Sometimes the nose becomes 
choked, necessitating breathing through the mouth 
and causing dryness. In infants this seriously inter- 
feres with nursing and they should at such times be 
nourished by the spoon. 

The discharge from the nose may be watery for 
awhile, and then become offensive; scabs of dried mu- 
cus may form inside the nostril and they may become 
degenerate (see Ozcena). The discharge may be so 
abundant as to fall back into the stomach, causing 
nausea. Infants may even strangle by mucus falling 
into the wind-pipe when asleep; they should at such 
times be placed upon the side. The bronchial tubes 
may become inflamed after a neglected case of simple 
nasal catarrh. 

Treatment. — The difficulty rarely lasts over a week 
at the most, even if unattended to. Usually staying 


in-doors in an equable temperature, keeping the 
bowels open and eating- lightly will be all sufficient. 
Favoring outward circulation is beneficial; this is ac- 
complished by drinking hot lemonade with a little 
ginger essence in it. Sage or spearmint teas are favor- 
ites with many. Cocoanut oil or goose grease rubbed 
over and above the bridge of the nose will loosen 
out the mucus. 

If the discharge becomes offensive and abundant, a 
snuff may be used composed of golden seal and wild 
cherry bark, equal parts, to which is added a little 
powdered borax. When the throat and bronchial 
tubes become irritated during acute catarrh, equal 
parts of syrup of wild cherry and syrup of licorice 
will be found most excellent taken internally three or 
four times a day. 


Ozoena. Purulent Nasal Catarrh. 

There are many causes for the condition known as 
chronic catarrh; constitutional diseases or predisposi- 
tion, unfavorable climate, frequent exposures, occupa- 
tions necessitating the inhalations of dust or irrita- 
ting gases, neglected or protracted acute catarrh, etc. 
There are varying degrees of the difficulty, some have 
a continuous and abundant discharge of glary mucus, 
which is prone to degenerate and become offensive, 
known as moist catarrh; others have little if any dis- 
charge beyond stringy and offensive shreds. The mu- 
cous membrane becomes red and swollen, the sense of 
smell and sometimes that of taste, becomes impaired. 
Ulceration may follow and the small bones of the 
nose may decay, causing the disgusting form of 
catarrh known as ozoena. Occasionally calcareous de- 
posits, with the dried mucus, form hard, stone-like 
scales in the nostrils, known as rliinolitlis. Catarrh is 
technically spoken of as rhinitis catarrhalis, and the 
abundant discharge of purulent mucus is termed rhin- 

Treatment. — Ascertain the cause and direct treat- 
ment accordingly. Harmful pursuits should be dis~ 


continued; constitutional difficulties should be over- 
come if possible, and in all cases proper environments 
should be provided. Nourishing food, fresh air and 
healthful exercise are necessities. Compound Syrup 
of Stillingia (see formulas) should be given whenever 
the disease is protracted and ulceration or ozoena is 
present. Salt water baths are most advisable. 
Douches should not be used; they may cause diseases 
of the eustachian tube or middle ear. By the atom- 
izer or spray is an excellent way of administering 

For purulent catarrh use twice daily a spray of the 
following: Ten grains of borax and one drachm of 
tincture of calendula in two ounces of water. For 
ozcene, use one ounce of peroxide of hydrogen to 
three of water with a drachm of listerine. A snuff of 
golden seal and bayberry, equal parts, and borax one- 
half part, should be used frequently in moist catarrh. 
Should the stomach be involved by purulent mucus 
dropping into it from the back of the nose, emetics 
may be needed, and occasionally a few drops of tinct- 
ure of myrrh. 

Catarrh Epidemic. — See article on Grippe. 

Catarrhal Fever. — See article on Influenza. 

Catarrh of Special Organs.— Very frequently 
there will be met catarrhal conditions associated with 
diseases of special organs. These are all inflamma- 
tions of the mucus membranes either acute or chronic 
in form. There may be catarrh of the stomach, or 
bowels or intestines or bladder, each with its peculiar 
characteristic. These are fully mentioned and treated 
of in the articles devoted to diseases of those organs. 

Cellulitis. — An inflammation of the cellular struct- 
ures. Treated of in the article on Erysipelas. 

Cephalalgia. — See article on Headache. 

Cerebral Abscess. — See Brain Diseases. 



Extravasation of Blood in the Brain. 

This is an extravasation of blood between the mem- 
branes of the brain and the brain itself, or the 
cranium. The causes are extreme heat, excessive 
muscular or mental exertion, excessive indulgence in 
venery or alcoholic liquors, and weakness of infancy 
or old age. The symptoms are profound stupor com- 
ing on suddenly, after a short spell of dizziness, head- 
ache and convulsions. Before death there may be com- 
plete insensibility, involuntary discharges from the 
bowels and bladder and sometimes general convulsions. 

Treatment is usually of no avail and death follows in 
a few hours or days. 

Cerebral Hernia. — See Head, Injuries to. 

Cerebritis. — See Brain Inflammation. 

CerebrO-Spinal Fever. — Meningitis. — See Spotted 

Chancre, Chancroid. — See Diseases of the Gener- 
ative Organs. 

Charcot's Disease. — This is a disease of the joints 
in which the articular extremities wear away. There 
are at first cutting pains of short duration; followed 
by swelling of the limbs near the joints, and sponta- 
neous dislocations and great liability to fracture. 
There may also be loss of muscular control, as in lo- 
comotor ataxia. 


Scleroderma. Keloid. 

This is a growth of fibrous tissues of the skin at 
some one spot, usually, though not always, occurring 
where there has been a scar from a burn or injury. 


Though keloid resembles in many respects a simple 
scar, it is an entirely different difficulty. 

Symptoms. — A keloid is a smooth and rounded tumor 
of very small size, growing very slowly on the chest, 
breasts, sides, back and other parts of the body; 
rarely at first being- larger than a grain of wheat, and 
in the course of months or years spreading slowly, 
usually sending out branches, giving a crab-like or 
star appearance. It is very tender to the touch and 
often itches and tingles, though not otherwise pain- 
ful. They are white, flesh-colored or pink and con- 
tain minute blood vessels plainly visible in old cases. 
They rise above the surface of the skin not over one- 
eighth of an inch, and are never scaly and never sup- 
purate, and do not impair the health. Usually more 
than one keloid develops upon the body. 

Treatment. — Never cut or burn them out, they will 
only return larger than ever. It is best to endeavor 
to harden them by applying a salve made of one 
drachm of tannic acid rubbed into one ounce of vase- 
line. When they are extremely sensitive tincture of 
calendula will allay the itching and tingling sensa- 


Penetration of the Lun^s and Heart. 

External injuries of the chest, such as cuts and 
bruises of the skin and muscles, have no particular 
characteristics to distinguish them from similar in- 
juries elsewhere. But deeper injuries are not infre- 
quent and should be recognized. 

Penetration of the lung by instruments, etc., may be 
thus distinguished: There will be cough and frothy 
and bloody expectoration, along with pleurisy pains, 
and an escape of air through the wound, often min- 
gled with frothy blood. This is soon followed by wa- 
ter in the lungs or pneumonia and an inability to 
force out the air readily. Such wounds are always 
serious, but if the patient survives ten days after the 
injury there is ground for hope. 


Treatment must include perfect quiet and binding of 
the chest in a fixed position. Antiseptics must be 
used abundantly and all stimulation avoided. There 
is less danger from collapse than there is from hem- 
orrhage arising after stimulation. Food must be of 
the lightest class. 

When the heart or its covering (pericardium) is in- 
jured, it will be readily known by the location of the 
wound and the great difficulty of breathing and agony 
of the patient and his own knowledge of his heart's 
disturbance. These cases are not always fatal. 
Treat as penetration of the lungs. Persons w T ho die 
instantly from heart wound either jump in the air or 
fall suddenly with a shriek when the heart is pierced. 



This is a disease confined almost exclusively to chil- 
dren, and although it causes considerable annoyance, 
and may become epidemic, it is a simple malady and 
of itself is never fatal. It is strange that this disease 
which is so easily distinguishable should be mistaken 
for anything else; but often have blundering phy- 
sicians declared it to be small-pox, and thus spread 
consternation through communities till the mistake 
was discovered. Also the same class of incompetents 
have time and again declared a genuine case of small- 
pox to be " nothing but chicken-pox, ' ' and the result 
of their blunders can be imagined. There is no ex- 
cuse whatever for such gross carelessness or ignor- 
ance being manifested in diagnosis. It does not need 
a medical man to discern small-pox from chicken-pox 
— they are so widely different. 

Symptoms. — The disease is the result of exposure, it 
being contagious, and it commences to manifest itself 
on the fourth or fifth day after exposure. There is 
seldom any chill at the outset, and although a slight 
fever may arise, with a corresponding increased fre- 
quency of the pulse, yet this is seldom the case unless 
the stomach is deranged at the same time, when there 


will also be a white furred tongue and an irritated 
feeling of nausea. 

Usually the first indication of chicken-pox is the 
eruption. This appears as minute round pimples, 
coming first on the forehead and then on the face, and 
occasionally over the arms and body. The day after 
their appearance these pimples fill with a transpar- 
ent or milky fluid which makes them look like little 
' k water-blisters. " They are round and full and are 
never indented or yellow like small-pox pustules. Be- 
sides, they are manifestly superficial and not deep- 
seated at all. 

There may be two or three sets of pimples on the 
body at the same time — some just starting as others 
disappear. Thus the eruption may last a week, 
though four days is the usual time for any set of 
" pimples " to fill and dry up and drop off. Occasion- 
ally several of the vesicles may run together, and the 
surrounding tissues may look angry. 

Treatment. — If no complications arise, such as may 
be occasioned by cold, improper diet or carelessness, 
no special treatment is necessary in chicken-pox be- 
yond a light diet and the maintenance of even warmth 
till the eruption and the yellow spotted appearance 
following it have disappeared. The bowels should be 
kept open — milk of magnesia being excellent for this 
purpose. If the stomach is deranged use neutralizing 
cordial (see formulas). An infusion of scullcap, one 
ounce, and boiling water, one pint, may be used in ta- 
blespoonful doses if there is much nervousness; and 
pleurisy root, one-half ounce, may be added if the 
skin is too hot. For itching, bathe the surface with 
hot water containing borax or some cooking soda or 
tincture of lobelia, one ounce, in witch hazel extract, 
seven ounces. The pimples do not eat into the skin 
like small-pox; nevertheless by scratching them they 
may become irritated and pus may form and a scar re- 
sult. It is well, with small children, to put little per- 
forated pieces of court plaster over the larger and 
more angry pimples of the face to hinder their being 
picked at for relief. If they appear on the body, the 
clothing should be loose to avoid too much irritation. 


Congestion from Frost Bites. 

From being- frost bitten or exposed to great cold and 
then suddenly warmed, or by being suddenly exposed 
to cold when hot, the skin suffers what is known as 
chilblains — usually mentioned as a trouble of the feet. 
There is great itching - and burning and extreme ten- 
derness. The parts become swollen and red, or pur- 
ple, and in severe cases suppuration or gangrene may 

Treatment. — As a precaution against chilblains never 
suddenly warm cold feet, and if frost bite is suspected, 
rub them briskly with snow or cloths soaked in cold 
water. After the feet have become accustomed to or- 
dinal temperature, a stimulating liniment may be ap- 
plied. Chilblains are usually persistent and may an- 
noy a person for years. Many apply petroleum band- 
ages for a cure, but the most efficient remedy is the 
compound tincture of myrrh (No. 6). This may be 
rubbed on night and morning-. The tincture of calen- 
dula will be found very serviceable in giving tempo- 
rary relief at times of severe painfulness. 


Puerperal Fever. Puerperal Peritonitis. 

This difficulty is frequently met with, and when it 
occurs it is of the gravest importance. As the name 
infers it is a disease peculiar to child-bed. Its most 
common cause is the use of instruments in delivery, 
though sudden fright or great nervous excitement, 
over-exertion or injudiciousness in various ways soon 
after or during delivery may cause the trouble. It is 
an inflammation of the peritoneum, or membranous fold 
over the bowels and other organs; and this inflamma- 
tion may extend to those organs, especially the womb. 
It is often spoken of as puerperal septicaemia, as it is 
contagious; that is, it can be conveyed to other women 
during delivery by the hands of a nurse or physician, 
or by the presence of other women suffering from it — 
as in a hospital. Some authors give the name of 


puerperal fever to a slow form of fever seldom met 
with. But the puerperal or child-bed fever here re- 
ferred to is that usually known by the name. It may 
occur any time within two weeks after delivery, 
though usually between the third and seventh day, 
and unless promptly attended to it is liable to prove 

Symptoms. — These usually commence suddenly in the 
form of a distinct chill of varying intensity, from a 
mere shivering to a violent shake. This is quickly 
followed by a rise in temperature. The pulse becomes 
frequent, 100 to 110 per minute (occasionally of nor- 
mal frequency) and is full and hard, though it becomes 
small and thready in very severe cases. The counte- 
nance becomes pinched and there is a look of agony 
and great restlessness. The tongue at first is covered 
with moist fur, which becomes white and brown and 
dry with red edges. There may be sallowness and 
sometimes perspiration. The flow of milk ceases, as 
does also the discharge (lochia) as a rule, though it 
may continue and be very offensive. The bowels are 
at first constipated, and in severe cases may develop 
diarrhoea and involuntary discharges. There may be 
purple spots on the face, chest and thighs. There is 
usually vomiting and the abdomen swells rapidly and 
becomes enormous and tender, the least movement or 
noise of others causing severe pain. The patient lies 
on her back with the knees drawn up. There is head- 
ache and often delirium. Very sudden cessation of 
pain is unfavorable. Sleeplessness and loss of appe- 
tite are invariable. 

Treatment. — This difficulty should be strictly guarded 
against. Great cleanliness, quiet and hygienic sur- 
roundings should always be provided for lying-in wo- 
men. The treatment of child-bed fever should com- 
mence as soon as the first symptoms manifest them- 
selves; delay is almost necessarily fatal. When the 
chill comes, place hot irons to the feet and administer 
three drops of No. 6 in hot water every fifteen min- 
utes. When the fever commences and continues give 
frequently a strong infusion of pleurisy root and 


ginger, containing a little tincture of myrrh and tinct- 
ure of lobelia. If there is constipation give an in- 
jection of boneset containing a little ginger. If the 
abdomen is greatly distended place over it a hot 
fomentation of smartweed and mullein leaves, or 
cloths rung out of hot vinegar and red pepper, or 
some stimulating liniment. If diarrhoea is present 
and involuntary discharges occur, give injections of 
composition infusion containing tincture of myrrh. If 
the discbarge from the womb is offensive use a vagi- 
nal injection of borax water and tincture of myrrh. 
Enjoin perfect quiet; and when the severe symptoms 
and dangers are past, use composition and scull cap 
infusion until recovery is perfect. Allow plenty of 
water, though not too cold. Feed light and nourish- 
ing diet. 


Moth Spots. 

This is a trifling difficulty in which the pigment or 
coloring matter of the skin in some portions, usually 
on the forehead, increases abnormally, giving light 
brown or yellow spots just below the hair on the fore- 
head. They are usually crescent shaped. They are 
indicative of uterine (womb) difficulty and are not in- 
frequently met with in pregnant women, and disap- 
pear after delivery. They are not annoying beyond 
being unsightly. The only sure way to cause their 
disappearance when caused by womb trouble is to re- 
move the cause. They may often be lightened in 
color by applying a lotion made of five grains of sali- 
cylic acid in an ounce each of ammonia and witch 
hazel extract. 


Green Sickness. Anaemia of Puberty. 

This is a peculiar condition of the system, involving 
an unnatural condition of the blood, to which females 
are liable, especially immediately after puberty and 


before twenty-five years of age. A scrofulous predis- 
position or a tendency toward consumption may be a 
cause, though it often occurs when no such conditions 
are present. Most frequently in young girls too much 
study or an enervating life, or poor surroundings and 
unsuitable food may be the cause. Mental anxiety, 
exhausting occupation or disappointments, especially 
in love affairs, may induce it in many. 

Symptoms. — These manifest themselves slowly and 
are numerous, and those mentioned may not all be ob- 
served. They are: General languor, lack of interest 
in ordinary affairs, desire to sleep, capricious appetite 
for unusual things — slate pencils, vinegar, etc. ; dys- 
pepsia, palpitation and shortness of breath, offensive 
breath, tongue white, inside of mouth pale, heart 
weak, voice feeble. Hands and feet usually cold. 
Perhaps puffiness of the eyelids and swelling of the 
feet. The body is usually plump except in very pro- 
tracted cases. The face is pale and gradually be- 
comes sallow and assumes a greenish hue. There may 
be neuralgic pains in various localities, sometimes 
headache and occasionally extreme nervousness and 
hysterics. The bowels are constipated, the urine pale 
and abundant and the menses checked as a rule. 

Treatment. — Change of habits and surroundings, 
abundance of fresh air, moderate exercise at pleasant 
duties, rest from study or mental labor, congenial 
companionship, a most nourishing diet of easily di- 
gested foods. Salt water baths with plenty of rubbing, 
and very comfortable clothing should be provided. 
Get the bowels moving by liver pills and then give 
each night a gentle laxative such as fig syrup (see 
formulas). A tonic may be prepared as follows and 
taken to advantage: 

Take Scullcap herb one ounce. 

Blue Cohosh one ounce. 

Golden Seal one-half ounce. 

Coriander Seed " " " 

Orange peel one- fourth ounce. 

Mix and steep in one quart of water, strain and add two 


pounds of sugar and tivo ounces of glycerine. Dose, ttvo 
teaspoonfuls after each meal. 

Chlorosis is never of itself fatal, but unless attended 
to properly, may continue for years and lay the foun- 
dation for the ravages of fatal constitutional disease. 


Obstruction in the Windpipe. 

This is an accident that not infrequently happens, 
and calls for immediate action. It usually is caused 
by the swallowing- of objects too large for the throat," 
which lodge in the gullet and obstruct the windpipe 
by pressure. The swallowing of bones or other sharp 
substances may also cause choking; and, again, sub- 
stances may directly enter the windpipe — such cases 
are the most serious. 

Treatment. — Of course the first endeavor should be 
to remove the offending substance. Meat or large and 
soft substances may be shoved into the stomach or ex- 
tracted from the throat by means of a probang. If 
the case is that of a child, turn it upside down and 
slap on the shoulders. Adults may be similarly 
treated if the assistants are strong enough. Fish 
bones, which are fine, if they cannot be extracted by 
a pair of forceps, may be forced downward by admin- 
istering the white of an egg, not beaten. When a 
substance is lodged in the windpipe itself, turning up- 
side down is always the best procedure. 

Asiatic Cholera. Malignant Cholera. 

There are certain portions of Asia where cholera is 
epidemic the year round, and from such regions it 
often disseminates by air or water or by individuals to 
various other localities over the world. The chief 
source of contagion seems to lie in the material evac- 
uated from the bowels of cholera sufferers. This ma- 
terial drying in the air may fill the atmosphere with 


the poisonous germs. It may permeate the soil and 
find its way into drinking water, such as that of wells 
or streams. These facts demonstrate that the great- 
est precautions must be taken during cholera epidem- 
ics by the general public. 

No danger exists in nursing cholera patients pro- 
vided it is rendered impossible for the poisonous 
germs of the evacuated material to enter the mouth. 
All evacuations should be made into a vessel contain- 
ing lime and should be quickly covered and conveyed 
to some pit a distance from possible contamination 
with drinking water and then buried with chloride of 
lime thrown in. An almost infinitesimal portion of 
the germ poison will contaminate an enormous amount 
of water. 

Symptoms. — These develop in from twelve hours to 
two weeks, usually within a week after exposure. 
They may be divided into three stages: 

1. Stage of Diarrhoea. — A profuse diarrhoea of 
watery material starts suddenly, with some pain in the 
bowels and a feeling of peculiar weakness in the pit 
of the stomach. There is no fever and the tongue is 
broad and coated white. This diarrhoea may continue 
three or four days in this way or may at once develop 
more alarming symptoms. There is vomiting of food 
and mucus, often very painful, great thirst sets in, 
there are rumblings through the bowels, discharges 
become thin, like rice-water and involuntary, cramps 
commence in the calves of the legs and extend to 
other muscles. Prostration becomes great and the pa- 
tient sinks rapidly, the pulse growing feeble and fre- 
quent and the extremities cold, and the countenance 
anxious and pinched. Thus is ushered in the second 

2. Collapse. — Sometimes this may commence almost 
as soon as the diarrhoea and prove rapidly fatal. 
Vomiting and purging diminish, the urine is not evac- 
uated; there are continued cramps and painful efforts 
at vomiting, buzzing sounds in the ears, headache and 
almost loss of voice; it becoming weak and husky. 
The face becomes terribly pinched, the extremities 
cold and blue, and dark rings appear under the eyes 


which, themselves, are sunken and the conjunctiva be- 
comes dry. The muscles seem to lose all power and 
may be felt as flacid dough, and the skin like wet 
chamois skin and wrinkled. Breathing is shallow 
and the pulse gradually disappears. The patient may 
be restless and conscious or lie in a seeming stupor, 
indifferent to his surroundings and develop profound 
stupor. Such symptoms may extend over two or three 
days, but in most cases they last but a few hours. 

3. Reaction. — The symptoms of collapse may grad- 
ually subside and normal action be restored. Breath- 
ing and heart actions become more natural, the tem- 
perature rises and strength returns. Often this period 
may seem fairly established when retention of urine, 
intestinal irritation or typhoid condition may cause 
death. Convalescence is always slow and liable to be 
interrupted. Probably not more than thirty per cent 
recover from the period of collapse. 

Treatment. — Very few of those who are attacked 
with cholera need enter into the period of collapse, 
and there is no necessity for strong, healthy persons 
of temperate habits and will power to succumb. 
Worry and fear cause liability of an attack during an 
epidemic. Cleanliness, fresh air, freedom from worry, 
refreshing sleep, and wholesome diet of pure food and 
pure drink are foes of cholera. 

It is unwise during an epidemic to change the habits 
of natural living to those of a restricted diet. Fresh 
and ripe, not over-ripe, fruits and vegetables, may be 
eaten freely with safety. Alcoholic liquors cannot be 
taken, even moderately, without danger, and the 
same may be said of unripe or stale fruits and vegeta- 
bles. Sleeping rooms should be well ventilated, and 
cleanliness in everything must be preserved, and 
especial care taken to secure the purest drinking wa- 
ter. Such precautions during a cholera epidemic may 
reasonably assure avoidance of the disease. 

At the commencement of the diarrhceal period, give 
every fifteen minutes a teaspoonful of an infusion of 
raspberry leaves, prickly ash and wild yam, each one- 
half ounce to a pint of boiling water, and rub stimu- 
lating liniment over the abdomen. Every two hours 


give a teaspoonful of a mixture of neutralizing cordial, 
four ounces; tine, kino, two drachms; com. tine, of 
myrrh, one-half drachm; keep the feet warm and en- 
join quiet and abstinence from food, and only table- 
spoonful quantities of water at a time to quench thirst. 
Should the symptoms develop adversely and cramps 
set in, no time must be lost in resorting to heroic meas- 
ures. Prepare hot infusion of red pepper with salt 
in it and dip flannels in this and rub the cramped mus- 
cles vigorously. Make the following: Composition 
powder, one ounce; scullcap and goldenseal, one-half 
ounce each to a pint of boiling water and add an ounce 
each of cider vinegar and tincture of kino, and admin- 
ister every half hour in teaspoonful doses. If it can- 
not be retained leave out the vinegar, and give as an 
injection to the bowels every half hour and have it re- 
tained, by a compress if necessary. If the crude 
smart weed can be obtained it may be made into a 
fomentation with hot water and laid upon the abdo- 
men. The period of collapse is one of profound con- 
gestion and all treatment must be directed toward 
sustaining the heart's action and equalizing the circu- 
lation. Hot salt bags or jugs of hot water may be 
placed along the sides and the patient may be 
wrapped in hot blankets. 

During convalescence the strictest attention is nec- 
essary. Food should not be given for a day after the 
attack, and medicines should likewise be withheld un- 
less there is urgent need of them. The kidneys may 
frequently be urged to action by placing over the 
small of the back cloths wrung out of hot water. 
Quietude is imperative. All sheets and bed clothing 
that could possibly have been soiled with evacuations 
or discharged injections should be burned, and every 
precaution taken against spreading the disease, even 
though it be epidemic. 


Summer Complaint of Children. 

This is a disease of childhood, and is always the re- 
sult of preventable causes. It is almost entirely con- 



fined to the cities, and filth, crowding-, overheating 
and unwholesome food are the principal causes. The 
greed for gain sacrifices many thousands of lives of 
little children by providing them improper food and 
surroundings for existence; the poor are thus forced 
to suffer. 

Symptoms of cholera infantum may come on slowly; 
though in nearly all cases they develop rapidly, usu- 
ally becoming dangerous in six to twelve hours. 
There are frequent discharges from the bowels, of a 
thin and frothy character, soon followed by rejection 
of food and vomiting. Great prostration ensues and 
may result in unconscious stupor, the eyes rolled back • 
and the extremities cold and blue. As a rule the 
countenance is pale and the nose pinched and cold, 
while the abdomen and head are hot and there is every 
indication of internal fever. The pulse is weak and 
small and very frequent. 

Treatment. — Neutralizing cordial and syrup of wild 
cherry, equal parts, should be given as soon as diarrhoea 
commences. Rub stimulating liniment over the abdo- 
men, and if the surface is hot, give a sponge bath of 
warm water. Keep the child absolutely quiet and give 
plenty of fresh air. Do not let it be annoyed by, flies 
or by being carried about. An injection of weak in- 
fusion of raspberry leaves and lady slipper may be 
given every three hours. If the feet are cold, wrap 
them in hot flannels. Quench the thirst by small 
drinks of cool water. 

For food, the malted milk will be found a superior 
article. Ordinary milk should have a little lime- 
water added. During convalescence the syrup of 
wild cherry bark will be found most useful. The pre- 
vention of cholera infantum consists in fresh air and 
wholesome and proper food and avoidance of over- 
heating along with cleanliness. Little children should 
not be fed on the diet of adults. All during the sum- 
mer months the greatest care must be taken of their 
welfare. Flannel should be worn next to the abdo- 
men, and every precaution taken against chilling the 
surface. Strictly prohibit ice water and harsh foods. 



Choleraic Diarrhoea. Cholera Nostras. 

This is essentially a summer disease caused by over- 
indulgence, improper food or sudden changes. It is in 
reality an acute catarrhal inflammation of the stomach 
extending into the intestines and causing extreme 
nervous prostration. There is nausea, retching and 
vomiting of greenish material, followed by watery 
discharges. There may be cramps and pain. The at- 
tacks come on suddenly and are often repeated, while 
the whole system becomes prostrated. The surface 
may grow cold and collapse and death may possibly 
follow neglected cases. 

Treatment. — Place a mustard plaster or flannels sat- 
urated with stimulating liniment over the abdomen. 
Administer neutralizing cordial containing a little 
tincture of kino every fifteen minutes. As a drink, 
allow no cold water, but give an infusion of marsh- 
mallow root and catnip. In extreme cases, injection 
of raspberry leaf infusion is serviceable. During con- 
valescence give syrup of wild cherry bark and allow a 
return to usual diet to be made very slowly. 


St. Vitus' Dance. 

This is a most annoying difficulty, characterized by 
inability to control the use of the voluntary muscles. 
It usually occurs with girls between the ages of six 
and sixteen, but men and adults may be sufferers. 
Children of consumptive parentage or those of a 
highly nervous organization are oftenest afflicted. 
The difficulty may come on slowly, or it may develop 
suddenly from some shock or great mental excitement 
or injury. Worms and pregnancy are not infrequent 
causes, though such cases are cured when the exciting 
cause is removed. Simple habits often acquired by 
children, such as winking, shrugging the shoulders, 
etc., should not be mistaken for St. Vitus' dance. 


Symptoms. — The first signs are usually fidge tings and 
awkwardness, often mistaken for clumsiness, and 
scoldings under such circumstances aggravate the 
difficulty. Inability to hold articles in the hand, es- 
pecially breakable articles, is usual. Then come pe- 
culiar twitchings or contractions of the muscles. 
Odd faces may be "made," and the arms or legs may 
jerk involuntarily. 

The head may be thrown to one side suddenly, the 
tongue stuck out, etc. Occasionally there is a nerv- 
ous cough and irregular breathing. The involuntary 
movements may be general, though usually confined 
to one side of the body or one particular set of mus- 
cles. They are not painful and very seldom continue 
during sleep. Attacks of St. Vitus' dance rarely last 
over a month at a time; though occasionally the diffi- 
culty is stubbornly chronic. 

Treatment. — Search for exciting causes and remove 
them. Expel worms, clean out the alimentary canal, 
evacuate the liver and correct disorders of the stom- 
ach should such exist. Never scold children for their 
awkwardness under such circumstance, and do not re- 
fer to their unusual actions — it makes matters worse. 
Keep them from school and let them have perfect 
freedom, and allow them to sleep late in the morning. 
Give warm baths morning and evening, and never al- 
low fatigue at play or work. Prepare a syrup as fol- 
lows: Cramp bark and black cohosh and hops, each 
one-fourth ounce to a pint of hot water; steep and 
strain and add one and a half pounds of sugar and 
flavor with essence of anise. Give a teaspoonful be- 
tween meals and at bed-time. This may be given as 
a simple infusion, made fresh each day. 


Colored Perspiration. 

This is a peculiar condition in which perspiration 
seems to be colored red, purple, and in a few recorded 
instances, brown. The real nature of the difficulty is 
not known. It has been successfully treated by fre- 


quent bathing" in borax water, abundance of fresh air 
and wholesome food, and perfect rest of mind and the 
use of nervine tonics. 


Chyle in the Pleural Cavity. 

This is an accumulation of chyle in the pleural cav- 
ity, and is caused by an injury or the rupture of the 
thoracic duct. It is of extremely rare occurrence and 
is recognized by thrusting an aspirating needle into 
the cavity, drawing 1 off some of the milky fluid and ex- 
amining it under the microscope. Remedies are of no 
avail and nearly all cases are fatal. Drawing off the 
fluid by the aspirator may give relief for a short pe- 

Cirrhosis. — See Diseases of the Liver. 


Neuralgia of the Coccyx. 

This is a very painful affection involving the small 
bone, or coccyx, at the lower end of the spine. Usu- 
ally caused by an injury, such as falling astraddle or 
coming down heavily and unexpectedly upon the seat. 
Women frequently suffer from it as a result of partu- 

Symptoms. — There is great neuralgic pain, readily 
known to have its origin at the tip end of the spine. 
This pain may be constant, sharp twinges upon the 
least movement; or it may occur as severe neuralgic 
spells at intervals. 

Treatment. — The bowels must be kept open so as to 
avoid accumulations in the rectum. If the faeces be- 
come hardened there will be great pain caused during 
movements of the bowels. At such times injections 
should be administered. Locally apply tincture of lo- 
belia freely, and during neuralgic spells use injections 


of boneset and lobelia infusion. Quietude must be 
maintained as far as possible. Severe cases usually 
require the coccyx (the lowest point of the spine) to 
be removed by a surgical operation. 


Colica Enteral^ia. 

This is an acute trouble of the bowels, causing 1 spas- 
modic pain radiating from the navel. The suffering 
comes on at intervals of more or less frequency, and 
at times is very intense, causing the patient to bend 
double, and often to grow cold and break out in per- 
spiration. Pressure on the abdomen gives relief, by 
which colic may be distinguished from other difficul- 
ties. There is a great amount of wind on the bowels, 
from which fact it is often termed flatulance or wind 
colic. When this has passed off relief is experienced, 
and an evacuation of the bowels (which at the time 
are usually constipated), will almost end the attack. 

Treatment. — When it is known that the suffering is 
caused by the pressure in the stomach of undigested 
food, an emetic should be given at once — a tablespoon- 
ful of salt in a cup of luke w T arm water with a pinch 
of mustard will usually suffice. If the. food is appar- 
ently already in the intestines, as is usually the case, 
give a dose of milk of magnesia, or of senna and 
ginger in infusion. For the suffering, rub stimulating 
liniment or essence of ginger over the abdomen and 
internally give neutralizing cordial in teaspoonful 
doses every half hour. If there is great cramping, 
use an infusion of peppermint, spearmint, catnip or 
wild yam every ten minutes till relief is obtained. A 
mustard plaster over the abdomen may even be found 


Painters' Colic. Saturnine Colic. 

This is peculiar to those working in trades employ- 
ing lead, or any of its preparations, or to those who 


drink wines or liquors aclultered with lead compounds, 
or those who have been poisoned by drinking" water or 
foods contaminated by the metal. 

Symptoms. — These usually come on slowly, requiring 
two or three days for their development. There is un- 
easiness throughout the bowels, occasional purging - , 
loss of appetite and a general feeling of numbness 
through the hands and feet. These are followed by 
constipation and griping", nausea and disgust for food 
and sharp pains in the limbs. There is great paleness 
and a feeling of dejection and a desire to refrain from 
all exertion. The crampings in the bowels increase 
and center about the navel, and the abdomen becomes 
depressed and often feels knotted. A narrow streak 
of blue may often be seen along the gums and the 
muscles may become tender and paralysis sometimes 

Treatment. — A vapor bath given slowly is of great 
value, after which the whole body should be rubbed 
thoroughly with stimulating liniment. Then give in- 
jections of a weak infusion of lady-slipper and bone- 
set in starch water; these may be repeated every two 
hours during an attack. Internally administer an in- 
fusion of composition and lady slipper every hour, 
and night and morning give the liver pills. During 
convalescence give the compound syrup of gentian 
(see formulas) and allow most nourishing though light 
diet. Milk is an excellent drink. Change of occupa- 
tion and out-door exercise should be provided in all 



Very small children, two or three weeks old, may 
be afflicted with colic. The causes are varied. Usu- 
ally it is the result of the noxious articles— goose- 
grease, orange juice, sugar-water, etc., poured down 
a new born infant's throat by meddlesome nurses to 
"clean out the mucus/' It may be caused by too 


early feeding, or by retention in the bowels of the me- 
conium or dark fluid found in the intestines at birth, 
or other causes. 

Symptoms. — Spells of crying come on at stated inter- 
vals, usually at night, and continue perhaps for two 
or three hours; the legs are drawn up to the belly, 
which is usually distended, and there may be belching 
of wind. 

Treatment. — Do not dose an infant, and always con- 
sider that what may be mild and simple to an adult 
may be severe to a baby. Give a small injection (two 
ounces) of a weak infusion of catnip and wild yam. 
This will usually be found sufficient. If not, give 
about half a teaspoonful of catnip and pleurisy root 
infusion. Turn the child on its belly and gently rub 
the back. A warm bath before the hour of an ex- 
pected attack will often forestall it or decrease its 
severity. These spells may last a month or more. 


Nephralgia. Colica Renalis. 

When a person is subject to gravel or calculi, an at- 
tack of renal colic is liable to occur at any time and 
cause excruciating agony while it lasts. The ureters 
are the tubes which convey the urine from the kidneys 
to the bladder; they are funnel-shaped at the kidneys, 
and gravel is extremely liable to get into them, and 
should a small stone as big as a grain of wheat hap- 
pen to find its way into one of the ureters, it would 
have great difficulty in passing through it to the 
bladder, and would cause irritation, inflammation and 
swelling, which would still more retard its movement. 

Symjrtoms. — These usually commence very suddenly 
as intense pain in the back and loins, extending to the 
testicles, a prominent sign being the fact that the tes- 
ticle on the side aifected is drawn upward. In women 
there is pain in the region of the ovary, but women 
seldom suffer from renal colic. The urine is scanty, 


almost suppressed, sometimes coming away in drops 
and containing" blood. Prostration is usually quite 
severe, and the agony may be such as to cause the suf- 
ferer to throw himself upon the floor and almost "go 
into spasms. ' ' It may continue a few hours or even 
two or three days before the small stone drops into 
the bladder, when there will be instant relief. Oc- 
casionally the stone becomes fixed in the ureter, when 
the most grave consequences may follow. 

Treatment. — The aim must be to relax the structures 
and thus favor the passage of the stone through the 
ureter. Apply to the small of the back and the loins 
a warm poultice of flax seed and lobelia seed and re- 
new frequently, keeping it warm. Give large injec- 
tions of lobelia and lady slipper every hour, having 
them retained. Internally administer an infusion of 
spearmint and wild yam every half hour in teaspoon- 
ful doses, adding lobelia if relief is not soon obtained. 
Treatment cannot be too urgently pressed during an 
attack. Afterwards use marsh-mallow root or holly- 
hock leaves and shepherd's purse in infusion for sev- 
eral days, and raspberry leaves if there continues to 
be a little blood in the urine. 

Congestion. — This is a condition that may occur in 
any organ or any part of the body. It is a partial or 
complete stasis of blood, and is usually preceded by 
an inflammatory stage. The inflammatory stage be- 
ing an indication that vital force is endeavoring to 
overcome obstructions, and the congestive stage be- 
ing an indication that the obstructions are greater 
than vitality can overcome unaided. 

Treatment must be based upon endeavors to equalize 
the circulation and sustain vitality. The various 
forms of congestions are considered in the articles on 
diseases of the various organs, such as the Bladder, 
Brain, Kidneys, Liver, Lungs, Spleen, Stomach, etc. 

Congestive Fever. — See Intermittent Fever. 


Conjunctivitis. — See Section on Diseases of the 


Inactivity of the Bowels. Costiveness. 

This well-known condition, in which the bowels are 
uot regularly evacuated, may be the result of various 

Predisposition — many persons by nature seeming to 
be thus troubled. 

Inattention to Nature's calls — occasioned by neglect, 
laziness or occupation. 

Improper diet — eating too much meat or dry foods, 
or drinking excessively of milk. 

Inactivity of the liver — there being a deficiency of 
bile thrown into the intestines. 

Deficient peristaltic (muscular movement) of the 
bowels; usually due to lack of nerve tone. 

Mechanical obstructions in the bowels — the pressure 
of the womb, tumors, etc. 

Treatment. — Diet is of the first importance. Succu- 
lent vegetables and fruits are most essential. Figs, 
dates and prunes are valuable when other fruits are 
out of season. Bread made of fine white flour should 
be avoided. The whole wheat flour is by all means 
the most nutritious. Oatmeal and cereals in general 
are beneficial. Bathing, especially cold sponge baths, 
should be indulged in daily. 

The remedies employed for constipation are too 
numerous to mention. Physics should be avoided, un- 
less there is most urgent necessity. An infusion of 
two drachms of senna leaves and a few grains of gin- 
ger to a cup of boiling water will be found effectual, 
but should not be relied upon. Where there are no 
symptoms of muscular relaxation, daily injections of 
warm water, one or two quarts, retained as long as 
possible, are a favorite with many. 

Where there is a tendency to sluggishness and evi- 
dent relaxation of the bowels, make a syrup as follows: 
Butternut bark, one -half pound; wahoo and golden 


seal, each two ounces; peppermint herb, one ounce; 
steep in one quart of boiling water for one hour; 
strain and add two pounds of sugar and two ounces of 
glycerine; take a teaspoonful night and morning. 
Milk of magnesia may be used to advantage when in- 
digestion is the prime cause of the trouble. 

Fluid extract of cascara sagrada, ten drops in water 
night and morning, will be found valuable where there 
is deficient peristaltic action and apparent sluggish- 
ness of the liver. Pure white soap rolled into suppos- 
itories the size of a pistol cartridge may be inserted 
into the rectum to produce evacuation. Regularity of 
attempts to evacuate the bowels should be persisted in. 


Phthisis Pulmonalis. 

This disease attacks persons of enfeebled constitu- 
tions, who possess little resistive powers against dis- 
ease. Their condition of low vitality may have been 
inflicted upon them by parents diseased with scrofula, 
consumption, cancer, syphilis, alcoholism, etc. , or 
their condition may be the result of some neglected 
acute or chronic trouble; or their constitutions may 
predispose them to consumption. Frequently chil- 
dren are consumptives whose parents were perfectly 
healthy, though physically unsuited to one another. 
The marriage of blood relatives not infrequently re- 
sults in consumptive children. 

Again, perfectly healthy persons may acquire con- 
sumption through unfavorable habits or surroundings. 
Poor food, hard labor, dark houses, frequent expos- 
ures, insufficient clothing, intemperance, excesses, in- 
halation of poisonous vapors or irritating particles, 
close confinement, dampness and unhealthful homes, 
malarial localities, and many other influences may be 
the means of the acquirement of consumption. One- 
seventh of mortality is ascribed to this disease and in 
large cities the ratio is more than doubled. 

Persons who are especially liable to contract con- 
sumption are usually slender and fiat-chested, the 
shoulder-blades prominent and the shoulders thrown 


forward. The bones of the body are light, the neck 
long. The skin is thin and pale and easily reddened 
by nervousness or fever. A bright spot often appears 
on the cheek. The hair is usually fine and light. 
The whites of the eyeballs of a pearly lustre, and 
dark rings under the eyes upon the least indisposition. 
Such persons should take extra precautions against 
exposure; and while very susceptible to the disease 
they may never contract it, but live to long life owing 
to their great vigilance. 

It is not essential to enter into a discussion of the 
theories of consumption, nor to explain the bacillus 
said to be its prime cause. The real condition con- 
sists of very minute particles of tuberculous matter in 
the membranes of the lungs; these particles increase 
and collectively harden and then soften like an ab- 
scess, destroy adjacent tissue and seek to discharge 
themselves into the air passages. The discharge 
causes inflammation, which excites coughing, the 
tuberculous matter may be expelled, affording re- 
lief, followed by another development of tuberculous 
material and a second respite, to be succeeded by new 
formations to be discharged. Each respite from in- 
flammatory symptoms is shorter than the preceding, 
and the general strength of the patient continually 
fails, though when the prominent symptoms abate he 
and his family are greatly encouraged. By the form- 
ation of these tuberculous abscesses and their dis- 
charge cavities are left in the lungs. These repeated 
periods of formation of deposits are termed the first, 
second and third stages of consumption. 

The changes that take place in the tissues usually 
commence in the upper portions of the lungs; most 
frequently the left lung, though any part may be 
first attacked and the deposits may simultaneously oc- 
cur in the intestines, or joints or other localities. The 
various stages of consumption may each occupy a 
year or more, and the disease may possibly extend 
over eight or ten years, though three years is an aver- 
age period (hasty consumption excepted). Some pa- 
tients are able to be about till death occurs, while 
others are invalids or confined in bed during a long 
period of time. 


Symptoms. — These are usually developed slowly, and 
the patient seldom realizes the seriousness of his 
condition until the disease is far advanced. Failure 
of nutrition and enfeebled circulation are often 
noticed early. Loss of appetite, easy fatigue, short- 
ness of breath, feverishness in the evenings, a hack- 
ing cough, hoarseness, night sweats, bleeding from 
the lungs of small quantities at intervals, expectora- 
tion of mucus, becoming frothy and then purulent. 
In women derangement or suppression of the men- 
strual function. 

There is usually dull pain in the chest and tender- 
ness. Pleurisy is common. The stomach becomes de- 
ranged easily. The botvels are decidedly irregular, al- 
ternating between diarrhoea and constipation. The 
face becomes very thin and the hair falls out easily; 
the finger-nails grow curved" and turn inward and the 
tips of the fingers become somewhat bulbous. The 
tongue is red and sensitive and is often covered with 
little sores. All these signs are not invariably pres- 
ent, but most of them will make their appearance. 

Cough is one of the most persistent symptoms of 
consumption, and its severity does not always corre- 
spond with the severity of the disease. It at first is 
usually short and quick, as though coming from the 
throat. In time there may be severe paroxysms of 
coughing, causing vomiting and profuse expectoration 
which may almost choke the patient. In the later 
stages of the disease night sweats become very pro- 
fuse and diarrhoea constant and extremely weakening. 
Swelling of the feet likewise occur and hemorrhages 
are likely to become frequent, although in some cases 
hemorrhages occur very early. 

All the way through the course of the malady it is 
characterized by progressive emaciation, and the re- 
tention of the mental faculties even till the moment of 
death. Hopefulness of recovery is universal with 
such patients and probably prolongs life. Complica- 
tions are liable to occur during the course of the dis- 
ease, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, laryngitis, glandu- 
lar enlargements and suppuration, fistula, fatty or de- 
generation, of the liver, Bright's disease, diabetes, 


tuberculous meningitis of the brain, ulceration of the 
intestines, diseases of the veins of the leg, etc. 

Treatment. — Nearly all cases of consumption prove 
fatal. Some are curable, and a very few recover 
without special treatment, as has been demonstrated 
by mortem examinations of persons who in early life 
apparently suffered from the disease and then lived 
long lives and died of other maladies. 

If the disease is recognized very early it may possi- 
bly be arrested. Persons especially liable to the dis- 
ease from inherited tendencies or predisposition 
should exercise the greatest care to avoid risks from 
catching cold. An even and moderate temperature of 
living rooms should be maintained, taking care to 
avoid excessive warmth and foolish extremes. Cloth- 
ing should be regulated by the weather, and increased 
or diminished according to changes of temperature. 
Drafts of air should be avoided, likewise wetting the 
feet or becoming chilled. A healthful climate should 
be sought, living rooms must be light, dry and airy. 
The most nutritious diet is imperative — milk and eggs 
being especially valuable, also grapes and other suc- 
culent fruits. The mind should be kept from worry 
and fatigue, and healthful, though moderate exercise 
provided — out-door exercise being most advantageous. 

Such measures may thwart threatened development 
of consumption; and those parents whose children are 
apparently consumptive, should rear them to a rugged 
out-door life. Dropping education of all kinds if need 
be to build up the constitution and arrest retrograde 
changes, will be found the only course to pursue. 

The subject of climate for consumptives has always 
been an important one. Clay soil, marshy plains, val- 
leys, hot districts and places where there are sudden 
changes of temperature or damp winds, should be 
avoided. The country is always preferable to the city 
provided a dry soil can be secured. Mountainous re- 
gions, not too high, are usually beneficial, though high 
latitudes should not be sought by those suffering from 
hemorrhages. The pine mountains of Georgia and 
North Carolina are excellent localities. Colorado and 
New Mexico and Southern California have many ad- 


vantages. Perhaps the most beneficial climate for 
consumptives can be found in the Hawaiian Islands. 
The temperature there is equable the year round. 

Care must be taken to avoid too much medication as 
the stomach turns against it. The following is an ex- 
cellent combination to use as a cough syrup and tonic: 

Take fluid extract Gomfrey one ounce. 

" " Mexican Sage, Peru- 

vian Bark, each. . .one-half ounce. 

Syrup of Wild Cherry Bark six ounces. 

Mix. Dose, a teaspoonful night and morning, or oftener 
if necessary. 

Constipation or diarrhcea must be treated according 
to directions laid down elsewhere. 

Hemorrhages may usually be controlled by a tea- 
spoonful of common salt or saltpetre in a cup of water. 
If profuse, tannic acid may be dissolved in hot water 
and sprayed so as the patient may inhale it. 

Night sweats should be controlled if possible. An 
infusion of golden seal and bayberry can be taken 
each night. Cold sage tea is commonly employed. 
Often sponging the body with a solution of common 
salt and tannic acid will accomplish good results. 

Cod liver oil has obtained a fabulous reputation for 
consumption. As a nutritive it is doubtless excellent, 
and patients using it may for a time increase in 
weight. But its value as a medicinal agent must be 
questioned. Other oils more palatable, if taken as 
persistently, would probably accomplish equally bene- 
ficial results. 

As a tonic the following is excellent: 

Take fluid extract of Gentian one-half ounce. 

" " Blue Cohosh. ounce. 

" " Hops one-half ounce. 

Syrup of Ginger six ounces. 

Mix. Dose, a teaspoonful between meals. 

Opium preparations, hypodermic injections of mor- 
phia salts and narcotics in all forms must be avoided. 


The use of wine is vastly inferior to taking unfer- 
mented grape juice or eating the grapes themselves in 

Nervine liniment (see formulas) will relieve pain in 
the chest if applied vigorously. No specific for the 
disease has ever been discovered, though many such 
have been claimed through mercenary motives. 

Nevertheless consumption must not be considered as 
an absolutely incurable disease, even to those who are 
unable to aid themselves by a change of climate. In- 
dulging in hopefulness should not cause neglect in 
even the most trifling matters, but on the contrary, it 
should urge the patient and friends onward to endeavor 
to take advantage of every reasonable opportunity to 
aid recovery. 

It is the author's belief that many cases of con- 
sumption pronounced beyond the possibility of recov- 
ery are frequently within the bounds of successful 
medical treatment. An experience of many years in 
the practice of medicine has demonstrated this belief 
to be well founded. In evidence of which a large 
number of cases could be cited of persons who are 
now hale and hearty, and who, when they presented 
themselves for treatment, were in their own estima- 
tion and that of their family physicians, doomed to 
die at an early day. In general it may be stated that 
in most cases when not more than one-third of the 
lung structures have been destroyed there is reason- 
able hope of recovery, provided proper medication is 
employed and instructions are rigidly obeyed. 


General Spasms. 

Persons of all ages may be subject to spasms, 
though children are the most frequent sufferers. The 
causes are varied, but are always some form of irrita- 
tion to the nervous system; such as (1) diseases of the 
brain or spinal cord or their membranes; (2) injuries 
to the head; (3) circulation of abnormal blood through 
the brain, as in uraemic jDoisoning and various fevers; 


(4) reflex irritation, as from teething, worms, indiges- 
tion, etc. 

Symptoms. — Usually there are premonitory signs, 
such as fretfulness, gritting of the teeth during sleep, 
slight twitchings and general peevishness in children. 
The convulsion comes on suddenly, and often without 
any warning, and is characterized by involuntary con- 
tractions of the various muscles of the body. These 
contractions may be intermittent or trembling or jerk- 
ing; though usually they are intense in character, 
amounting to rigidity. Sometimes the head is thrown 
back and the eyes rolled upward and there is great 
contortion of the face, which may become livid. 
Death seems imminent and parents become greatly 
alarmed, though the danger of the attack at the time 
is not so great as seems apparent. The breathing is 
greatly interfered with; the pulse is small and fre- 
quent and the surface cold and often covered with per- 
spiration. Consciousness is usually lost. A child 
may have but a few spasms at long intervals, or on 
account of predisposition or disease they may be fre- 
quent. The spasm may continue from a few minutes 
to half an hour or possibly more. 

Treatment. — Give abundance of fresh air, loosen the 
clothing and place the child on the back with the head 
up during an attack, and at once prepare a tub of hot 
water (hot as can be borne continually and easily by 
the hand), and if the spasm has not ceased put the 
child in this for five or ten minutes and then wrap in 
blankets and keep quiet. If the bowels are consti- 
pated give an injection of boneset infusion; if the 
stomach is disordered give neutralizing cordial. If 
the teeth are struggling to come through lance the 

Frequently some special articles of food, such as 
meats and gravies, may be a provoking cause of 
spasms. Delicate children, subject to convulsions, 
should be afforded quiet and fresh air, and light nour- 
ishing diet; and given a nervine of lady slipper and 
wild yam in infusion in small doses two or three times 
a day. 





Corns are horny-looking - growths which come upon 
the feet, usually the toes, from irritation caused by 
too loose or too tight shoes. First of all provide 
proper foot w T ear, and sew a piece of felt on the out- 
side of the sock and cut a small hole so as it will 
come directly over the corn. By this means the press- 
ure from the corn will be relieved. Rings of felt may 
be firmly glued directly to the toe around the corn. 
This alone in time will cause the corn to disappear, or 
become of such condition that it may be removed. 

Another method is to soak the corn each night in 
hot water and then apply an ointment of one drachm 
of salicylic acid rubbed into an ounce of vaseline. 
Five or six applications will soften the corn suffi- 
ciently to allow it to be easily removed. Care must be 
taken to keep the ointment off of adjoining tissues. 
A corn on the sole of the foot needs a felt insole with 
a hole cut through it directly under the corn. Soft 
corns are best treated by dusting them with powdered 
oxide of zinc and frequently cleansing them with 
warm water and castile soap, and applying tincture 
of calendula before applying the zinc oxide. They 
usually appear between the toes and require a wide 


Vaccinia. Fever of Vaccination. 

Under a misplaced confidence in the fads of medi- 
cine persons are often induced to inoculate themselves 
or their children with the filthy virus obtained from 
diseased cows, with the hope that in some mysterious 
manner they may be protected against small-pox. 
Thus voluntarily contracting one disease in the false 
hope that they may possibly escape another, which 
they would never contract should they closely observe 
the laws of health. 


Symptoms. — Within two days after inoculation, mi- 
nute red pimples appear at the points of inoculation, 
and by the fourth day a vesicle forms, greatly resem- 
bling - small-pox, and from the seventh to the eleventh 
day a filthy pustule surrounded by red and swollen 
tissue is apparent. It may be extremely painful and 
the whole arm may swell enormously. In three week's 
time the pustule has dried and formed a scab which is 
shed and has left an ugly purple scar which turns 
white in course of time. Were this all of cow-pox 
it would be sufficient to be avoided. But unfortu- 
nately graver symptoms are almost universally pres- 
ent in a greater or less degree. There is general fe- 
verishness amounting to exhaustion and causing delir- 
ium and intense suffering in children. 

The adjacent lymphatic glands become swollen and 
sometimes suppurate. The pustule itself may become 
almost malignant; and according to a noted authority 
" the original lesion may become inoculated with pyo- 
genic or erysipelatous bacteria, which may cause tedi- 
ous ulceration or diffuse inflammation. ' ' Numerous 
cases of death have been reported from cow-pox or its 
sequences. It is a filthy and harmful disease and its 
results may continue for years, causing liability to 
glandular diseases and diphtheria; and never protect- 
ing - from small-pox. 

Treatment. — This is a disease which never need be 
contracted. The sufferers are voluntary victims or 
helpless children who have the disease forced upon 
them by parents who refuse to think for themselves; 
or the law which guarantees personal liberty is re- 
sponsible for its forcible infliction upon healthy per- 
sons. Of this more will be said under the heading of 
Vaccinatiou. During the fever the patient should 
drink freely of pleurisy root and ginger infusion; and 
if the sore becomes purple or angry compound tinct- 
ure of myrrh should be added and also rubbed about 
the sore. Diet should be light, and every precaution 
taken against contracting cold and irritating the ul- 
ceration. The bowels should be kept freely open. 
See, also, article on Vaccination. 



Spasms of the Muscles. 

These are usually the result of indigestion, or ex- 
posure to continued cold (as in swimming-), or from ex- 
cessive exertion, as long continued walking. The 
treatment consists in briskty rubbing the contracted 
muscles and applying stimulating liniment, if relief is 
not soon obtained. Cramps in the legs may often be 
relieved by extending the limb and pressing the toes 
upward toward the top of the foot as far as they can 
be bent. Frequent cramps from indigestion necessi- 
tate the proper treatment of that trouble. The cramps 
occurring during pregnancy may not be completely 
overcome till after delivery. 


Spasmodic Croup. Laryngismus Stridulous. 

This is a disease of infancy, usually occurring before 
the tenth month and very rarely after the second year. 
It is technically termed laryngismus stridulous, and is 
entirely different from true croup, called pseudo-mem- 
branous or inflammatory. 

Symptoms. — An attack of spasmodic or false croup 
usually comes on at night time, the child awakening 
suddenly with a hoarse, barking cough and difficulty 
of breathing; taking in breath often causing a whist- 
ling sound, and the face growing purple and suffoca- 
tion seeming imminent. 

These symptoms may continue (if not relieved by 
antispasmodics) for several minutes or possibly hours, 
and then suddenly cease and the child fall asleep. 
The next day there may be no apparent disturbance 
and at night again an attack; and these attacks may 
continue for several nights. The symptoms appear 
alarming, but the disease is very rarely fatal. It is 
often preceded by restlessness, and is usually the re- 
sult of over-eating, or of worms or some intestinal dis- 
turbance. Fever is almost always absent; but there 
may be spasmodic twitchings of the hands and feet 


duriug an attack and the face may be red and the eyes 

Treatment. — If the attack is so violent that the 
spasm of the glottis has actually shut off breathing- 
instant efforts must be made. Lift the arms and slap 
sharply the chest and buttocks; dash a little cold wa- 
ter on the face and chest and, if possible, without de- 
lay, put the feet and hands in hot water. Such pro- 
cedures need seldom be resorted to, as the breath usu- 
ally comes before they are commenced. 

Syrup of lobelia is an infallible remedy for false 
croup, a half teaspoonful put far back on the tongue 
and forced down the throat will give relief at once. 
The dose may be repeated every ten minutes till 
vomiting follows, which will usually follow the third 
dose. Lobelia infusion can be used instead of the 
syrup. Never give medicine when the breath is lost; 
it might cause strangulation. An ideal preparation 
to keep on hand is made as follows: Steep in a pint 
of hot water half an ounce of lobelia herb and one- 
fourth ounce of black cohosh. Strain and add one 
pound of sugar and two ounces of glycerine. After 
an attack of false croup indigestion or intestinal irri- 
tation must be corrected by appropriate treatment 
and the child's diet carefully regulated. 


Pseudo-Membranous or Inflammatory. 

This is a dangerous difficulty, mostly confined to 
children, and characterized by an inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of- the trachea and the exudation 
over the inflamed parts of a plastic, fibrous membrane. 
The disease in many respects resembles diphtheria, 
though very different in its course and results. 

Symptoms. — Usually for two or three days before an 
attack there will be all the signs of a bad cold, 
though these may be absent. The attack itself comes 
on suddenly in the night. The child awakens greatly 
frightened, the face flushed and the eyes blood-shot. 


He clutches at the throat and is in evident distress; 
inspirations sound like air rushing* through a brass 
tube. Relief may come, but it will be transient. Par- 
oxysms occur with increasing frequency, fever arises, 
the croupy sound resembles the noise made by a rooster 
held in the hand, breathing- becomes very difficult, 
and suffocation is constantly threatened and may oc- 
cur and cause death from the third to sixth day, pre- 
ceded by livid face, cold extremities, drowsiness, and 
gasping* and struggling for breath, the pulse growing" 
gradually smaller and weaker. 

Treatment. — There can be no trifling" with so desper- 
ate a malady. Rub over the throat and upper part of 
the chest the third preparation of lobelia (see formu- 
las). If this is not at hand, make a strong infusion of 
lobelia and a little red pepper and soak flannel in it 
to be put around the throat, and change the flannel or 
rub on the third preparation every three hours. Ad- 
minister an infusion of pleurisy root with a little gin- 
ger and lobelia added, in teaspoonful doses every fif- 
teen minutes, till vomiting occurs; or give three drops 
of the third preparation of lobelia in water instead of 
the infusion. After vomiting give every half hour or 
every hour in order to maintain relaxation, and if suf- 
focation seems imminent, increase the dose and fre- 
quency immediately. Have the bowels move freely 
and keep the patient very quiet. 

Syrup of wild cherry bark with a little cramp bark 
added will loosen the cough when paroxysms are not 
on. When drowsiness occurs and the extremities 
grow cold, give composition with lobelia freely and 
also an injection of scullcap containing ginger, and 
keep hot applications to the feet. After convales- 
cence is established nurse carefully and keep in-doors 
at least a week. Some children, especially those who 
are fleshy, are peculiarly prone to attacks of croup. 
The disease is not contagious. 

Croupous Pneumonia.— A form of pneumonia 
characterized by croupous and fibrous exudations. It 
is fully considered in the article on Pneumonia. 


Cyanosis. — A condition in which air cannot enter 
the air cells in sufficient quantities to aerate the blood; 
it occurs in many diseases, especially in capillary 
bronchitis and congestion of the lungs. See, also, 
Blue Disease. 

Cystitis. — See Bladder Difficulties — Acute Inflam- 


Dancers' Palsy. Spasms of the Muscles. 

This is a condition which causes the muscles of the 
limbs to suffer spasmodic cramp as the result of ex- 
cessive use in performing particular classes of actions 
It is especially liable to occur in professional dancers, 
and particularly so in those of a nervous temperament. 
It is a nervous disease with muscular symptoms at 
first; though finally the nerves show their deplorable 

Symptoms. — At first there will be a sense of fatigue 
and exhaustion, followed by dull pain in the limbs, 
with trembling. These signs are followed by spasms 
of the muscles, such as twitchings or knotted condi- 
tions. Then there will be prickly and burning sensa- 
tions and tinglings followed by numbness and a feel- 
ing of constriction. Dancing becomes impossible, 
either from weakness or the muscles becoming rigid 
when the attempt is made. Before long the general 
nervous character of the disease is apparent. The 
whole body may tingle and be covered with perspira- 
tion, the voice may be lost and paralysis may follow; 
although it is seldom these extreme cases are devel- 

Treatment. — The nervous system must be sustained 
by such nerve tonics as wild yam (diascorea) and scull- 
cap. The muscles and peripheral nerves should be 


kept in healthy condition by embrocations of cocoanut 
oil containing" a half ounce of oil of lobelia to the 
pint. This preparation should be worked into mus- 
cles along with massage. Absolute rest from dancing- 
will never cure dancers' cramp. It is usually best to 
keep up the usual exercise, only very moderately, and 
carry out the treatment given. Electricity will often 
prove beneficial. Hygienic living and nourishing 
food and freedom from anxiety are imperative. 

Dandy Fever. — Dengue. — See Break Bone Fever. 

DandruFF. — Pityriasis. — This is an affection more or 
less troublesome to almost everyone. It consists of 
an excessive shedding of the outer cells of the scarf- 
skin of the scalp. For treatment see Hair Diseases. 

DeaFness. — See section on Diseases of the Eve and 



Evidences of Life Bein£ Extinct. 

Occasionally there may exist reasonable doubt as to 
the occurrence of death, and the horrors of burying 
alive should prompt friends or physicians to secure 
absolute proofs of death before burial. A life-like 
appearance and apparent warmth in the body after 
supposed death, should be sufficient reason for defer- 
ring burial as long as possible. The possibility of 
trance under certain circumstances should be remem- 
bered (see Trance). The following may be considered 
absolute proofs of death: 

Reduced Temperature. — A clinical thermometer 
inserted far into the rectum and allowed to remain 
there for five minutes, will give the internal tempera- 
ture of the body; this should be below 78° in cleath 
within thirty hours. If it is 90° or more after twenty- 
four hours, life is almost certainly present. 


The Surface. — Form a blister on the skin by heat 
and open it widely; if the part beneath is red and the 
edges of the blister turn dark red, life should be sus- 
pected; otherwise no line will appear and the under 
surface will be dry and glassy if death has taken 

The Heart. — A trance may give a feeble heart beat 
of eight or ten per minute, and in rare cases life may 
exist and recovery follow an apparent complete ces- 
sation of the heart's action for five hours. It is some- 
times difficult to absolutely decide that the heart has 
ceased to beat; the pulse does not always convey the 
information. Make an incision in the thigh and ap- 
ply a dry cup; blood -will flow if the person is dead. 
Tie a twine tightly about a finger — a white ring will 
appear about it and the part beyond will grow red and 
then bluish if life exists. Needles thrust deeply into 
a living person will tarnish greatly within an hour. 

Breathing*. — Respirations in living persons may at 
times grow almost imperceptible. Three modes of as- 
certaining if breathing is carried on may be em- 

(1.) Stand a shallow dish of water on the chest and 
carefully watch if its surface is disturbed. 

(2.) Tie a feather to a thread and hold before the 
mouth or nostrils and notice if it moves even slightly. 

(3.) Hold a cold mirror before the nose and mouth 
and look closely for evidence of moisture. 

Such experiments tried several times during twenty- 
four hours without results would clearly indicate 
death. More than one case is recorded where such 
methods prevented a hasty decision of death. 

Muscles. — Soon after death all the muscles become 
relaxed, the limbs are easily flexed and the lower jaw 
drops down. This complete relaxation usually lasts 
four or five hours, possibly less, and very rarely is pro- 
longed beyond twelve hours. Rigidity, known as 
rigor mortis, follows, causing the muscles to become 
fixed firmly in any position they were made to assume 
when relaxed. This fact demonstrates the necessity 


of at once, as soon as death is suspected, placing the 
body and limbs in desirable positions. Rigor mortis 
may commence within three hours after death; it 
continues from twelve to forty-eight hours, and is fol- 
lowed by a relaxed and flabby condition. 

Putrefaction. — The cause of death and character of 
the weather influence the time of the commencement 
of decay. As a rule three days will give signs of 
putrefaction, characterized by disagreeable odor and 
distension of the abdomen by gas. In all doubtful 
cases wait till this commences, even if for months. A 
trance may last a long time, and without perfect evi- 
dence of death embalming or ice packing, post mor- 
tems or burial should not take place. Burial alive, 
though very rare, is too horrible to run the risk of 


Wandering of the Mind. 

Extremely nervous persons and young children very 
frequently manifest delirium even during slight fever. 
In all acute cases when delirium comes and goes with 
the rise and fall of the temperature it need not be re- 
garded seriously, though when it is persistent and 
continues even when the temperature falls toward 
normal, it is a bad sign. 

Furious delirium may occur during very high fever 
and still not be of grave import; but delirium which 
follows hemorrhage or profuse sweating, accompanied 
by prostration and paleness, is a serious matter. 
Low, muttering delirium frequently occurs in low 
grades of fever and is always bad. Delirium with 
a sinking pulse is bad, and also delirium with contin- 
ued unnatural pulse and irregular breathing. Quiet 
and natural sleep after delirium is good. 

Treatment for delirium must always be in accord- 
ance with the malady which it accompanies. Rest 
and quietude are imperative in all cases. Arguments 
and coaxing are folly, though a patient may be 
soothed by acquiescing with his idea. 


Delirium Tremens. — See article on Alcoholism. 

Dengue. — Dandy Fever. — See Break Bone Fever. 

Dentition. — See the article on Teething. 

Dermatitis. — This is an inflammation of the skin, 
and may occur in various forms as described in the 
articles on Herpes, Erythema, Eczema, Urticaria, 
Ecthyma, etc. 


Looseness of the Skin. 

Under circumstances which cannot be fully ex- 
plained the skin covering various parts of the body 
may become very loose and hang in folds, and become 
partially insensible at times. The face, abdomen and 
labia are the parts most frequently affected. But lit- 
tle can be done besides building up the general health 
and bathing frequently in salt water and employing 
brisk rubbing. 

Desquamation. — This is a shedding of the outer 
cells of the scarf skin of the body, and frequently oc- 
curs after the eruption has disappeared during erup- 
tive diseases. See Scarlet Fever, Measles and Ery- 



This disease is characterized by an enormous in- 
crease in the amount of urine passed every twenty- 
four hours, the constituents of the urine not being ma- 
terially changed. Children are the usual sufferers. 

Symptoms.- — These usually develop slowly, though 
occasionally with suddenness. Increase in the amount 


of urine is accompanied by great thirst and dimin- 
ished perspiration and dryness of the mouth ana 
throat. Occasionally the general health does not seem 
impaired, but as a rule there is headache, dizziness, 
stomach and bowel troubles due to indigestion. Ap- 
petite fails (though at first it may be voracious), ema- 
ciation and general debility follow; the skin becomes 
shrunken and dry, and the temperature inclined to 
fall below normal. Imperfections of vision, partial 
paralysis of certain nerves, dropsy, exhaustive diar- 
rhoea and vomiting are likely to precede death. The 
color of the urine is usually light yellow or colorless 
and clear, but becoming muddy after standing. Its 
specific gravity is about 1010°, but varies, and it has 
not the characteristic whey-like odor peculiar to dia- 
betes mellitus, which is an entirely different malady, 
probably allied to it. 

This disease probably has its origin in the nerve 
centers, as it has been produced artificially by irrita- 
tion of portions of the brain. Direct causes may be 
mentioned to be, drinking cold water or becoming 
chilled directly after being over-heated, drinking al- 
coholic liquors to excess, violent exertion or nervous 

Treatment.— Hygienic measures are most important — 
freedom, out of door life, cessation from study, well 
ventilated sleeping rooms and nourishing diet are im- 
perative. Excessive drinking should not be too much 
restricted; acidulated drinks are best. Salt-water 
baths with friction are beneficial. The following is a 
valuable promoter of intestinal digestion: Citric acid 
and tartrate of iron and potassa, each twenty grains, 
dissolved in seven ounces of water, and one ounce of 
glycerine added to preserve it. Dose, one teaspoon- 
ful in water after each meal. 

As a tonic to the kidneys and nerves, use fluid ex- 
tracts of corn-silk (stigmata maidis) and scullcap, 
each one-half ounce, in syrup of wild cherry bark, 
seven ounces. Dose, a teaspoonful night and morn- 
ing. The disease often becomes chronic, and if not 
checked, results in death, preceded by great debility 
and wasting or dropsy. 



Saccharine or Sugary Urine. 

This is a serious condition, the real pathological na- 
ture of which is obscure. It involves the presence of 
sugar in the urine in varying quantities and an in- 
crease in the amount of urine daily voided. The 
causes may be similar to those of diabetes insipidus; 
also may be injuries to the head or spine, eating ex- 
cessively of sugar or starchy foods, great grief or 
worry or mental or physical exhaustion. Some per- 
sons seem to have a hereditary tendency to the disease. 

Symptoms. — These are always insidious. In fact an 
unusual appetite and relish of food and drink seem to 
be the rule. Perhaps the first symptoms will be an 
inordinate desire for food, and pain and distress in 
the stomach unless satisfied. Eructations of gas are 
common with distension over the stomach. 

The boivels are constipated and the evacuations are 
light colored and spongy, though in far advanced 
cases there may be diarrhoea. 

The tongue may be moist and furred part of the 
time, though generally when the disease is established 
it is red and irritable and fissured. The throat be- 
comes dry and sticky and in time the gums grow 
spongy and the teeth loosened and the saliva often 

The skin is usually dry and harsh; though at times 
there may be profuse perspiration of an acid charac- 
ter and of a sweetish taste. 

■ The breath often possesses the odor of decaying 
fruit. Lobar pneumonia is not infrequent, and very 
often consumption sets in. 

The special senses and organs become deranged. 
Vision may become dim or disordered. Cataract is 
not uncommon and the cornea sometimes becomes 
clouded and opaque. Taste and smell may become 
perverted or absent, and hearing is diminished or lost. 

Cramps, backache and muscular weakness are usual. 
Neuralgia, especially of the sciatic nerve, is common, 
and sometimes partial paralysis occurs, of a local 
character, and there may be spells of an apoplectic 


nature. The skin may be covered with pimples and 
boils and ulcers often occur. The heart shows signs 
of organic disease. 

The Urine. 

The urine of diabetic patients is characteristic. It 
is pale, clear and opalescent, and usually of a high 
specific gravity, from 1015° to 1060°, and ferments 
rapidly if kept in a warm place. When left exposed 
it attracts flies and has a fruity odor. When voided, 
it usually irritates the urinary passages, causing a 
burning sensation and annoying itching. 

The quantity of urine passed in twenty-four hours 
varies; but the amount is usually greatly in excess of 
the normal; and whenever a person persistently voids 
an unusual amount, diabetes should be suspected. 
During the course of the disease ten, twenty or thirty 
or more pints of urine may be passed daily. 

Sugar, even in the smallest quantity, is not consid- 
ered a normal constituent of urine, though after eat- 
ing abundantly of sweets, it may temporarily appear. 
But its presence under other circumstances points to 

The test for it is simple : To a drachm of urine in a 
test tube add ten drops of solution of sulphate of cop- 
per (blue stone), and half a drachm of solution of caus- 
tic potash, and then boil. If sugar is present the 
whole will turn red or dark brown, according to the 

Another simple test is to add ordinary yeast to a 
pint of urine and place in a quart jar in a warm place 
for twenty-four hours; if fermentation, manifested by 
bubbles of gas, takes place, sugar is present. Diabe- 
tic urine when shaken becomes very frothy and the 
froth remains for some time. The actual amount of 
sugar passed daily with the urine may vary from half 
an ounce to two pounds, and occasionally more. 

The general condition of diabetic persons is one of 
progressive disability. The countenance looks care- 
worn and there is an irritability and peevishness of 
disposition; vigor seems lost, sexual desires and power 


are diminished, and mental exertion is distasteful. 
There is usually chilliness of the surface and fre- 
quently swelling- of the ankles and limbs. Small 
children suffering - from diabetes present most pitiable 
conditions. They become excessively pale and as- 
sume a waxy appearance. The flow of urine becomes 
almost constant, and the little ones grow weak and 
puny, and toward the end of the trouble moan con- 
stantly, and show signs of distress. 

Diabetes is fatal in a large majority of cases, and 
more dangerous to the young than to the old. From 
one to three years is the average duration of the dis- 
ease, though it may prove acute in form and termi- 
nate fatally in a few months; and diabetic persons 
may have life prolonged for many years by judicious 
treatment and appropriate habits of living, or by 
such means a permanent cure may be affected even in 
severe cases. 

Sometimes death comes on suddenly from blood poi- 
soning or nervous prostration, or other complications. 
Occasionally the sugar in the system seems to undergo 
alcoholic fermentation and thus cause death. Toward 
the close of the disease, just before death, the sugar 
may disappear from the urine, albumen may be pres- 
ent in large quantities and diarrhoea and exhaustion 
set in. 

Treatment. — In all cases the patient should be im- 
pressed with the fact that his own actions will largely 
decide the outcome of the case. He must exercise 
self control and great watchfulness in his habits and 
diet. Indiscretions or forgetfulness may cause fatal 
results. An equable temperature is desirable; and the 
surface must not be chilled. The wearing of flannel 
is imperative. Regular and systematic exercise out 
of doors is a necessity. The mind must be kept quiet. 
Anger must be controlled and all emotions suppressed. 
Turkish baths are of great service. It would be wis- 
dom to secure a household vapor bath and use it once 
a week, and also take salt-water baths every other 
day, with brisk rubbings. Sea bathing is most bene- 


Diet for Diabetic Persons. 

Diet is of the greatest importance; but changes 
should not be made too abruptly. All foods contain- 
ing quantities of starch or sugar should be discarded. 

Prohibited Articles: — Preparations of flour and starch, 
rice, potatoes, beans, peas, lentils, buckwheat, 
oatmeal, Indian corn, barley, rye, chestnuts, 
grapes, pears, peaches, apricots, plums, figs, 
bananas, apples, prunes, cherries, berries, beets, 
tomatoes, asparagus, onions, radishes, melons, 
alcoholic liquors of all kinds. 

Allowable Articles: — Meats of all kinds except liver, 
poultry and game, fish and oysters and shell 
fish of all kinds, eggs, cheese, butter, broths, 
cabbage, cauliflower, water-cress, kale, spinach, 
lettuce, broccoli, celery, kohl-rabbi, sprouts, 
plain chocolate, mineral waters, buttermilk, tea 
and coffee, unsweetened. 

Some persons may use skimmed milk, but in most 
cases it is unadvisable, and should be allowed only 
when there is especial desire for it and repeated ex- 
aminations of the urine show that it does not increase 
the amount of sugar. Almond biscuits, gluten bread 
or ordinary bran rusks may be substituted for bread. 
Sea moss is a most excellent delicacy. Occasionally 
turnips, carrots and parsnips may be used in limited 
quantities. Care must always be taken to give as 
much variety as is consistent with the classes of foods 
permissible. Fats are most useful, and fresh raw 
meat chopped up with cabbage, salt, pepper and cel- 
ery salt will be greatly relished. 

An exclusive diet of fats, meats and eggs will 
greatly aid the disappearance of sugar in the urine, 
but such a diet cannot be continued any length of 
time without causing- other derangements dangerous 
to life. Water must be allowed in large quantities; as 
its prohibition may cause death. 

Medication must be directed toward keeping the skin 
moist and warm, correcting unnatural conditions of 
the stomach and keeping the bowels regular. Infu- 


sions are best, and always without sweetening; pleurisy 
root and ginger will serve to regulate the skin; it may 
be taken freely. Senna is excellent for securing free 
action of the bowels, though the liver pills will be 
found useful. 

As a tonic and digestive use tartrate of iron and po- 
tassa and citric acid, each one dram, in water, seven 
ounces, and glycerine, one ounce; dose, a teaspoonful 
in water before each meal. 

Saccharine is used by many as a sweetening, but its 
use for any length of time is not endured by the stom- 
ach, and some cannot tolerate it all. 

Occasionally patients will be unable to subsist upon 
the proper foods, when a mixed diet will be found im- 
perative. It is far better to allow an encroachment 
upon forbidden articles of food than to cause distress 
and debility by rigid adherence to a diet theoretically 
most suitable. The facts must be known, and then 
judgment^ common sense and self control must be ex- 


Looseness of the Bowels. 

This is a summer difficulty and is usually caused by 
indigestion, over-eating, drinking too much ice-water, 
eating unripe or unsound fruit, or vegetables which 
disagree with the stomach, or sudden chilling of the 
surface, driving the secretions and circulation inward. 

Symptoms. — These are frequent and thin discharges 
from the bowels unaccompanied by straining or pain, 
except such as is of a colicky character. If the diar- 
rhoea is caused by derangement of the liver, as is fre- 
quently the case, the tongue will be coated, and the 
discharges clay-colored when bile is deficient, or 
greenish-yellow when the liver is relaxed. Occasion- 
ally there will be great weakness with diarrhoea, but 
fever and general disturbances of the system are not 
marked. It usually lasts three or four days, but if ne- 
glected, it may run into dysentery or some other seri- 
ous form of bowel difficulty. 



Treatment. — If the bowels contain undigested or acrid 
materials, they should be evacuated by giving a dose 
of castor oil or milk of magnesia. After this use neu- 
tralizing cordial in teaspoonful doses every three 
hours and rub a mildly stimulating liniment over the 
abdomen. If there is much weakness and the stools 
are very frequent, give a strong infusion of scullcap, 
bayberry and ginger. If the character of the dis- 
charges show a deficiency of bile, give the liver pills, 
and if the discharges are offensive add a very little 
tincture of myrrh to the neutralizing cordial or infu- 
sion. Allow only moderately cool drinks and an ex- 
tremely light diet. The thickened milk or malted 
milk are excellent. Keep the patient off the feet, in 
the bed is best; and always provide plenty of fresh air. 

Chronic Diarrhoea is an obstinate difficulty, and 
the liver is usually at fault and the tone of the bowels 
diminished. Use after each meal a teaspoonful of 
fluid extract scullcap, one ounce; cascara, one-half 
ounce, in four ounces of syrup of wild cherry bark. 
Frequently drink an infusion of composition powder 
and use the stimulating liniment over the abdomen. 
Avoid unwholesome and harsh foods and drink only 
pure water, leaving alcoholic liquors alone and avoid- 
ing excesses of all kinds. 


Diaphragmitis. Singultus. Rupture. 

The diaphram is a muscular and tendinous structure 
dividing the thorax from the abdominal cavity. It is 
lined above and below with serous membrane which 
may become inflamed along with the pleura or perito- 
neum or pericardium, constituting diaphragmitis > or in- 
flammation of the diaphragm. The symptoms are 
hiccough, yawning, difficulty of taking a deep breath, 
pain in the shoulders, difficulty of breathing, etc. In 
nearly all cases diaphragmitis is associated with 
either inflammation of the pleura, pericardium or peri- 
toneum, and must be treated accordingly. See arti- 
cles on Pleurisy, Heart Diseases and Peritonitis. 


Singultus is the technical name for hiccough, which 
is a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm. See the 
article on Hiccough. 

Ruptures and perforations of the diaphragm may oc- 
cur. The former as a result of violent and heavy lift- 
ing or from concussions; the latter as a result of 
suppuration in the lungs or liver or other structures. 
These are serious conditions and are considered else- 

Dilatations. — The arteries, veins, bronchi and heart 
and other organs may become dilated from various 
causes. These are mentioned in the articles consider- 
ing diseases of the various organs. See also Bronchi- 


Putrid or Malignant Sore Throat. 

This is probably the most treacherous and danger- 
ous of all infectious diseases. Its chief characteristic 
is the formation of a highly poisonous false membrane 
in the throat, accompanied by constitutional disturb- 
ances and evidences of blood-poisoning from absorp- 
tion. It may occur at any season of the year, though 
most prevalent during the fall and winter months. In 
some sections, especially in northern cities with severe 
climate, the disease is likely to occur extensively 
every winter; and in almost any locality it may break 
out in epidemic form. High latitudes, where the air 
is dry and the temperature comparatively even, are 
least liable to outbreaks. 

Certain influences are favorable to the development 
of diphtheria, such as unhygienic surroundings, damp- 
ness, poor ventilation, sewer gas, improper diet or in- 
sufficient or unwholesome food. The disease has fre- 
quently been conveyed by contaminated milk. Chil- 
dren under ten years of age are most liable, though 
adults may be attacked. Those whose constitutions 
are enfeebled or who are debilitated from measles, 
scarlet fever, croup and other diseases are prone to 


succumb to diphtheria. One attack does not give im- 
munity against the disease. 

Diphtheria is highly contagious, though its actual 
contagion lies in the decomposing membrane. Inhal- 
ation of the breath of diphtheritic persons or other 
methods of allowing the germs of the disease to en- 
ter the mouth or circulation will prove disastrous. 
Merely entering the room of diphtheria patients will 
not contaminate the clothing, but being close to them 
causes liability of germs from the membrane being 
coughed upon one. In like manner bed clothing and 
other articles may become contaminated. 

When diphtheria is suspected, in fact whenever 
there is sore throat with fever, the patient should be 
isolated until the malady is certainly determined. In 
cases of diphtheria every precaution must be taken 
against infection of others. It must be determined at 
once who shall be the attendants, and no others should 
be admitted. The patient should be placed in a room 
capable of being evenly heated and well ventilated, 
and as remote as possible from the family living 
rooms, and where there is no dampness and where dis- 
turbing influences will not be annoying. 

Bed clothing should be changed often and never 
mingled with that of others or carried through living 
rooms. Dishes,- spoons, etc., used by the patient 
should be washed separately and no one else allowed 
to use them. Disinfectants should be freely em- 
ployed — Piatt's chlorides diluted with water can be 
relied upon. Saturate cloths with this solution and 
hang them about the room; also use it in vessels for 
all discharges. Let there be thorough cleanliness and 
perfect ventilation; but never allow the room to be- 
come chilly — a temperature of 70° should be main- 
tained. An open grate fire affords an excellent means 
of ventilation. Rags and papers used about the pa- 
tient should be burned, and also as many of the arti- 
cles of clothing or bedding as possible. 

Symptoms. — These in many respects are variable, 
and according to the grade of the disease. In mild 
cases there is at first a distinct chill followed by fever- 
ishness and frequent pulse, and general prostration, 


out of all proportion to the apparent disturbance. 
There will be headache, occasionally nausea or vom- 
iting and difficulty in swallowing, especially liquids. 
There is usually stiffness and soreness of the neck, 
sometimes complained of before any other symptom. 
The tongue becomes furred and white and the tonsils 
swollen and dark red. In two or three days there will 
be seen upon the tonsils or fauces small white spots 
or patches, which are firmly adherent, and apj:>ear as 
pieces of parchment attached to the mucous mem- 
brane. They constitute the false membrane of diph- 
theria, turn yellow or gray and gradually loosen and 
are expelled in from five to ten days, leaving the sur- 
face tender and the patient extremely weak. 

The severe or infective form of diphtheria usually 
commences in the same way as the mild form; but the 
false membrane extends rapidly, looks ashy and may 
cover the tonsils and soft palate and extend down- 
ward into the larynx, trochea and bronchi, and up- 
ward into the nasal passages, and occasionally about 
the genitals or upon previous wounds of the skin. 
The lymphatic glands of the neck, especially those 
under the angle of the jaw, become hard and enlarged 
and may possibly suppurate. 

Fever is not always present at the commencement 
of the attack, and as a rule as the case progresses the 
temperature is normal or even slightly below. Some- 
times the pulse is frequent and small; occasionally it 
may be less than sixty a minute. The strength fails 
rapidly, the countenance looks pale or dusky and anx- 
ious, and the lips bluish. There is a lack of appetite, 
usually noticed from the beginning of the attack. 

Bleeding from the nose may occur in severe cases 
and the breath becomes offensive and the voice husky. 
If the membrane extends down into the wind-pipe 
there will be coughing and difficulty of breathing. 
Such cases often prove fatal about the tenth day; 
sometimes sooner and sometimes later, and possibly 
they may linger for three or four weeks. Vigorous 
treatment, commenced early and persistently carried 
out may aid recovery. 

Occasionally a rash or eruption may make its ap- 


pearance over the body during the first week, and con- 
tinue for a day or two. 

Sometimes the disease develops so insidiously that, 
beyond great prostration and extreme drowsiness, it 
is not realized till beyond aid. Drowsiness is a com- 
mon symptom in nearly all cases, although the mind 
is clear during wakefulness. 

Sometimes death occurs very suddenly from blood 
clot in the heart. Or paratysis of the heart may oc- 
cur and death be instantaneous during some extra ex- 
ertion. This may happen during the course of the 
disease or after convalescence is established. 

Malignant diphtheria is a form of the malady usually 
fatal within three or four days and occasionally 
within twenty-four hours after its development. 

There may be scarcely any local symptoms, but the 
prostration is great. Usually malignant cases are 
characterized by a very dark throat and rapid devel- 
opment of the membrane, which appears gangrenous 
and becomes frightfully offensive. 

Various degrees of paralysis will frequently be the 
result of severe cases of diphtheria. The lower limbs 
are mostly affected; though any set of muscles may 
be involved. The difficulty most commonly com- 
mences one or two weeks after the membrane has dis- 
appeared, though it may occur earlier or later. 

Unless paralysis involves both the upper and lower 
portions of the body it is rarely fatal. Though when 
the heart is involved and there is frequent fainting, 
difficult breathing and weak and irregular pulse, death 
usually follows. 

A few special symptoms may manifest themselves 
during the course of the disease. Vision and hearing 
may be interfered with and the sense of smell com- 
pletely lost. The muscles of the face may be par- 
alyzed early and give a frightful countenance. The 
bowels and bladder may be affected, and all natural 
evacuations cease for awhile. Again, diarrhoea may 
occur. The organs of speech may be also affected. 

It is not always an easy thing to diagnose diphthe- 
ria—tonsillitis being often mistaken for it. Prostra- 
tion and drowsiness from the start, a dark red throat 
and unevenly swollen tonsils and the appearance of a 


membranous patch (single or multiple), tenacious in 
character, and swollen glands of the neck constitute 
sufficient evidence of diphtheria. 

Treatment. — In mild cases nourishing diet, perfect 
quiet, a stimulating application about the throat and a 
gargle of borax and tincture of myrrh in water and 
small doses of infusion of composition will usually 
suffice. For infective diphtheria, the treatment can- 
not be too vigorous or persistent. Internally admin- 
ister composition, goldenseal and scullcap, each one- 
half ounce in a pint of boiling water, steep and strain 
and add one-half teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh; 
dose, two teaspoonfuls every hour. 

As a spray use a mixture of peroxide of hydrogen 
and water, each one ounce; fluid extract of goldenseal 
and tincture of myrrh, each one drachm. Spray the 
throat thoroughly every hour with this, having the 
patient spit out loosened material. It is imperative 
that this treatment be administered every hour, night 
and day, awakening the patient if necessary. It is 
laborious, but is necessary. Sleep may appear more 
beneficial than medicine in some diseases, but in 
diphtheria as long as the membrane exists its pres- 
ence is dangerous to life, and unless antiseptics are 
constantly applied and the system sustained, the poi- 
son will be absorbed and death follow. It may require 
two persons to administer the treatment in small chil- 
dren — one to hold the child firmly, for struggling is ex- 
hausting. Let the treatment be given quickly and 
the patient, even though awakened from sleep, will 
soon get to sleep again. 

Should prostration increase or the breath grow 
offensive, and the membrane look ashy and the tissues 
around it grow dark, add a small amount of capsicum 
to the infusion and in the spray use compound tincture 
of myrrh instead of simple tincture. Equal parts of 
powdered borax and sulphur may be blown into the 
throat every third or fourth hour instead of the spray 
solution, or in severe cases it may be blown into the 
throat every hour immediately after using the spray. 

Should the membrane extend into the larynx and 
threaten suffocation, an emetic mast be given at once. 


A teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of mus- 
tard and ten drops of third preparation of lobelia 
(see formulas) in a cup of luke-warm water will usu- 
ally produce emesis. In this connection it may be 
stated that all cases of diphtheria will be greatly 
benefited by the administration in the outset of a 
stimulating* emetic as directed under Emetics. (See 

Should the extremities grow cold, use the infusion 
every half hour or every fifteen minutes, till chilliness 
passes away and place hot irons to the feet. 

After the membrane has disappeared the spray need 
not be used more than every four to six hours, and af- 
ter a few days not at all, and the infusion may be 
given every two hours, gradually lengthening the in- 
tervals and allowing the patient to sleep without dis- 
turbance only after the throat is absolutely clear. 
The membrane is likely to reappear two or three or 
more times before convalescence is established. Each 
time it must be vigorously treated. 

In all cases the diet must be extremely light and 
nourishing. While the membrane exists there will be 
little appetite. Malted milk or pure fresh milk will 
be found palatable, oat meal crackers, gruels and 
broths are beneficial. Oranges and pineapples, the 
harsh parts extracted, are good; lemonade is also an 
acceptable drink; egg-nog (without alcohol) may be 
given after the worst symptoms have abated. Pepsin 
or pancreatin will be found useful in aiding digestion. 

Nourishment is an important factor in the treatment 
of diphtheria, and when it cannot be swallowed it 
must be administered by injections to the rectum. 
Cold drinks must be absolutely prohibited; they have 
a tendency to produce local congestion in the throat. 

Paralysis, when it appears, should be treated by ex- 
ternal applications of the stimulating liniment and 
using frequently the tonic infusion mentioned. Rub- 
bing the liniment over the spine during the disease 
may ward off attacks of paralysis. 

The bowels are usually constipated, and should be 
moved by injections. Cathartics are not advisable. 
Should diarrhoea occur, the syrup of wild cherry will 
be found useful. 


Lime water should be kept on hand to use in the 
milk if there is any tendency to sourness of the stom- 

The room occupied by a diphtheria patient should 
be thoroughly fumigated before others are admitted. 
Burning 1 of two pounds of sulphur in the form of sul- 
phur candles is best. The patient should be thor- 
oughly bathed with borax water and clothed with 
clean and disinfected clothing before mingling with 

Antitoxine. — During the last few years the treat- 
ment of diphtheria by antitoxine has gained consider 
able notoriety. Its character and effects when fully 
known by the people will place it where it properly 
belongs as one of the most dangerous and worthless 
medical humbugs of the age. 

Antitoxine is a highly poisonous substance prepared 
by taking a portion of the virulent membrane from a 
diphtheria patient's throat and placing in boullion at 
the temperature of the human body for cultivation 
until it has reached its greatest virulence. It is then 
injected into a horse, little by little, until the animal 
(if he does not die) becomes thoroughly saturated with 
the poison — agonizing to himself, horrible to look upon 
and dangerous to handle. He is then in a condition 
to furnish to the medical profession the precious fluid 
which shall aid them in procuring money and fame at 
the expense of the lives of human beings. 

The horse, after reaching that condition which hov- 
ers between life and death, is bled for the benefit of 
humanity, that is for the financial benefit of a small 
portion of humanity included in the medical profes- 
sion. The highly poisonous serum, or watery portion 
of the blood, is preserved in carbolic acid solution 
ready for injection into the bodies of little children at 
the nominal price of ten or twenty dollars per injec- 
tion. The method of operation and its purposes was 
well described by a Chicago physician, as follows: 

"Well, I had an opportunity to try antitoxine lately. 
The patient was a little girL eight years old. I sent 
for Dr. Blank to help me; for you know if I did the 
work myself, I couldn't charge them $20, and besides, I 


wanted the cash. He and I divided the fee. Then 
there is another advantage in having a stranger sent 
for — it gives more importance to the operation, and 
the parents think there is something wonderful and 
dangerous about it to require such precautions. To 
make a long story short, we covered the dining-room 
table with a double blanket and then covered that 
with a clean sheet, and with an atomizer sprayed it 
thoroughly with corrosive sublimate solution. We 
then had the child stripped of all clothing and laid 
face down upon the table. Yes, she struggled val- 
iantly, sick and small as she was, to stop us, but I held 
her down while Dr. Blank performed the operation. 
He rubbed a spot on the thigh and one between the 
shoulder blades till the skin almost wore off, and then 
wet them with the corrosive sublimate solution and 
injected the antitoxine serum with a hypodermic syr- 
inge. Say; do you know, I really felt sorry for the lit- 
tle child. It used her strength up terribly. But I 
could hardly keep from laughing at the blind faith 
those parents had in it all. And the way in which the 
father handed out the $20 made me make up my mind 
that hereafter I'm going to recommend antitoxine 
every time. " 

Such are the words of a practicing physician in Chi- 
cago, spoken to the author of this book. The child 
died, but the parents had the satisfaction of "doing 
all in their power. " 

Let a grown man in perfect health submit to the in- 
jection into his circulation of the serum of a sick 
horse diseased by diphtheria poison and we would ex- 
pect serious results. What can be expected when 
helpless and almost dying children are compelled to 
submit to the operation? 

Its most earnest advocates admit that it is valueless 
if administered after the third day of the attack. 
How many cases of diphtheria ever come into the phy- 
sician's hands before the third day? Very few. Re- 
ports are sent to the medical journals from every sec- 
tion of deaths directly ascribable to antitoxine. 

Dr. Winter, of the Willard Parker Hospital, New 
York City, when antitoxine was extensively experi- 
mented with upon suffering children, condemns it as 


useless and dangerous. The Medical Brief, of St. 
Louis, the most widely circulated medical journal in 
the world, denounces antitoxine as a dangerous med- 
ical humbug, and is doing all in its pow T er to stop 
such horrible practices by the medical profession for 
mercenary motives. See volumes of the Medical Brief 
for 1895-1896. 

It may be thought that there must be some good in 
it or so many physicians would not recommend it. 
Mercenary motives actuate most of its advocates, and 
the rest are blind followers of fads. Not long since 
Dr. Brown-Sequard proposed to rejuvinate old men by 
injecting into their circulation the vital fluid of guinea 
pigs. It seems incredible, but it is a fact, that many 
thousands submitted to the foolish operation, and 
many leading members of the medical profession arose 
to prominence by advocating its use and performing 
the operation for a good fat fee. 

We may now laugh at the credulity of persons led 
to believe in such an absurdity, which swept over the 
country. But it is far from a laughable matter when 
distracted parents are urged and almost forced to 
submit their dying children to mercenary physicians, 
willing to inject into them the filthy and virulent poi- 
son from a diseased horse's blood, that they may earn 
their fee and have the satisfaction of "doing all that 
could be done. " Better far that children should lie 
unattended and be left to the mercy of Nature, than 
to be tortured and poisoned when life is hanging in 
the balance. Woe to them who attain riches and no- 
toriety through the tortures and lives of the inno- 

Diplopia. — Double Vision. — See Eye Diseases. 


Insane Desire for AScoholic Liquors. 

Some persons addicted to the use of alcoholic liq- 
uors seem to acquire morbid conditions closely allied 
to insanity. Their spells of drunkenness come on 


spasmodically, and they seem to be absolutely unable 
to resist them. Often being" abstemious for months 
and then deliberately intoxicating themselves in a 
most reckless and insane manner. A paroxysm of 
drunkenness having" passed they deport themselves 
naturally till the next spell. They should be re- 
garded as insane. General treatment should be pur- 
sued as for Alcoholism. 

Dislocations. — These are fully considered in the 
special section on Fractures and Dislocations. 

Displacements. — The various organs of the body 
are liable to become displaced through accident or 
disease. These are considered in the articles on dis- 
eases of the Bladder, Heart, Liver, Spleen, Womb, etc. 

Distoma Hepaticum. — Liver Fluke. — This is a small 
worm often found in livers of sheep, and occasionally 
in the bile ducts or gall bladder of human beings. 


Blood Poisoning from Dead Bodies. 

The poison from dead bodies of persons or animals 
who died of disease may be absorbed by healthy per- 
sons and cause most serious cossequences. Such acci- 
dents mostly occur to persons dissecting carelessly or 
otherwise cutting themselves during the operation. 
But the poison may enter through the hair follicles 
when there is no abrasion of the skin. Bodies of per- 
sons who have died from peritonitis, typhoid fever or 
erysipelas should be handled with the greatest care. 

Symptoms. — (1.) There may be slight fever and heat, 
redness and swelling of the limb affected, while the 
general system is unaffected. 

(2.) There may be great swelling of the limb af- 
fected and abscess there or elsewhere. 

(3.) There may be sudden development of symptoms 
of blood poisoning, rapidly terminating fatally. 


The spot where the poison has been absorbed looks 
angry and a pustule or scab is formed. Running up 
the limb is seen a red streak, the line of the lymphat- 
ics extending to the glands. The glands themselves 
become enlarged and suppurate and abscesses f)rm 
around them. Within twenty-four hours there will be 
chills followed by fever, and the patient soon becomes 
very anxious and prostrated, possibly delirious, and 
collapse before death. 

Treatment. — If noticed in time, tightly grasp the 
limb above the wound so as to prevent, if possible, the 
poisoned blood flowing through the veins, suck the 
wound or cauterize it. Allow blood to flow for a time 
and then direct a flow of cold water over the spot. 
Externally apply compound tincture of myrrh with 
fluid extract of hydrastis added and bandage. In- 
ternally drink abundantly an infusion of composition 
and scullcap containing a little myrrh. Keep the 
bowels open, give an abundance of fresh air, provide 
most nourishing food, give rest to the limb, open ab- 
scesses as they appear, allow frequent salt water 
baths. Avoid all excitement and mental worry; keep 
the mind cheerful and pleasantly occupied. Do not 
allow alcoholic liquors of any kind, and under no cir- 
cumstances should opiates or narcotics be adminis- 

Divers' Paralysis. — See article on Caisson Disease. 


Anasarca. Ascites. Hydrocephalus, Etc. 

All tissues of the body are kept moist by the pres- 
ence of fluid in their interstices. Under various cir- 
cumstances, caused by local or general diseases, the 
amount of fluid in the interstices or in the cavities of 
the body may become greatly in excess of the normal; 
the excess being furnished by the transudation of the 
serum of the blood through the walls of the blood-ves- 
sels. This condition may be brought about by: 


Over distention of the blood- vessels, caused by altera- 
tions of the vessels themselves, or diseases of the 
heart, or obstructions to the flow of blood. 

Diseases of the liver, kidneys or lung's interfering - with 

Alterations of the blood caused by diseases, such as 
urea in the blood; or poisons in the blood from mala- 
ria, etc., or impoverishment from consumption, scurvy, 
cancer and other low forms of disease. 

Exposures to wet or cold, driving the blood inward 
and over-burdening the kidneys, and causing conges- 
tion. The seat of dropsy varies according to the 

Anasarca is the term given to general dropsy. 
Ascites is dropsy of the peritoneal cavit} 7 , com- 
monly known as abdominal dropsy. 

Oedema is local dropsy, such as ordinary swell- 

Hydrocephalus is dropsy of the brain, also known 
as Water on the Brain. 

There are other forms of dropsy, each named ac- 
cording to locality. 

Symptoms. — The swelling or pufliness, pale skin and 
doughy feeling are readily recognized; but as the 
cause of the difficulty and the real seat of disease 
must be known it becomes necessary to recognize pe- 
culiarities of the symptoms. Dropsy from lung or 
heart disease begins about the ankles and extends up- 
ward, and develops very slowly, and there are signs 
of congestion, the veins and venous capillaries look- 
ing blue and the skin usually glazed and tense. 

Dropsy from disease of the kidneys usually com 
mences as puffiness about the eyes and of the hands, 
and may extend rapidly, often in acute cases causing 
enormous swelling of the face in a few hours. In 
chronic cases, it extends over the body, the skin ap- 
pearing pasty and dull white, tinged with lemon. 

Dropsy from disease of the liver commences in the 
stomach and may from there extend to the limbs. It 
progresses very slowly. 


Dropsy of one limb or in some special locality 
points to local obstruction. 

Dropsy from anaemia or impoverished blood is never 
extensive, usually confined to puffiness about the eyes 
and ankles. It comes and goes. Usually disappear- 
ing from the feet during the night and being promi- 
nent about the eyelids in the morning. 

In all cases of dropsy the secretions of the body 
are deficient. The bowels are constipated and the 
urine diminished in quantity. There is a feeling of 
uneasiness and a sense of fullness in the parts af- 
fected. Pressing the swollen part with the finger 
leaves a depression which fills out very slowly. 
Thirst is often very urgent and the skin dry; perspi- 
ration entirely absent. 

Treatment.— The organ affected which is the real 
cause of the difficulty, must be appropriately treated. 
But in all cases outward circulation must be promoted 
and the strength maintained and the bowels kept 
open. Turkish or vapor baths should be employed at 
least once a week. An infusion of equal parts of com- 
position, goldenseal and peach leaves should be used 
freely every three hours. Compound butternut syrup 
(see formulas) is the best laxitive for the bowels. On- 
ions are most valuable additions to diet, which must 
be of a stimulating and highly nourishing character. 

Drop-Wrist. — This is a species of paralysis caused 
chiefly by metallic poisoning of those who handle lead 
paints or other metallic preparations. The hands 
drop at the wrist joints and are almost useless. Hy- 
gienic surroundings, change of occupations and elec- 
trical treatments offer the only hope of relief. 

Drug Rashes. — These are rarely more than inflam- 
matory conditions of the skin; although they some- 
times assume very severe conditions and may possibly 
endanger life. It is always important to distinguish 
them from various eruptive diseases. The drugs most 
liable to cause rashes are belladonna, ergot, mercury, 
quinine and copaiba. 


Drunkenness. — It is important at times to distin- 
guish drunkenness from apoplexy. Serious mistakes 
have been frequently made in this regard/ It is very 
rarely that a drunken person cannot be partially 
aroused and forced to mutter a few words. In apo- 
plexy partial paralysis or relaxation of one side is 
usually apparent. See the article on Alcoholism. 

Dumb A^ue. — Described in the article on Ague. 

Duodenitis. — This is an inflammation of the por- 
tion of the intestines known as the duodenum. It is 
also known as intestinal catarrh. Described in the 
article on Inflammation of the Bowels. 


Bloody Flux. Camp Diarrhoea. 

This malady is essentially an inflammation of the 
large intestines and rectum, much more severe in char- 
acter than diarrhoea and more exhaustive in its effects. 
It is most common in the latter part of summer or 
fall; and it may be epidemic in character, especially 
in newly settled countries or in swampy localities. 
When it becomes epidemic in crowded localities, such 
as camps and mining districts or densely populated 
neighborhoods, it may be attended with great mor- 

Mild Cases. — Frequent, small and painful pas- 
sages from the bowels, accompanied by great straining 
(tenesmus) and offensive faeces mingled with slimy 
mucus, usually streaked with blood, are characteristic 
of dysentery. In most cases there will be more or 
less fever, the cheeks looking flushed and feeling hot, 
the tongue will be coated and there will be great 
prostration, loss of appetite and sleeplessness and 
restlessness at night. 

As a rule the abdomen is swollen, and there is a 
continuous desire to evacuate the bowels and a feeling 
as if some solid substance were in the rectum that 
should be expelled. The number of small evacuations 


from the bowels may be ten or fifteen or more every 
hour. Such a condition is very exhausting and the 
patient loses flesh rapidly. In otherwise healthy per- 
sons, under favorable circumstances, a simple case of 
dysentery, as described above, may subside within a 
week, especially if proper treatment and good care 
are given. 

Severe Cases.— Under unfavorable circumstances 
the disease assumes a more serious form. Fever con- 
tinues, accompanied by great thirst, and a typhoid 
condition becomes apparent. The tongue is red and 
pointed and glassy looking, the abdomen falls inward, 
straining at stool ceases and the muscles of the anus 
may be so greatly relaxed as to make the inner walls 
of the rectum visible. The evacuations from the 
bowels are like water mixed with blood, and the urine 
is hot or almost suppressed. The pulse become small 
and frequent and the breathing very hurried; there is 
great emaciation and a k ' ghost-like" countenance, and 
death may quickly follow. In nearly all severe cases 
of dysentery perfect consciousness remains until the 
last moment. Under proper treatment these severe 
cases may recover, though convalescence will be slow, 
on account of the destruction of intestinal glands. 

Chronic Dysentery. — Feeble or aged or intemper- 
ate persons, or those with constitutional diseases, when 
attacked by dysentery, are liable to develop the chronic 
form, which may linger for a long time, and then 
cause death by exhaustion. In these cases there is 
little pain or fever, but there is great weakness and 
emaciation. The acrid discharges cause irritation 
and ulceration in the rectum and about the anus, and 
the least movement or exposure to cold may cause 
great distress. The tongue becomes red and raw, and 
blood may be present in the mouth and the breath be- 
comes offensive. Often, just before death, the limbs 
become swollen, the eyes sunken and the mouth and 
throat and conjunctiva ulcerated. 

Chances of recovery from dysentery vary according 
to the different forms. Mild cases almost invariably 
recover, but are liable to recur on account of damage 



done to the large intestines. Severe cases, as a rule, 
yield to treatment, while seventy- five per cent is the 
proportion of deaths in chronic cases. Dysentery is 
a disease which is greatly aggravated by neglect, and 
the longer proper treatment is delayed the more diffi- 
cult will recovery become. 

Treatment. — Absolute quietude and rest in a recum- 
bent position are indispensable for recovery from even 
mildest cases. Flannels wrung out of hot water may 
be placed over the abdomen and frequently renewed, 
or stimulating liniment may be applied. 

When the diarrhoea first starts with the straining 
sensations, milk of magnesia should be freely given; 
or injections of elm-water containing some soothing 
nervine. If there is feverishness give a weak infusion 
of lady-slipper and pleurisy root. 

Always advise and insist upon as few passages from 
the bowels as possible. It may seem, from the strain- 
ing sensations, that going to stool is imperative; but 
determination and a recumbent position may delay 
evacuation a long time. When there is great distress 
at stool, sitting on a bed-vessel containing steaming 
hot water will afford relief. 

In severe cases the extremities or the whole surface 
may become cold and require hot irons to the feet and 
frequent bathing of the limbs and body with stimu- 
lating liniment, or the application of hot flannels. 
Stimulants and astringents should never be used dur- 
ing the earlier stages of dysentery. 

After the worst symptoms have subsided, a gentle 
tonic will be necessary. An infusion of witch hazel 
leaves, one ounce, and raspberry leaves one-half 
ounce, to a pint of hot water will be found very 
strengthening, and if the kidneys have been involved, 
peach leaves, one-half ounce, may be added. Such an 
infusion may be used four and five times a day. 

Nourishment during dysentery must be very light, 
such as malted milk, chicken or mutton broth, thick- 
ened milk, oyster liquor, etc. Iced drinks and alco- 
holic liquors are dangerous. Water containing a lit- 
tle gum arabic will keep the mouth moist, even when 
taken in teaspoonful doses. 


Chronic dysentery is well treated by using- the fol- 
lowing- prescription in addition to stimulating liniment 
frequently applied over the abdomen: 

Take fluid extract Hollyhock (Althea) ..two ounces. 

fluid extract Wild Cherry bark . . one ounce. 

fluid extract Wahoo. . .- one-half ounce. 

Mucilage of Gum Arabic two ounces. 

Simple Syrup for eight ounces. 

Mix. Take a teaspoonful every three hours. 

During- an epidemic of dysentery or in swampy or 
unhealthy places during hot weather, persons should 
keep scrupulously clean, eat a light and nourishing 
diet and avoid all excesses and resort to quietude and 
treatment as soon as symptoms of dysentery commence. 

Dysmenorrhoea. — Painful Menstruation. — See the 
section on Diseases of Women. 


Indigestion, Gastric Catarrh. 

There are but few adults who have not experienced 
dyspepsia in some form. It is a rapidly increasing 
difficulty in America, and one which may be spoken of 
as fashionable among all classes. 

The causes of dyspepsia are not always improper 
diet. In fact, those who are the most cautious in 
their dietary often suffer the most. The disorder is 
essentially one dependent upon unnatural conditions 
of the nervous system, such as nervous prostration or 
nervous irritability brought about by over-tension or 
worry. Spermatorrhoea and nervous debility and 
hysteria and hypochondria are also frequent causes of 
dyspepsia. In nearly all cases of dyspepsia the nerv- 
ous system and not the stomach should be most care- 
fully considered. Over-study, book-keeping and sed- 
entary pursuits of all kinds will usually, sooner or 
later, bring on some form of dyspepsia. 


Symptoms. — As a rule attacks of indigestion in dys- 
peptics follow over-eating - . Usually there will be un- 
easiness in the stomach, as though it were heavy and 
full, and one or more of the following symptoms: Bad 
taste in the mouth and furred tongue, belchings, head- 
ache, heartburn, dizziness, palpitation of the heart, 
difficult or asthmatic breathing, accumulations of mu- 
cus in the stomach, loss of appetite, bad dreams, etc. 
Such symptoms belong to cases which are not con- 

Chronic Dyspepsia is of itself a disease depend- 
ent upon alterations in the lining membranes of the 
stomach, which are affected by continued nervous dis- 
orders. This difficulty develops slowly. A few signs 
of its approach may be mentioned: Disturbed sleep, 
desire to lie abed in the mornings, awakening with a 
dry throat and bad taste in the mouth, poor appetite 
and general indisposition. 

The more pronounced symptoms of advanced cases 
are: Headache and mental dullness, heartburn, heav- 
iness of the stomach; flabby and furred tongue, pale- 
ness of the face, irregularity of the bowels, sediment 
in the urine, cold feet, weak pulse and general pros- 

In cases of long standing there may be hacking 
cough, intermittent fever, palpitation, often severe, 
great mental depression, hypochondria, etc. 

Treatment. — In cases caused by over-eating, a mild 
emetic to empty the stomach is the best means of re- 
lief. The taking of soda or magnesia, practiced by 
some, is injurious. After an emetic take a large dose 
of neutralizing cordial, and for several days eat very 
lightly. Those who cannot take an emetic may find 
relief using pepsin in some form, but this should not be 
continuously relied upon. 

Chronic and obstinate cases being primarily the re- 
sult of nervous troubles, the true conditions must be 
sought for and treated as mentioned for the various 
affections, such as spermatorrhoea, hypochondria, hys- 
teria, etc. Fluid extracts of hops and scullcap, each 
one ounce, in six ounces of syrup of ginger, taken in 
teaspoonful doses every two hours, will be found ex- 


cellent. Another excellent tonic is composed of sali- 
cin, two grains, and phosphate of hydrastia one grain, 
taken in capsule before each meal; though this prep- 
aration should not be taken when the tongue is dry or 
the stomach irritable. The compound gentian tonic 
(see formulas) is excellent when there is a decided lack 
of tone to the system. The bowels should be kept 
regular by the use of mild laxatives, but harsh 
cathartics should never be employed. 

Hygienic living is the most important part of the 
treatment of dyspepsia. If there is a lack of proper 
exercise, let that be supplied at once, preferably in 
the open air and sunshine. If there is fatigue of mind 
and body, rest must be secured. In all cases an abun- 
dance of time must be given to sleep in healthful 
rooms. It is usually most beneficial to arrange for 
traveling — a change of surroundings being* of great 
value to the nervous system. 

Cheerfulness is the foe of dyspepsia. Laugh and 
grow fat is an old adage of much truthfulness. Good 
companionship and contentment are unequalled nerve 
tonics. Dyspeptics must learn to look upon the bright 
side of life. It is a difficult thing for them to do, but 
their friends should aid them in this respect. 

The old idea of starving out the dyspepsia is a most 
erroneous one. As a rule dyspeptics should eat more 
than the usual amount of food. The nerves need ex- 
tra nourishment in their impoverished condition. Such 
articles of diet must be eaten as agree best with the 
individual. In nearly all cases tea and coffee, starchy 
foods in excess and pastry are not beneficial; while 
rare meats, fruits and vegetables, cereal coffee and en- 
tire wheat bread will be found most acceptable. Milk 
is also good, although fluids should not be taken ex- 
cessively where the digestive powers are feeble. Al- 
coholic liquors of all kinds should be avoided. 


Difficult Swallowing. 

This is also called GEsophagismus, and is a spas- 
modic contraction of the oesophagus or gullet which 


renders swallowing of food or liquids difficult, if not 
impossible, at times. It is a spasm of the glottis, or 
a convulsion of the circular muscles of the gullet and 
is due to nervous conditions, of which it is a symptom. 
Adult females are the usual sufferers. Sexual derange- 
ments and stomach troubles are often causes, and it 
may also occur as a distressing complication of hydro- 
phobia and lockjaw. An attack usually lasts but a few 
minutes, though occasionally it may continue almost 
constantly for days, seldom interfering with capacity 
for receiving sufficient nourishment during intervals. 

Treatment. — The real cause of the nervous disorder 
must be sought out and treated appropriately. During 
an attack, if severe, put the feet in hot water, rub 
stimulating liniment over the stomach and spine and 
endeavor to use small doses of infusion of lobelia and 
turn the thoughts to other subjects. If such attacks 
are frequent, constant use of cramp bark and scullcup 
will be found beneficial. Dysphagia may be caused by 
pressure or obstructions of aneurisms, tumors, can- 
cers, etc. , or by lesions resulting from scalds or the 
swallowing of acids, or irritating or corroding lesions. 
Their treatment will be found elsewhere. 

Dyspnoea. — Difficult Breathing. — This is more often 
a symptom of disease than a malady of itself. It may 
occur under various circumstances, such as choking, 
cedema or swelling of the glottis, heart troubles, 
asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, aneurism, laryngitis, 
paralysis, etc. It is spoken of in the articles upon 
these subjects. 


Difficult Urination. 

This is frequent in all inflammations of the urinary 
tract. When the urine is passed most easily while in 
the recumbent position, stone in the bladder should be 
suspected, or else forward displacement of the womb, 
or obstructions in the rectum. When it becomes nee- 


essary to press upon the bladder to evacuate it, par- 
alysis of the organ is apparent. When it becomes 
necessary to separate the limbs and lean forward, en- 
largement of the prostate gland is probable. Great 
straining at urination may mean inflammation of the 
bladder (cystitis) or poisoning from various drugs. 
Dysuria is more fully considered in connection with 
the various diseases with which it is associated, and 
also in the section on Diseases of the Generative Or- 


Observations in Relation to Disease. 

Redness. — Red and swollen ears may be due to erup- 
tions and erysipelas. Constant redness is usually due 
to abdominal disturbances, piles or menstrual irregu- 
larities. Transient redness may precede apoplexy, 
bleeding of the nose or delirium, or may be due to 
mental emotions. Intense redness is usually associated 
with inflammation or congestion of the head or ears. 
In new born children it is a sign of premature birth. 

Heat. — The ears become hot in all inflammations 
about the head and in laryngeal difficulties and some- 
times during indigestion. 

Coldness. — During nervous prostration or when 
there is loss of blood, or during chills or convulsions, 
the ears will be cold. Before hysterial attacks the 
ears grow cold. Anaemic persons and those of feeble 
constitutions habitually have cold ears. 

Swellings. — Scrofulous persons are subject to swell- 
ing of the ears. The condition is also frequent dur- 
ing Bright 's disease, and in low forms of blood poison- 

Discharges.- — Pus may come from the ears as a re- 
sult of inflammation of the membranes or of obscesses 


in the ear. In some cases abscess of the brain may 
discharge through the ears; but other symptoms will 
be prominent. Sometimes, from chronic inflamma- 
tions, especially in scrofulous persons, the ear-wax 
may become very thin and constitute an offensive dis- 
charge. Bloody discharges, following injuries, is usu- 
ally an indication of fracture of the scull. When not 
following pronounced injury it may be caused by se- 
vere coughing or straining or retching. Concussions 
of the atmosphere by loud music or explosions or 
shrieking in the ear may likewise be followed by a 
slight flow of blood. It is not uncommon for persons 
of the hemorrhagic diathesis to have bloody discharges 
from the ears when they climb high mountains, where 
the air is extremely rare. 

Earache. — This may be relieved by dropping in the 
ear some warm tincture of lobelia or oil of lobelia. 

Ear Diseases and Injuries. — These are fully con- 
sidered in the section on Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 

Ecchymois. — See article on Bruises. 


Do£'s Tape Worm. 

This tape worm of the dog very much resembles the 
ordinary tape worm (taenia solium) of human beings. 
It has the same kind of a head, but only four segments, 
and is rarely over half an inch in length, and usually 
less. The embr}^o of this worm is discharged from 
the bowels and may cling about the anus, causing 
itching, which the animal relieves by licking, thus 
getting the embryo on the tongue. It is easy to real- 
ize how the embryo may be conveyed to children or 
others who fondle dogs and possibly allow them to 
lick their lips or eat out of their dishes. The terrible 
conditions brought about by this embryo becoming 
fastened in the human body and developing there 
should make all who are aware of the facts most care- 


ful in regard to their associations with dogs. The 
Esquimaux are frequent sufferers from taenia echino- 

After the embryo reaches the human stomach it will 
enter the intestines and possibly be discharged with 
the fasces; but it may be conveyed into various tissues 
of the body and becoming lodged, form a cystic 
tumor. The liver is a favorite locality for this tumor, 
which may become as large as a nutmeg-melon. 

The construction of the cyst is peculiar. On the in- 
ner surface of the cyst develop numerous other cysts 
and upon their inner surfaces develop still other cysts. 
These are respectively spoken of as parent, daughter 
and grand-daughter cysts. The inability to com- 
pletely evacuate them becomes apparent. 

If the cysts are on the liver they cause great ob- 
struction and may press against the stomach and dia- 
phragm, and crowd the lungs and cause death. Or 
they may suppurate, and should then be treated as 
abscess of the liver. Echinococcus may develop in 
the muscles or upon the spleen or even the brain. In 
all cases they should be regarded as tumors. The ad- 
ministration of remedies can be useful only to relieve 
symptoms. Surgical interference may be valuable in 
some cases. 

Lar£e and Isolated Pustules. 

This is a skin difficulty arising directly from local 
irritation, such as particles of lime or caustic or 
sparks of hot iron falling upon the skin, and indi- 
rectly from impure blood or impoverished conditions 
of the system. 

Symptoms. — The skin becomes red and swollen and 
widely scattered pustules appear, about the size of a 
pea. Most frequently these are on the neck, chest, 
limbs or buttocks. They contain yellow, purulent ma- 
terial, often darkened by blood, and in a few days dry 
up and leave a rough scab, which usually falls oft 
without leaving a scar. During the pustular stage 


there may be fever and intolerable itching - and sting- 
ing pain. 

Treatment. — For the blood use the compound syrup 
of yellow-dock (see formulas), and locally apply witch 
hazel ointment. If the pustules degenerate and the 
surrounding tissues become dark or purple, paint 
them with compound tincture of myrrh. Keep the 
bowels open with mild cathartics. 


Tetter. Salt Rheum. 

These names have been applied to various forms of 
an inflammatory condition of the skin which may be 
acute or chronic in its character, and may occur at any 
age of life. 

Symptoms. — Moist eczema, of the acute form, com- 
mences with redness of the skin and itching, and 
within two days very small pimples form which be- 
come filled with a clear and yellow fluid. In a week 
or ten days these vesicles form into pustules which dry 
up, leaving brown crusts, often sticky about the edges, 
and these may come away and leave an itching red 
spot covered with scales. In some cases instead of 
pustules being formed, the pimples may dry up and 
leave scales, or they may burst and leave little red 
points from which fluid, oozes. In any of these forms 
acute eczema may last two or three weeks only, but 
usually successive attacks follow one another, and the 
acute form may become chronic, having the same char- 
acteristics. Eczema presents very little evidence of 
constitutional disturbance beyond slight chills and 
usually constipation. 

Treatment. — The bowels must be regulated and 
proper nourishment and hygienic surroundings pro- 
vided. No stimulants or alcoholic liquors should be 
allowed. Soap must not be used, but in its stead a 
teaspoonful of borax in a bowl of water is best for 
washing. During the first stages use an ointment of 


goldenseal and borax rubbed in vaseline. When the 
crusts form, poultice the parts with thin poultices of 
flax-seed, sprinkled over with lobelia, ginger and 
goldenseal. When the poultices are removed and the 
crusts are gone, wash the parts with distilled extract 
of witch hazel, alternated each day with a wash of 
the colorless fluid hydrastis and glycerine, equal 
parts. Often when the surface itches and is hot an 
ounce of powdered oxide of zinc, mixed with four 
ounces of lycopodium, makes an excellent powder to 
dust over it. Compound syrup of gentian (see formu- 
las) is a most serviceable internal tonic. 


Hypertrophy of the Skin. 

This is an enlargement of the skin, usually of one or 
both lower limbs, or of the external genitals; occa- 
sionally elephantiasis of the ear, nose or arms may 
occur. It may last through life, though a few cases 
have been benefited by treatment. It usually com- 
mences as an erysipelatous inflammation of the skin 
occurring in a series of attacks, with considerable 
constitutional disturbance — fever, pain, etc. Finally 
the inflammation subsides, leaving permanent swell- 
ing. The skin gradually becomes enormously thick- 
ened, sometimes dark, smooth and glassy, occasion- 
ally roughened. The lymphatic glands may enlarge, 
suppurate and discharge. Pain may be present, and 
external sensibility may be almost entirely lost. 

Treatment. — Rest and massage and frequent baths 
are beneficial. Bandages to compress the limb are 
often resorted to. Internal administration of sulphur 
— in teaspoonful doses, in glycerine — twice a day, is 
the best medication. Electricity may be employed to 

Elephantiasis Telangiectodes. — This condition 
is almost identical with elephantiasis Arabum, only it 
arises without inflammation and is usually congenital. 

Also the muscles of the affected limb may become 
shrunken, and the skin may enlarge and form flaps. 


Its treatment is the same as given for elephantiasis 

Emaciation. — Loss of Flesh. — This is a symptom of 
various diseases, and always denotes interference with 
proper nutrition. It may occur from insufficient 
blood, impure or poisoned blood or from nervous con- 
ditions. It is spoken of fully in the articles on the 
various diseases in which it is a prominent symptom, 


Obstruction in the Blood Vessels. 

This is an obstruction of a blood vessel, vein, artery 
or capillary, by a solid particle. Clots of fibrin from 
the heart valves or inflamed veins, or cancerous or 
tuberculous materials, are frequent causes of embo- 
lism. When formed by septic material, abscesses will 
be formed. Embolism may occur during the course of 
disease, sometimes with fatal results. General treat- 
ment consists in quiet and stimulation. Special treat- 
ment must be in accordance with the locality and 
probable diseased conditions present, 

Dilatation of the Air Vesicles of the Lun£s. 

This is a strained and dilated condition of the air 
vesicles of the lungs. It is usually a disease of old 
age, more frequent in men than women, and more lia- 
ble to occur to those who are continuously exposed to 
circumstances favoring coughs and lung troubles. It 
may be concurrent with enlargement of the heart, 
aneurisms and tumors. Occasionally emphysema com- 
mences in childhood and continues until old age, 

Symptoms. — Difficulty of breathing and smothering 
sensations. Air is readily inhaled, but it goes out 


from the lungs very slowly, causing - an extraordinary 
fullness of the chest. Patients are short-winded and 
often think they have asthma; though in asthma there 
is difficulty of inhaling- air, and in emphysema, of ex- 
haling - it. Attacks may come on spasmodically. Pro- 
longed cases are apt to cause hypertrophy of the 
heart, congestion of the head, causing- livid counte- 
nance, swelling - of the hands and feet and general 
dropsy. An absolute cure can scarcely be expected 
except in mild cases, though fatal results are not an- 
ticipated unless other forms of severe lung troubles 

Treatment. — Avoidance of all surroundings and cir- 
cumstances having a tendency to produce bronchial 
irritation is of first importance. There must be only 
moderate physical exertion, and the diet must be 
light. Associated lung troubles must be treated ap- 
propriately. Probably the most efficient means of re- 
lief for spasmodic attacks will be the internal admin- 
istration of two drops each of third preparation of 
lobelia (see formulas) and fluid extract of broom weed 
(amphiachyrus). An apparatus has been constructed 
for emphysema patients whereby they are enabled to 
inhale from a vessel containing compressed air, and 
exhale into a receptacle partly exhausted of air, 
which literally sucks out the air otherwise retained in 
the dilated vesicles. This operation may be repeated 
three or four times a day, using the apparatus from 
ten to thirty minutes each time. If the heart shows 
symptoms of weakness it should be sustained by giv- 
ing a grain each of capsicum and sulphate of hydras- 
tia in capsule twice a day. 

Empyema. — Suppurative Pleurisy. — This is a form of 
pleurisy also known as pyothorax, in which there is 
an exudation of pus and serum. It is fully considered 
in the article on Pleurisy. 

Encephalitis. — Inflammation of the Brain. — See arti- 
cle on Brain Diseases. 



Hernia of the Brain. 

Infants may be born with a protrusion through one 
of the sutures of the skull of a portion of the mem- 
branes of the brain containing - brain substance. This 
is readily recognized; it is bluish in appearance and 
pulsates with the brain. It is extremely sensitive and 
rough handling may cause convulsion. It is usually 
accompanied by dropsy of the brain (hydrocephalus) 
and rarely recovers. The tumor should be carefully 
protected by placing about it a broad ring of several 
thicknesses of soft flannel and then covering the 
tumor itself with absorbent cotton saturated with 
witch hazel extract, and securing all with a proper 

Enchondroma. — These are cartilaginous tumors, 
usually non-malignant in character, although some- 
times becoming malignant. See article on Tumors. 

Endometritis. — This is an inflammation of the in- 
ner structures of the womb, fully described in the sec- 
tion of Diseases of Women. 

Enteralgia. — Neuralgia of the Intestines. — This is 
considered in the article on Colic* 


Inflammation of the Heart's Lining Membrane. 

During a severe attack of articular rheumatism, or 
in the course of Bright's disease or acute infectuous 
troubles, such as scarlet fever, measles and child-bed 
fever, the poisonous irritant, whatever may be its 
character, may set up an inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the heart. The symptoms will be a 
sense of discomfort accompanied by palpitation, the 
heart beat being hard at first and then becoming weak. 
If due to septic poisoning, there will be chills, irreg- 


ularly occurring - perspiration, prostration, pinched 
countenance and diarrhoea. 

Treatment should aim at soothing and sustaining- the 
heart's action and eliminating - the irritating - poison. 
During an attack a weak infusion of Virginia snake- 
root in small doses, by the stomach, and injections of 
boneset and lady-slipper infusion are most beneficial. 
If severe distress is felt about the heart hot applica- 
tions or stimulating - liniment may be made over the 
chest. If of rheumatic origin, citrate of lithia, three 
grains, in a glass of water, should be taken three 
times a day. The bowels must be kept regular, and 
tea and coffee and alcoholic drinks prohibited 

Enteritis. — Inflammation of the Intestines. — See article 
on Bowel Troubles. 

Enterocele. — This is a falling of a portion of the 
small intestines into the pelvis, causing a tumor-like 
bulging into the vagina. It occurs sometimes as a re- 
sult of straining daring labor. To restore the portion 
of intestine to its proper place the patient should 
kneel and rest on the shoulder and have the tumor 
pressed back. This must be followed by perfect rest 
and vaginal injections of infusions of raspberry leaves 
or other astringents* 

Enuresis Nocturna. — See article on Bed-Wetting. 

Ephelides. — See article on Freckles. 

Epididymitis. — See section on Diseases of the Gen- 
erative Organs, 


Fits. Falling Sickness. 

This disease is caused by unknown changes in the 
brain, brought about by diseases of the brain itself or 
by diseases that affect the brain. It majr be heredi- 


tary in character. The severe form of epilepsy is 
also known as grand mal or convulsive epilepsy. It con- 
sists of paroxysms of muscular convulsions of a se- 
vere nature, usually preceded by premonitory symp- 
toms and usually followed by great nervous prostra- 

Symptoms. — Epileptics usually notice peculiar sensa- 
tions just preceding" an attack which serve as warn- 
ings. One or more of the following premonitory 
symptoms may be noticed: Sudden diarrhoea or con- 
stipation, unaccountable disturbances of the stomach, 
twitchings of the muscles, headache, dizziness, hallu- 
cinations, creeping sensations over the body, a feeling 
as though air were blowing over the body (calledaura), 
great thirst or ravenous hunger, sense of constriction 
about the heart, involuntary discharges, sudden per- 
spiration, bright flashes before the eyes, experience of 
unnatural taste, or smell or hearing, bleeding at the 
nose, cramps, chills, etc. 

Knowing these premonitory symptoms, persons may 
situate themselves so as to avoid injury or inconven- 
ience during an attack, or the attack itself may possi- 
bly be averted. For instance, if sudden constipation 
is a premonitory sign, physic may ward off the at- 
tack. If there are creeping sensations or aura of the 
the limbs, tying a band tightly about the thigh may 
be advantageous. If there is stomach disturbance an 
emetic may be of service, etc. 

Sometimes an epileptic seizure is preceded or fol- 
lowed by violent delirium, during which the patient 
becomes actually insane and irresponsible, and may 
commit serious injury to others. Such acts are not af- 
terward remembered by the patient. 

The convulsive paroxysm itself comes on suddenly, 
usually with an involuntary outcry. Consciousness is 
lost instantly, and the victim falls, usually forward, 
not even stretching out his hands to break the fall. 
Often serious injuries are inflicted by striking objects. 
At first the face grows deadly pale and the eyes are 
rolled upward, the mouth majr be opened or tightly 
closed, the fists clinched and the body rigid. This 


condition may last from a few seconds to half a min- 
ute, when the actual convulsions commence. 

During* the convulsion period the eyes roll about and 
every muscle in the body seems to alternately relax 
and contract, the face flushes, and then, as respira- 
tion is interfered with, it grows livid and the whole 
body has a bluish look and the veins become greatly 
distended, the saliva rolls out of the mouth, usually 
mingled with blood from the tongue cut by the teeth, 
and there may be involuntary discharges from the 
bowels and bladder. The pupils are dilated and do 
not respond to light; the pulse at the wrist is ex- 
tremely feeble, though the heart's action is usually 
violent and spasmodic. 

These terrible convulsive symptoms last from three 
to six minutes, rarely over ten minutes, and then cease 
suddenly. Consciousness returns slowly, perspiration 
is abundant and there may be vomiting and a profuse 
discharge of urine. Lividness of the countenance may 
continue for some time. The victim looks bewildered 
and attempts to rise but has no knowledge of what 
has transpired. He is extremely weak and may go 
into a sleep of an hour or more. Usually there is 
mental dullness for days after. 

The frequency of paroxysms varies. There may be 
several in one dajr; they may occur periodically or at 
any time. Persons may go for weeks, months or years 
without an attack and then have several in rapid suc- 

Epilepsy is not always inconsistent with long life 
and comparative freedom from disease. Caesar, Peter 
the Great, Mahomet, Napoleons I and III, Charles V, 
Byron, Isaac Newton and many other noted men were 
epileptics. As a rule victims of the disease gradually 
lose mental and physical vigor to a greater or less de- 
gree. If it is caused by any special known trouble 
which may be removed, there may be a chance of re- 
covery; but persons who inherit epilepsy or have it 
manifested late in life have little ground for hope. 

A mild attack of epilepsy, called petit mal, is char- 
acterized by sudden loss of consciousness, lasting but 
a moment or so. If the person is talking he stops per- 
haps in the midst of a sentence as though to take 


breath; his face becomes pale and then dusky, and 
this is followed by confusion of mind and forgetful - 
ness of what is said or done; there may be dizziness 
and sensations of suffocation. 

Sometimes a peculiar form of epilepsy manifests it- 
self by the patient suddenly committing some unusual 
or indecent or violent act in the presence of others, 
and afterward retain no recollection of it. Such acts 
are usually of short duration, though in rare cases 
the person affected - may thus conduct himself for 

Treatment. — During an attack, nothing can be done 
beyond loosening the clothing, turning the patient on 
the side so as to allow the saliva to escape, and put- 
ting a piece of hard wood between the teeth to hinder 
injury to the tongue. Should the fit continue beyond 
all reason, cold -water may be dashed in the face, or a 
warm bath given, followed by dashing cold water over 
the body, mustard plasters over the back, and per- 
haps electricity. 

Immediately after the seizure the patient should be 
placed in bed and allowed to sleep quietly; though 
many prefer to go at once about their usual callings. 

Between the paroxysms the greatest care must be 
exercised concerning diet and hygiene. Frequent and 
regular exercise in the open air, freedom from mental 
exertion and study, comfortable clothing, avoidance 
of all excesses, abstinence from tea, coffee and alco- 
holic drinks and vicious habits, daily baths with fric- 
tion and a light and nutritious diet. 

Precautions must be taken against seizures occur- 
ring in dangerous places. Sometimes attacks come 
only at night and are known only by the resulting 
prostration. The bromides are frequently used to 
lessen the violence of the attacks, but they only do so 
by injuring the nervous system. Medication must be 
directed to the apparent troubles incident to individ- 
ual cases. 

As a general tonic and equalizer of the circulation 
of value in all cases the following will be found ex- 
cellent: Sulphate of hydrastia, lobelia seed and cyp- 
ripedin, each one grain, taken in a capsule morning 


and evening, and every two hours for a day preceding - 
the attack if premonitory symptoms can be relied 

Epistaxis. — See article on Bleeding - of the Nose. 

Epithelioma. — Epithelial Cancer. — See article on 


Tumor of the Gums. 

As a rule the term epulis is given to a cancerous or 
sarcomatous tumor of the gums, though occasionally 
non-malignant epulis is met with, pushing out the 
teeth by its enlargement. The only successful treat- 
ment is a surgical operation for the removal of the 
portion of the jaw-bone from which the tumor starts. 


This is a painful malady contracted from horses 
suffering from grease, which is a peculiar affection of 
the glands of the skin about the heels of the animals, 
characterized by offensive discharges from ulcerating 
sores. This discharge is poisonous and coming in con- 
tact with the human skin may produce eruptions in 
the form of pustules surrounded by purple and 
swollen areola. These pustules form in about a week 
and last four or five days, and then form a scab which 
leave deep scars. The whole system is affected. 
There is fever, high pulse, prostration and heavily 
coated tongue with chilliness and flushes of heat. 

Treatment. — The eruption is relieved by soothing ap- 
plications of pulverized myrrh and lobelia seeds 
rubbed up with vaseline. The bowels must be moved 
freely by the liver pills, and composition infusion 
must be drank abundantly. Convalescence is slow 
and must be encouraged by nourishing foods. 



Bread Poisoning. 

Occasionally wheat and rye become mixed with the 
poisonous smut known as ergot, and serious results 
follow the eating of bread made from such flour. 
Whole communities have suffered outbreaks of the 

Symptoms. — There may be slight fever at first. Pe- 
culiar burning and itching sensations, with redness, 
commence on the feet, extending often to the legs and 
also appearing on the fingers, hands and arms. In 
about a week's time the burning sensations suddenly 
cease and the parts become cold. The affected por- 
tions grow dark and look like burnt charcoal, an act- 
ual gangrene setting in. Sometimes there will be al- 
ternate spells of convulsions and drowsiness, pain in 
the heart and feelings as though the joints were being 
pulled apart. Stupor may precede death, or recovery 
may occur in a few weeks. 

Treatment. — These cases must be treated similarly to 
gangrene (which see), though the bowels will proba- 
bly need frequent doses of neutralizing cordial; and 
gum Arabic or marsh-mallow root infusion should be 
used with drinking water to soothe mucous surfaces. 
The application of stimulating liniment to unaffected 
portions near the gangrenous spots may aid in arrest- 
ing their spreading tendency. "Foot and mouth" 
disease of cattle is undoubtedly very similar to 


General Eruptive Diseases. 

As a rule acute diseases accompanied by eruptions 
(not skin diseases) are marked by more or less fever 
and run a definite course, and seldom occur to an indi- 
vidual more than once in a lifetime. Measles, scarlet 
fever, rotheln, small-pox, chicken-pox, etc., are types 
of eruptive diseases, and are fully considered under 
their respective titles elsewhere. In all eruptive dis- 


eases the darker the rash appear the more serious is 
the difficulty. 


St. Anthony's Fire. Rose. Cellulitis. 

This is an inflammatory condition of the skin and 
the areolar tissue beneath it, accompanied by consti- 
tutional symptoms. It is usually preceded by disor- 
dered conditions of the system and may follow inju- 
ries or surgical operations, causing serious results. 

Symptoms. — Severe cases are ushered in with a most 
decided chill, quickly followed by a high fever, the 
temperature probably reaching 104° in the course of 
half an hour. There is pain in the back and limbs, 
headache, nausea and vomiting, furred tongue, fre- 
quent and strong pulse and before long a burning, 
itching and heavy feeling at the seat of the difficulty, 
which in a day or two becomes swollen and red. The 
color of the eruption is usually rose, turning to dark 
red. The inflammation travels like a fire on the skin, 
leaving behind it signs of destruction. Mild cases 
may stop at this point and recovery follow in a few 
days. Generally, though, blisters will form at the 
place of inflammation, and swelling become great. If 
about the eyes, which is common, they will be closed 
and extremely painful. Fever continues unabated as 
a rule, and there may be delirium and great prostra- 

Phlegmonous erysipelas is a low grade of the dis- 
ease, giving a dark red eruption and the formation of 
abscesses, and the infiltration of pus through adjoin- 
ing muscular structures. The prostration in such 
cases is very marked and may amount to stupor; the 
pulse weakens and lung complications or a typhoid 
condition may set in. 

Convalescence is preceded by a rapid fall of temper- 
ature to the normal, a clean tongue and natural secre- 
tions. The eruption fades and may turn yellowish or 
bluish, and the dead skin eventually peels oft'. Some- 


times the hair falls out and is soon succeeded by a new 

Mild cases are very seldom fatal, and all cases ex- 
cept those occurring" in persons diseased or weakened 
by excesses, give favorable hopes of recovery. 

Treatment.— Fresh air, without draughts, cleanliness, 
equable temperature and quietude are essential. Sat- 
urate cloths in an infusion of lobelia and goldenseal 
containing an ounce of glycerine and an ounce of hy- 
posulphite of soda to the pint, and apply to the in- 
named portions. If the color is dark, add compound 
tincture of myrrh. Move the bowels by a dose of 
liver pills. Keep the skin mo'st by giving every hour 
a free drink of pleurisy root and ginger infusion; in 
severe cases add composition to this. When there is 
much nervousness administer injections of boneset and 
lady-slipper in infusion. A stimulating emetic (see 
emetics) will be valuable if administered early. Diet 
should be nourishing and very light; liquid foods are 
preferable. Allow the patient to suck lumps of ice; 
give no lemonade or sour fruits, but supply milk if de- 
sired. Keep inflamed portions from the air. 


Erythematous Rash. 

Disturbances of circulation, irregularities and other 
causes of obstruction often produce a rash over the 
body of dull-red patches, irregular and slightly raised, 
chiefly occurring on the backs of the hands and feet, 
and seldom extending over the limbs or body. This 
rash is not accompanied by fever or other constitu- 
tional symptoms, lasts but a few days and usually 
leaves slight roughness or disquamation of the skin. 
One attack may be soon followed by another. 

When indigestion is the cause of erythema, the rasa 
frequently comes on the face and itches and burns. 
Occasionally small vesicles or papules are formed. 
Infants are especially liable to erythema. The diffi- 
culty needs no treatment of itself, but the particular 
disturbance should be sought and corrected. As a 


rule there is acidity of the stomach and constipation 
which may be overcome by milk of magnesia. 

Oval Swellings. 

This disease consists of successive crops of oval 
swellings over the body, chiefly on the fronts of the 
legs; usually at least a dozen of the swellings appear- 
ing at once. They may be from one-fourth of an inch 
to five inches in length; at first are hard and pink, 
but become soft and dark red, like bruised spots; and 
as they disappear they leave a yellow stain, which 
slowly fades. There is local tenderness and pain 
while the swellings last, and the stomach becomes 
very sensitive. Prostration of the system is pro- 
nounced, accompanied by the symptoms of anaemia. 
An attack of erythema nodosum rarely lasts over five 
weeks; sometimes much less, as there may possibly be 
but one crop of swellings. 

Treatment. — This malady will disappear of itself 
without medication; but relief can be obtained, the 
strength supported and the duration shortened by ap- 
propriate means. Keep the bowels open by the liver 
pills, aid digestion by teaspoonful doses of elixir of 
peptenzyme or pepsin after meals, and administer 
compound gentian syrup as a tonic. Over the swell- 
ings apply witch hazel extract at first, and diluted 
compound tincture of myrrh with fluid extract of 
goldenseal as the parts become darker. 


Superficial Neuralgia of the Extremities. 

This is a peculiar condition of the extremities de- 
pending upon irritation or exhaustion of certain 
nerves (vasomotor). The usual form is that of irrita- 
tion, frequently observed in washerwomen who keep 
their hands in cold water a great deal of the time. 
There are burning" pains in the fingers and toes and 
limbs, and sometimes stiffness, swelling and partial 


loss of sensitiveness. The pulse becomes small and 
the face pale and clammy. Such spells are brought 
about by exposures to cold. Occasionally the para- 
lytic form is met with in men, especially rheumatics 
and metal workers. Pains are usually confined to the 
feet, and the surface is hot and the suffering increased 
during warm weather. 

Treatment depends largely upon ascertaining the 
cause and avoiding it; using nourishing diet and hygi- 
enic measures and the application of electricity, to- 
gether with internal use of strong tonics such as com- 
pound syrup of gentian (see formulas). 

Eustachian Diseases. — The eustachian tube, lead- 
ing from the throat to the ear, is liable to various 
difficulties — inflammations, congestions, etc. These 
are all fully considered in the section on Diseases of 
the Eye and Ear. 

Eyelid Diseases. — See Diseases of the Eye and 

Excision. — This is a surgical operation comprising 
the removal of a bone or a portion of a bone, without 
amputating the limb. It is frequently resorted to in 
cases of diseased or decayed bone. It is often pre- 
ferred to amputation, especially at the elbow or wrist. 
It is safer than amputation at the shoulder and hip, 
though more dangerous at the knee joint. 


Bony Tumor. 

This is a bony growth of spongy or dense character 
usually upon the bones of the arms or legs at their 
prominences if spongy in character, or if dense they 
are more frequent on the bones of the face or skull, 
the shoulder blades and the great toes and thumbs. 
They vary in size, often being as big as a hen's egg } 


or larger. Sometimes they are painful, especially 
upon pressure, though as a rule they cause no trouble 
beyond inconvenience. They can be removed only by 
surgical operation, and this should not be performed 
unless the tumors are unsightly or of great inconven- 

Exophthalmic Goitre.— See article on Goitre. 

Aspects of the Countenance in Disease. 

Much may be learned concerning the nature and 
gravity of diseases by the appearance of the counte- 
nance. The following points of interest may be ob- 

Wrinkles in the old are natural, but premature wrink- 
les always denote improper or deficient nutrition. 
Youths with wrinkled faces are usually masturbators. 
Infants with wrinkled faces are suffering from dis- 
eases which prevent proper assimilation of foods. 

Sunken countenance always denotes exhaustion. It 
is a bad sign in the early stages of a disease. In pain- 
ful diseases it may simply be the result of loss of 
sleep or intensity of suffering. Ordinary diarrhoea 
may be sufficiently exhausting to produce a sunken 
countenance, as also may dyspepsia. 

Blotches are usual accompaniments of bad habits or 

Doughy faces indicate kidney troubles or, when sal- 
low, point to liver diseases. 

Puffiness may be the result of various febrile dis- 
eases, as measles, erysipelas, etc., and also of poison- 
ing - . If puffiness is under the eyelids with great pale- 
ness, Bright 's disease, or albuminuria should be sus- 

Paleness, if constant, accompanied by a transparent 
look to the skin, shows a deficiency in the amount of 


red blood corpuscles, or a great increase in the amount 
of white blood corpuscles. Anaemia, chlorosis and 
kidney diseases give paleness of the face. 

Hipvocratic Countenance. — This is a peculiar appear- 
ance of the face indicating" overwhelming prostration. 
It is peculiar to cholera, and is often apparent just 
before death, especially from exhausting diseases. It 
may be described as follows: 

There is extreme and death-like paleness. The 
cheeks and temples are sunken and the bony promi- 
nences protrude; the eyes are deep sunken and rolled 
upward and appear dim; the nose is pointed and 
pinched; the ears are cold and waxy, and seem to be 
hollowed out; the lips are livid, the mouth partly 
open and the lower jaw fallen. Such a countenance is 
frightful to look upon and may be considered an in- 
fallible omen of approaching death. 

In women, paleness is usually a symptom of men- 
strual irregularities. If paleness occurs suddenly 
during pregnancy, abortion or still-birth should be ap- 

In children, sudden paleness about the mouth indi- 
cates abdominal difficulties, which may be simple 
colic, though continued paleness with bright spots on 
the face may indicate worms. 

Sudden paleness of the nose in scarlet fever is an 
unpromising sign. 

Redness of the face, if constant, may be due to over- 
eating, or apoplectic or gouty tendencies, especially if 
the redness is dark. Redness on one side of the face 
may be associated with lung, heart and abdominal 
difficulties. If one side is red and hot and the other 
pale and cold, encephalitis is apparent and pus is 
probably forming on the side of the brain correspond- 
ing to the redness. Brain troubles of children fre- 
quently give transient red spots. A flush of small ex- 
tent on the cheeks is common in phthisis. Sudden and 
general flushing of the face repeated and transient in 
character may indicate lung troubles, or in females it 
may be associated with recent conception or approach- 
ing menstruation, and it is common to teething chil- 


Persons suffering- from nervous difficulties, hysteria, 
etc., and those subject to hemorrhages usually have 
bright red faces. 

Red cheeks with white looking nose should be re- 
garded as indicative of serious illness. 

Blueness of the face is usually due to heart troubles. 

Yellow or sallow faces denote liver troubles, although 
a peculiar light lemon color and waxy look often ac- 
companies Bright 's disease. 

Ashy or gray faces indicate malignant diseases, can- 
cer, gangrene, leprosy, etc. 

Muscular Inability of the Face. 

The nerves controlling the muscles of the face may 
become paralyzed from various causes, among which 
may be mentioned injuries, operations, abscesses, in- 
flammations of the ear, hemorrhages or aneurisms of 
the arteries of the brain, exposure to cold and previ- 
ous endurance of infectious diseases or of rheumatism 
or syphilis. 

Paralysis is usually confined to one side. The 
senses of hearing, taste and smell are interfered with, 
the eyes cannot be closed and the tears trickle over 
the face and leave the nostril dry. Motion of the one 
side of the face is lost, and the nose and mouth are 
drawn toward the healthy side. Occasionally paraly- 
sis of both sides of the face may occur. 

Treatment. — Mild currents of electricity, the anode 
being on the protuberance behind the ear of the af 
fected side and the cathode opposite. Rheumatic 
forms must also be treated with alteratives and cit- 
rate of lithia internally. Constitutional difficulties 
must always be appropriately treated. There is little 
hope of recovery when the paralysis is of specific ori- 
gin. Simple cases may recover, but are liable to re- 


Rigidity and Twitchings of the Muscles. 

Very frequently, on account of nervous difficulties, 
St. Vitus' dance, shocks, etc., the muscles of the face 
may be subject to spasms, or become uncontrollable. 

Chattering of the teeth is due to loss of muscular 
control and may be caused by fright, cold, weakness 
or the nervous prostration of congestive conditions, 
chills, etc. 

Gritting or grinding the teeth is usually the result of 
intestinal worms or other abdominal irritations; but 
it may be caused by direct brain irritations and is not 
infrequently associated with habits of self -abuse. 

Lockjaiv is due to intense nervous disorder caused by 
blood poisoning and may follow serious injuries or be 
present during the existence of cancer or other malig- 
nant troubles. 

Tivitchings on one side of the face are due to diffi- 
culties of the facial nerve. 

Faecal Abscess. — See Appendicitis. 


Syncope. Loss of Consciousness. 

This is an insufficiency of blood in the brain caused 
by failure of the heart to perform its function prop- 
erly. It is brought about by mental or physical dis- 
turbances conveyed through the nervous system. 
Among the causes may be mentioned fright, sudden 
emotion of joy or sadness, the sight of blood, looking 
upon unsightly objects, iniuries, etc., falls, blows 
(especially blows upon the pit of the stomach), run- 
ning, exertion on an empty stomach, too rapid eating, 
a close atmosphere, over-study, a hot and debilitating 
bath, exhaustion, especially exhaustion from loss of 
blood or debilitating diseases. 


Women are more liable than men to fainting - , and 
persons of a highly nervous temperament, especially 
children, are prone to faint very easily. As a rule 
fainting* is not at all serious, though prolonged faints 
are exhausting - , and fainting - during - exhaustive dis- 
eases may be exceedingly dangerous, and is an unfa- 
vorable symptom in organic disease of the heart. 

Symptoms. — Although occasionally a person faints 
without warning, as a rule there are pronounced pre- 
monitory symptoms, such as blurred vision, ringing in 
the ears, dizziness and nausea, cold sweat on the fore- 
head and paleness and weak pulse. Persons accus- 
tomed to fainting recognize these symptoms at once 
and are usually enabled to ward off actual syncope by 
lying down on the back, or getting fresh air or wet- 
ting the forehead with cold water or smelling ammo- 
nia or salts. 

During complete faint the patient loses all con- 
sciousness and falls, becomes deathly pale, with di- 
lated pupils, and the heart is weak, frequent and 
irregular. Occasionally there are involuntary dis- 
charges. In from half a minute to three minutes con- 
sciousness returns gradually, the patient seems con- 
fused for a short time and is very much exhausted. 

In severe cases the heart beats may be almost im- 
perceptible and there may be slight muscular twitch- 
ings. Persons exhausted by disease may pass from 
one fainting spell into another and death soon follow. 
Too great precautions cannot be taken to prevent 
such occurrences during typhoid fever, malignant 
diphtheria, hemorrhages, etc. 

Treatment. — Immediately lay the patient on the back 
without a pillow, dash a little cold water in the face, 
apply ammonia or smelling salts to the nostrils, 
loosen all tight clothing, especially about the neck. 
Place in a draft or supply an abundance of fresh air, 
or fan gently, and rub the limbs upward. If the per- 
son can swallow, give a few drops of compound 
spirits of lavender or other diffusive stimulant in 
water. In severe cases third preparation of lobelia 
or compound tincture of myrrh (see formulas) should 


be given, and stimulating liniment applied over the 
heart and rubbed on the limbs. Mustard plaster over 
the heart is serviceable. 

When medicine cannot be administered by the mouth, 
injections of ginger infusion should be given. Per- 
sons accustomed to fainting should take every precau- 
tion to avoid it, and should build up the nervous sys- 
tem by proper tonics and nourishing food and hygi- 
enic measures. Often turning the thoughts suddenly 
upon some object will arrest a fainting spell when the 
premonitory symptoms are first experienced. 


Affections of the Fallopian Tubes. 

The fallopian tubes lead from the womb toward the 
ovaries, their diameter is about that of a broom-straw, 
and they are embedded in the broad ligament; thus 
they are readily obstructed and their inflammation is 
apt to result in peritonitis. Injections of cold water 
into the cavity of the womb, gonorrhea and inflam- 
mation of the womb by abortion or otherwise may 
cause inflammation of the tubes, resulting in great 
tenderness and intense pain in the region. It is a 
dangerous condition and must be treated as peritonitis 
(which see). 

Dropsy of the tubes may be caused by retention of 
menstrual fluid, pus or mucus. The enlarged tube 
may usually be felt. Vapor baths and the external 
application of stimulating liniment should be em- 
ployed. The surgical operation of aspiration is often 
resorted to with beneficial results. 

Stricture of the tubes may be a result of peritonitis. 
One or both, tubes may thus be entirely closed. If 
both are closed the person becomes sterile. 

There is no effective treatment for the condition of 
stricture. These troubles are more fully considered 
in the section on Diseases of Women. 

Famine Fever. — See article on Relapsing Fever. 
Farcy. — See article on Glanders. 


Fatty Defeneration. — In some persons of peculiar 
tendencies and also in many suffering from disturbed 
nutrition, especially elderly persons, the food taken 
into the system produces an excessive amount of fat, 
which collects about organs, and also causes degener- 
ations of the organs themselves. The heart, kidneys, 
liver, spleen, etc., are all subject to fatty degenera- 
tion, the symptoms of which are duly considered in 
the articles on the diseases of those organs. 

Felon. — This is an inflammation which usually oc- 
curs at the extremity of a thumb or finger and results 
in suppuration of all the structures. A lighter form, 
known as run-around or Whitlow, involves only the 
more superficial structures. Both varieties of the dis- 
ease are fully considered in the article on Whitlow. 


Various Forms of Morbid Dread. 

It is natural for human beings to entertain fear in 
times of danger; but often through weakness of the 
nervous system, dependent upon some disturbance of 
functions, the mind becomes morbidly afraid. Irregu- 
larities of the stomach and of the womb are most fre- 
quent causes of morbid fear. Also sexual excesses 
may bring about a similar condition. 

As a rule sufferers realize the groundlessness of 
their fears, but are unable to overcome them. The 
condition is not associated with organic disease and is 
far from being a symptom of insanity. A severe 
fright or shock may make a lasting impression upon a 
human being, just as it is almost impossible to break a 
horse of becoming frightened every time he sees an 
object which once suddenly shocked him. The vari- 
ous forms of morbid fear are interesting and in- 

Astraphobia is excessive fear of lightning, some 
persons acting like frightened babes during a storm. 
This fear may be inherited and all efforts of reasoning 
fail to overcome it in even the most intellectual per- 


sons. It is very common. Sometimes it is accompa- 
nied by headache, nausea, pain, numbness and occa- 
sionally convulsions. 

Agorophobia designates the morbid fear many 
have of visiting open places or strange localities. 
Many persons have been forced to return from even 
short trips from home on account of this fear. Often 
children become possessed of morbid fear and cannot 
go even a few rods from home unaccompanied. 

Some persons are terrorized beyond endurance by 
tunnels or caves, and although knowing there is no 
danger they are in agony if forced to enter them. 

Monophobia is fear of being alone. Persons are 
tortured when compelled to walk the streets or to re- 
main at home by themselves. 

Gynephobia is fear of women. Some men are ab- 
solutely unable to associate with women through a 
sense of fear, although not in any way bashful. 

Anthropophobia is fear of man. Many apparently 
strong and healthy men are afraid to come in contact 
with other men in business or otherwise. 

Mysophobia is fear of contamination. Persons are 
afraid to touch articles handled by others or to sit 
near strangers from fear of contamination. 

Pantaphobia literally means fear of everything, 
and is usually applied to the dread of undertaking 
any responsibilities least failure or trouble follow. 

Pathaphobia or fear of disease is commonly known 
as hypochondriasis. This is always accompanied by 
disease of the stomach or liver, or some functional 
disorder which may be recognized and corrected. 
Sufferers from pathaphobia cannot be scolded or ar- 
gued out of their belief that they are about to become 
invalids from some fatal disease. 

Treatment of morbid fear must not be by argument 
or striving to mentally overcome foolish ideas. The 


patient usually knows the groundlessness of his fears. 
But nervine tonics, such as scull cap and compound 
syrup of gen dan (see formulas) should be employed. 
Frequent baths and massage, hygienic exercise, con- 
genial associations and pursuits, and freedom from 
worry, with general diet must be provided. Stomach 
and liver troubles, and other functional disturbances 
must be corrected. In nearly all cases investigation 
will disclose disturbances of the procreative organs. 

Febricula. — This is a condition of fever without 
apparent cause and of no specific origin. Fever 
arises suddenly and lasts but a short time, falls sud- 
denly to normal in twenty-four or thirty-six hours, fol- 
lowed by free perspiration and abundant discharge of 
urine. Treatment is given under general fever. 


Its Nature and General Treatment. 

Fever is a sign or evidence of an obstruction in the 
system which hinders natural performance of func- 
tions. For many centuries, and by even the most 
learned, fever has been regarded as a disease of it- 
self — a something to be overcome or cast out of the 
body. But modern knowledge no longer permits such 
an erroneous view, although many still cling to it — 
blindly accepting the doctrines taught them by "au- 
thority." But inherited knowledge and transmitted 
learning are never progressive. 

The various grades and classes of fevers are due to 
the great variety of obstructions that may occur and 
the numerous functions which may be interfered with. 
Let a particle of foreign material get into a piece of 
delicate machinery and the working of that machinery 
will be more or less deranged according to the char- 
acter of the foreign material and its position in the 
machine. An excess of oil within the cylinder or a 
piece of cotton somewhere would interfere with the 
working in a manner different from the interference 



occasioned by a grain of sand, and the damage caused 
to the machine would be different. 

Upon the same principle foreign matter, or an excess 
of normal secretions, or an altered relationship of 
tissues occasioned by unnatural conditions, affect the 
organism and give rise to manifestations known as 
fevers. An extra degree of force is consumed in run- 
ning an obstructed piece of machinery, and unless the 
obstruction is removed the machine itself is damaged 
and perhaps ruined. An extra degree of vital power 
is required to maintain life in an obstructed organism, 
and unless the obstruction is removed tissues will be 
destroyed and perhaps the whole organism so affected 
that the vital power will be unable to use it and death 
will follow. 

Fever is always an indication of an increased vital 
effort to overcome obstructions or derangements of re- 
lationships of tissues. And the character and degree 
of the fever manifested always denote the extent of 
the derangement and the degree of increased vital re- 
sistance. Thus it is evident that during disease fever 
becomes a most important symptom to aid in diagnos- 
ing the difficulty and in estimating the chances of re- 
covery. Three general grades of fever may be recog- 
nized— (1) High, (2) Low, (3) Malignant. 

High Grade Of Fever. — The natural internal 
temperature of the body is slightly over 98° F. In 
fever it may rise to 106°, though rarely over 105°. 
When the pulse, although frequent, is strong and full 
and regular, and the face, although dry and hot, is 
bright red or rosy, the fever is of a high or ardent 
grade, and denotes a powerful resistance made by the 
vital power to overcome the trouble. 

Low Grade OF Fever. — This is always an unprom- 
ising condition, and denotes inability of vital power 
to conquer the difficulty. The pulse is frequent, 125 
or more, and weak and often irregular. The face, in- 
stead of being rosy, is dusky a.nd often sallow, or pale 
with a red spot on the cheek. By such signs we may 
be informed that the accumulations which interfere 


with natural performance of functions are of such a 
character that the vital power cannot overcome them 
before they prove destructive to tissues. Often the 
great vital effort manifested by a high grade of fever, 
if not sustained, becomes exhausted, and the heart 
and nerves grow weary and the high grade gradually 
changes to a low grade of fever. 

Malignant Grade of Fever.— This is a form of 
fever accompanied by a manifest destruction of tis- 
sues. The obstructions are so great and of such a 
poisonous character that the vital power is compelled 
to yield many of the structures to chemical force, 
which decomposes them. Purplish spots often occur 
over the body, or the discharges may become very of- 
fensive. Although usually ardent at first, malignant 
fever becomes of the low grade as it progresses. 

Warnings of Fever.— When obstructions to normal 
actions are accumulating and before they have reached 
such a state as to arouse great vital effort to overcome 
them, they cause discomfort throughout the organism, 
perhaps for several days before the fever, though in a 
few kinds of fever the premonitions are very slight 
and may be overlooked. But in the majority of cases 
there will be a feeling of general weakness through- 
out the body, a disinclination for exertion, a "good- 
for-nothing " or lazy feeling. The appetite becomes 
poor, sleep is unrefreshing and the bowels irregular; 
there may also be headache, and sometimes twitches 
of pain or aching in the muscles and joints. 

Such symptoms, if observed, should be the occasion 
for concern. At such a time sickness might often be 
averted by taking a mild cathartic, or a warm bath 
with friction and regulating the diet. The accumula- 
ting obstructions being readily removed under such 
aids by the vital resistive power without any manifes- 
tations of fever. But it is a mistake to suppose that all 
diseases can be warded off during the premonitory 
stage. They can not. Nevertheless it is alwaj^s 
wisest to heed the warnings and endeavor to aright 
the least disturbance. 


Chill preceding Fever. — Nearly every case of 
fever is preceded by a chill of more or less severity, 
and usually the greater the chill the higher will be 
the fever which follows, and the longer the duration 
of the chill the greater the severity of the malady. 
Chilliness may be slight, a "creepy "feeling occurring 
off and on for several days, an inability to get warm 
under favorable conditions for warmth. Such a con- 
dition shows a general accumulation of effete material 
throughout the system of a poisonous character, and 
a tedious spell of sickness may be expected to follow. 
A chill always denotes a depression of the nervous 

Again, the chill may come on suddenly and be very 
severe, the whole body shivering and shaking, the 
surface pale or spotted with purple blotches, the nails 
blue, the lips ashy and the skin cold, the pulse is weak 
and slow, denoting nerve and heart depression. The 
mind may be cloudy and often pain and aching 
through the lower part of the back and the limbs may 
be intense. Such a severe and sudden chill usually in- 
dicates that the sickness to follow will be severe and 
critical, and reach a dangerous point in a short time, 
or that the fever to follow will be high and the ob- 
struction quickly overcome, unless a specific poison 
has entered the system. 

The Stage of Fever. — Following the chill comes 
the reaction or the manifestation of the vital effort to 
overcome the obstruction that caused the chill. Dur- 
ing the chill the minute blood vessels of the surface 
were contracted, therefore the external circulation 
was interfered with and diminished, consequently an 
excess of blood was forced inward. Most of the or- 
gans were found crowded by accumulations of effete 
material, and so the greater part of the blood which 
should have been at the surface, found room by crowd- 
ing into the heart; this crowding distended the elastic 
walls of the heart and excited that organ. By elas- 
ticity it reacted and suddenly forced outward, with 
violence, the excess of blood. This constitutes the re- 
action, and is an important matter. 

In congestive chills the recession of blood from the 


surface is so great and the disturbance of the nervous 
system is so profound, that the heart is unable to re- 
act at once, if at all, and death may follow. There- 
fore the readiness with which reaction is established 
and the degree of its power are matters of great con- 
cern in all instances. 

After reaction is established, the disturbance of 
equilibrium is not at once rectified, for the obstruc- 
tions are not removed at once, but serve as a source of 
irritation to the nervous system, which in turn excites 
the heart to continued increased action, which if prop- 
erly maintained removes the obstruction. But if the 
nerves are weakened and prostrated by the poisonous 
materials or by the profound shock of an overwhelm- 
ing chill, reaction may be feeble, and increased heart 
action may not be sustained sufficiently to remove the 
obstructions and death would follow. 

Here may be appropriately mentioned the folly and 
danger of administering poisonous febrifuges and anti- 
pyretics to overcome the fever. Aconite, veratrum 
and various coal-tar preparations are commonly em- 
ployed. They do reduce the fever; but how do they 
do it? They partially paralyze the heart (in large 
doses they would completely paralyze it). As a mat- 
ter of course the heart in such a condition is unable to 
perform extra work and there is no manifestation of 
fever. "It has been reduced. " Thus does the ostrich 
hide its head in the sand during danger. When ob- 
structions are to be removed, the increased work of 
the heart is Nature's effort at accomplishing their re- 
moval, and to render the heart incapable of extra 
work only increases the danger and never removes the 

Treatment during Fever.— While fever is a mani- 
festation of increased vital effort, and is always an 
indication of reserve force, yet it is never desirable, 
because it always declares the interference with the 
natural performance of functions. The abatement of 
fever by disabling the heart for producing it is a 
dangerous thing, and should never be resorted to. 
But the abatement of fever by the removal of the ob- 
structions necessitating the increased heart action is 


always desirable and should be the aim of all treat- 
ment as soon as fever manifests itself. For should 
fever be allowed to continue, the strain upon the 
nerves and the heart itself will weaken them and 
make resistive power and eliminative action more 
and more feeble. Remove the cause of fever and the 
symptoms will naturally disappear. Treatment should 
have in view three objects: To remove the obstruc- 
tions, to equalize the circulation and to recuperate ex- 
hausted tissues and organs. 

In nearly every instance of fever the stomach is 
overcrowded with material which becomes putrefied if 
allowed to remain in the system undigested. The 
foul stomach may be known by the heavily coated 
tongue, and if that indication is seen, evacuation by 
an emetic should be resorted to at once. The various 
classes of emetics and the methods of administering 
them are mentioned elsewhere under the title of 

Water. — Use Nature's solvent in abundance, both ex- 
ternally and internally. Water permeates every por- 
tion of the body and carries away with it, when elim- 
inated, impurities and effete materials. When the 
surface is dry and hot nothing will so soothe the 
nerves as frequent sponging with water — warm, hot 
or cold according to the agreeableness to the patient. 
If the head is disproportionately hot, bathe the feet 
in hot water and lay a cloth wrung out of cold water 
on the forehead. Allow the patient to drink copiously 
of water in all cases of fever; though in diphtheria 
the drink should be warm and no cold water applied 
in any way — the reasons for this will be found in the 
chapter on diphtheria. 

Medication. — There are so many various causes of 
fever, depending upon the character of obstructions, 
that specific medication for the general term fever can- 
not be given. But under the titles of the various dis- 
eases characterized by fever will be given treatment 
appropriate to each case. Simply the general princi- 
ples of treatment can be laid down here. 

In cases with high fever, relaxing medicines should 
be administered. A simple remedy, as follows, may 


be regarded as a typical preparation to relax the sys- 
tem during fever. 

Take of Pleurisy Root (pulverized) . . one-half ounce. 

Catnip or Spearmint one-half ounce. 

Lobelia herb one-fourth ounce. 

Mix, and pour upon it one pint of boiling water. Let it 
steep half an hour, then strain and administer two table- 
spoonfuls every hour until the fever abates or the patient be- 
comes quieted. 

A single teaspoonful each hour would be sufficient 
for a small child. If the fever is not high and there 
is great depression a little cayenne pepper (one-fourth 
teaspoonful) could be added to the above; or, with 
sensitive persons or children, a little ginger. 

If the bowels are constipated administer an injec- 
tion of boneset, made by pouring one pint of boiling 
water upon one ounce of boneset herb— straining after 
steeping. Free and natural movements of the bowels 
are important during fevers of all kinds. Also, free 
action of the kidneys is desirable; and peppermint 
will favor this. If diarrhoea is present during fever 
(which often happens), a weak injection made from 
raspberry leaves may be given. If there is great 
weakness, one-fourth of an ounce of pulverized gold- 
enseal could be added to the preparation above, as a 
tonic. ' 

Nourishment. — Food administered to fever patients 
should be very light but nourishing. Most people 
will enjoy the juice and pulp of oranges, or a baked 
apple. Toast is good, but too much of it constipates. 
Malted milk is most nourishing, and Hoff's Extract of 
Malt is excellent. The patient must be sustained, but 
great caution must be exercised, lest food is not di- 
gested properly. 

Fresh and pure air, cleanliness and perfect quietude 
and freedom from worry are necessary. Sleep should 
be encouraged, and when natural should not be dis- 
turbed for the administration of medicines (cases of 
diphtheria excepted). 


The Breaking-up of Fever.— This may be known by the 
skin becoming moist and soft, and the secretions be- 
coming* free. The saliva begins to moisten the mouth 
and the tongue clears; the bowels move naturally, 
warm perspiration starts out over the surface, and 
the kidneys act freely. Often after a fever the urine 
is very cloudy or muddy — laden with the impurities 
which have accumulated in the system. Their re- 
moval is a good sign, and convalescence usually soon 


Meningitis. Spotted Fever. 

This is an exceedingly dangerous malady, and is lia- 
ole to prove rapidly fatal under even the most favor- 
able circumstances. It is an epidemic disease, al- 
though not contagious. Communities may be affected 
by it at any season of the year, but as yet it cannot 
be ascribed to any particular class of circumstances 
or to any special conditions of soil, climate or atmos- 

There may be cases of meningitis when no epidemic 
exists, and the disease may also follow or be a compli- 
cation of other diseases, such as measles, scarlet fever 
and pneumonia. Single cases are apt to be the result 
of great mental exertion or continued worry main- 
tained under circumstances unfavorable to the preser- 
vation of health. In army barracks, where crowding 
is great and proper sanitary measures are neglected, 
epidemics of meningitis may arise. Though, again, 
the disease may be widespread in most cleanly and 
aristocratic neighborhoods. 

Meningitis is an inflammation of the coverings of 
the brain, and often those of the spinal cord. In acute 
cases the membranes enveloping the cerebrum or front 
portions of the brain are usually extensively engaged, 
and the symptoms in individual cases vary according 
to the locality and extent of the inflammation. Some- 
times the brain itself or the spinal cord or both may 
be inflamed as well as their coverings. Such cases 
are almost invariably fatal. 


Symptoms. — There are four general periods in cases 
of meningitis, one passing into another. These are: 
The onset, the excitement period, the transition period, 
and the period of prostration. The symptoms of each 
vary in character and intensity according to the pe- 
culiarity of the disease. 

The onset of meningitis is, as a rule, very sudden. 
The victim may feel in the best of health at noon and 
be seriously sick by nightfall. Probably while sitting 
or while at work he will be suddenly attacked with a 
lancinating pain through the head, often in some one 
part, and darting down the back of the neck, causing 
him to cry out in agony. There is a consciousness 
that the pain is of serious import, and a feeling of im- 
pending calamity is experienced. Immediately after 
the first shock of pain there is chilliness, followed by 
vomiting, or at least severe sickness at the stomach. 
The patient is so terrorized by his symptoms that he 
loses no time in placing himself for a spell of sickness, 
fully realizing that no trifling difficulty affects him. 
In little children there is apt to be a spasm at the be- 
ginning of the disease. Should a spasm then occur in 
an adult it would be a most unpromising sign. In ex- 
ceptional cases delirium, stupor, prostration and 
death may follow within six or twenty-four hours 
after the first acute symptoms manifest themselves. 

A period of excitement follows the onset. All the 
senses become suddenly exalted. Whispered words 
sound loud, ordinary light is unbearable, perfumes or 
odors are irritating, and a touch to the body is ex- 
tremely annoying. There is great restlessness, de- 
spite the fact that ease from pain is obtained only by 
perfect quiet, the head being thrown far back, afford- 
ing greatest relief. Sleeplessness naturally follows. 

Within a few hours a light fever is manifested, the 
temperature varying from 100° to 103°, according to 
circumstances. The eyes are watery and become 
bloodshot by looking at light. The tongue is pointed 
and has a light coat (in extreme cases it is dark) and 
it trembles perceptibly when an attempt is made to 
protrude it. The head is very hot to the touch, while 
at the same time the feet feel like ice. The urine may 
at first be abundant, but is soon very scanty and it is 


always light colored during the period of excitement. 
The bowels are constipated as a rule, though very 
exceptional cases have a troublesome diarrhoea. These 
symptoms may continue for three or four days, gradu- 
ally growing more intense till the merest touch to the 
body becomes unendurable, and walking over the floor 
by others seems to distract the patient. Jerking of 
the muscles are common and are warnings of convul- 
sions in young people, and in grown persons they are 
to be dreaded. Sometimes the sensitiveness may be 
so great as to cause the body to become rigid upon the 
slightest disturbance and to be so tense as to rest upon 
the back of the head and the heels only. 

From the second to the fifth day an eruption may 
make its appearance in the form of spots one-sixteenth 
to one-half inch in diameter. It is from these spots 
that meningitis derives its name of "spotted fever." 
Still the spots are the exception and not the rule, and 
they may not to manifest until death or after. They 
may be all the way from rose color to dark red or al- 
most black. They are usually the result of great ir- 
ritation or even destruction of the minute terminals of 
nerves, and the darker their color the more severe is 
the disease, though their absence does not indicate a 
light form of meningitis, as death may ensue without 
their appearance at all. By some these spots are 
spoken of as "dry nerve gangrene of the skin." 
They usually appear upon the chest or over the limbs, 
and sometimes have a gray appearance when first seen. 
From the second to the fifth day in most cases may be 
termed the transition period, and unless death occurs 
at that time the disease passes into the next period. 

Prostration occurs in 'all protracted cases and the 
symptoms are very marked and are of themselves suf- 
ficient to convince the most casual observer that death 
is approaching. Breathing becomes irregular and 
often the patient moans; in children this is pitiful to 
listen to: "the pulse frequently varies and the stroke is 
feeble and the volume small. The temperature varies, 
the hands and feet are constantly cold, and the nails 
usually appear blue. During sleep the eyelids remain 
open and a frightful look is given by the eyeballs be- 
ing rolled upward. The pupils of the eyes are not 


equal in size and light makes no impression upon them; 
bringing a bright light close to them does not cause 
them to contract. The tongue is dark brown or 
almost black, being coated with a heavy dark fur, the 
dark coating covering the lips and teeth as well. Par- 
alysis, complete or partial, sets in, usually confined to 
some special part of the body. One side may be af- 
fected, or the body from the waist down (causing in- 
voluntary discharges), or the bowels may be paralyzed 
so that they cannot act at all. As a rule, swallowing 
will be affected, even though paralysis is not mani- 
fested elsewhere. Stupor usually sets in and death 
soon follows. 

Convalescence after an attack of meningitis is exceed- 
ingly slow and tedious. For a period of perhaps sev- 
eral months the least excitement or over-exertion, or 
concentration of thought or worry bring on exhaust- 
ion or intense headache. The strength of children 
after an attack is often over-estimated, and they are 
allowed to overdo themselves and bring about serious 
results. They are subject to sudden convulsions and 
may cry out with pains which shoot through the head, 
and the prostration following may be so profound as 
to result in stupor and death long after recovery 
seemed assured. 

Treatment. — After studying the symptoms, the exer- 
cise of common sense and good judgment will direct 
the management of a case of meningitis. It must be 
borne in mind that the disease is of a most serious na- 
ture, and that the greatest precautions must be taken 
to prevent any aggravation of symptoms. 

Quietude, profound and constant, must be secured 
under every circumstance. Noise of any nature must 
be prohibited about the premises, barking dogs and 
disturbing cats must be removed, and a check put 
upon every source of disquiet. Keep the patient's 
room darkened, and allow but one person to enter it 
at a time, and under no circumstances should visitors 
be permitted to enter. The patient may be inclined 
to talk or to beg others to talk to him; such should be 
prohibited; say nothing whatever to him except what 
is absolutely necessary. Let this rule be enforced 


rigidly. Remember that his sensibilities are greatly 
exalted, and whispering in the room, or about the 
house even, will prove very annoying to him. Let the 
door-bell be muffled and a card of warning be placed 
on the front door. No effort to secure quiet should be 

The temperature of the room should be kept exceed- 
ingly even; but plenty of fresh air must be admitted. 
If winter time, let there be a fire in an open stove or 
grate in order to secure good ventilation. For food, 
use only most digestible substances. Gruels and sea- 
moss are excellent; malted milk and lactated food 
may be enjoyed. Do not allow much at a time, but 
feed often in small quantities. Sponge baths of warm 
water, especially over the spine, are beneficial; but 
great care must be exercised in giving them on account 
of the patient's extreme sensibility, and they should 
be discontinued if the patient becomes exhausted. 
Cold feet should be warmed by frequent hot salt-water 
baths, and a hot-water bottle or heated bricks. Pro- 
cure a bed-pan, and do not allow the patient to get 
out of bed to attend to the calls of nature, always be- 
ing sure to use a disinfectant on such occasions. Dur- 
ing convalescence there must be absolute rest from all 
worry of mind and from bodily exertion. 

Medicines must be simple whenever used, but do not 
regard meningitis or any other disease as a something 
to be poisoned out of the system by strong drugs. At 
the onset the bowels are constipated and they must 
be relieved. Do not use violent physic; it is not 
needed at any time during meningitis. Milk of mag- 
nesia is probably the best laxative to administer. Hy- 
posulphite of soda, in teaspoonful doses, dissolved in 
water, will relieve the vomiting commonly present at 
the start. This may be given every three hours. An 
infusion made by putting half an ounce each of pleu- 
risy root, lady slipper and ginger in a pint of boiling 
water, is excellent to soothe the nerves and soften the 
skin. A single teaspoonful every hour is usually suf- 
ficient. Medication by the stomach is often tiresome, 
and in its place injections into the rectum may be 
given to great advantage. In fact, they can be relied 
upon. The above infusion without the ginger may be 


used mixed with strained barley broth, every three 
hours. The barley will sustain the strength. If there 
is a tendency to convulsions use lobelia herb in place 
of pleurisy root in the injections, and always have 
them retained as long - as possible. Camomile, queen 
of the meadow and blue cohosh, equal parts, made 
into a syrup, afford an excellent tonic for convales- 
cence. Myrrh must be used freely in the injections 
named above if the tongue becomes dark and the dis- 
charges become offensive. 


Rubeola. Morbili. 

This is a disease which few escape during childhood, 
though it may be contracted by adults. By many it is 
believed to be a necessity that children should pass 
through a spell of measles in order to secure future 
good health, and they therefore take opportunity to 
expose them to the infection — for the disease is decid- 
edly infectious. Such a procedure is not wise, for no 
child should be thrust into danger. Still children who 
safely pass through a spell of measles are more fortu- 
nate than those who do not, for the disease is very sel- 
dom fatal during childhood, while if contracted during 
adult life it is far more apt to be severe. 

The disease itself is simple, and under very favor- 
able circumstances recovery would follow naturally 
after measles had run the usual course. But circum- 
stances are not always favorable. The condition of 
the stomach and bowels may be such at the onset that 
complications arise during the disease, and unless 
promptly attended to most serious and sometimes 
fatal diarrhoeal conditions arise as the result of 

During measles there is always a tendency to irrita- 
tion of the mucous membranes of the lungs, so that 
the least exposure to cold, or to uneven temperature 
or drafts may bring about bronchitis, or result in 
pneumonia, either of which is exceedingly dangerous 
under the circumstances. 


Again, neglect to keep up a proper surrounding" 
temperature during the period of the eruption may 
drive inward the excess of superficial blood along with 
the poisonous material constituting the eruption. 
This being forced inward brings about unhealthy con- 
ditions throughout the system which may continue for 
many years, the person never being in good health. 
Though many regain health as long as twenty or 
thirty or more years after the original attack by cir- 
cumstances which cause the eruption to re-appear after 
so long a lapse of time. 

Care, then, is the great desideratum in a case of 
measles. Being cautious to allow no exposure or risk 
from cold, and to provide cleanliness and proper diet, 
will almost insure speedy recovery from an uncompli- 
cated case of measles. 

Symptoms. — The onset of measles may be unnoticed, 
though as a rule there is a feeling of weariness; chil- 
dren do not play as usual, and there is a chilly feeling 
complained of, and little desire for food. Such condi- 
tions last one or two days, when the more prominent 
symptoms commence. These are: Blood-shot and 
watery eyes, running at the nose, sneezing and usually 
a slight cough, a swollen look about the face and the 
general indications of a cold. These symptoms last 
two days or more, during which time fever starts up; 
the temperature sometimes reaching 103°; but becom- 
ing lower at times. In severe cases the throat may be 
very sore and the glands of the neck swollen. As a 
rule the tongue is covered with a moist white fur, 
through which red spots may be seen. The pulse is 
full, strong and frequent; 100 to 140 beats per minute, 
according to age. 

The eruption occurs on the fourth day of the attack, 
counting from the time of the chill. It makes its ap- 
pearance first on the forehead, looking very much like 
flea-bites, and feeling somewhat elevated. These dots 
become of a raspberry color, and as they spread run 
into each other, forming little crescent-shaped 
blotches. From the forehead they extend over the 
face next, then over the chest and back, and occasion- 


ally over the arms and legs, showing up at the wrists 
and on the feet. 

Fever increases with the eruption. In twenty-four 
hours the raised feeling- is gone, and in two days after 
the eruption appears on the forehead it begins to 
fade — leaving in the order in which it came. On the 
third day of the eruption it begins to grow somewhat 
rough, and very small scales come off. On the fifth 
day of the eruption and the ninth of the attack, the 
eruption proper has disappeared, and in its place are 
slight yellowish spots which remain a few days, and 
in some cases for a week or more. The fever abates 
as the scales come off (desquamation). Earache, sore 
eyes, and bronchial troubles are to be expected during 
measles and guarded against. 

Treatment. — All signs point to the fact that Nature 
is making an effort to rid the system of some poison- 
ous material by forcing it out through the skin. This 
manifest effort on the part of Nature must be our 
guide to treatment, which should have -for its aim the 
aiding of this natural effort and the removal of obsta- 
cles which might prevent it. 

(1.) Keep the patient warm, though not depress- 
ingly so. An even temperature in the room of about 
72° is good, but the air must be fresh. Keep the room 
darkened to prevent irritating the sensitive eyes. 
Avoid drafts. Chilling would close the pores of the 
skin and, popularly speaking, "drive the measles in- 
ward, " as mentioned, — a dangerous condition. 

(2.) Poisonous material endeavoring to get out 
through the surface, the skin should be rendered as 
pliant and open as possible. This can be accom- 
plished simply by using the following: Pulverized 
white root (pleurisy root), one ounce; pulverized gin- 
ger, one-eighth ounce; pour upon this one pint of boil- 
ing water and sweeten. Give one or two tablespoon- 
fuls every hour, according to age (not disturbing the 
patient in sleep) until a slight perspiration is estab- 
lished; then give less frequently, or only when the sur- 
face does not seem soft and moist. Some cases will 
need but very little. If there is much nervousness 
one-half ounce of pulverized lady slipper can be 


added. In mild cases, in place of any of the above, 
simple pennyroyal or sage tea may be given. If the 
bowels should be constipated give milk of magnesia or 
syrup of rhubarb. Don't use pills for there is natu- 
rally a tendency to irritation of the bowels, which is 
easily aggravated. Give plenty of water (not too 
cold) to drink, and bathe the feet in hot water. If the 
eruption is slow in coming, or if convulsion should oc- 
cur, give a hot bath, rubbing the surface vigorously. 
This treatment will suffice in nearly every case of 
measles, giving, for after treatment, to soothe the 
mucous surface of the lungs as well as the bowels, a 
little syrup of wild cherry. 

But complications may arise. The eruption may be- 
come very dark, almost black, and the bowels become 
very loose. In such cases use composition (see chap- 
ter on formulas) one ounce, and boneset one-half 
ounce; mix; steep a short time in one pint of water; 
give two tablespoonfuls every hoar until relief of 
symptoms is manifested. If there is any sign of col- 
lapse, such as coldness, during the dark eruption, give 
a large injection of the composition in starch water. 
Such a condition is extremely unlikely to occur. 

For diarrhoea, use neutralizing cordial or syrup of 
wild cherry (see formulas). 

For sore eyes make a weak tea of goldenseal, strain 
very carefully and use as a wash. 

If there is great prostration scullcap (one ounce to 
the pint of boiling water) is most excellent taken at 
intervals. Croup, pneumonia, bronchitis, etc., arising 
must be treated as mentioned for those difficulties else- 


Rotheln. Rubella. Roseola, 

This is a very insignificant disease; but neverthe- 
less one that should be recognized and not trifled 
with; for slight as it is, exposure to cold or neglect 
might induce more serious trouble. It is not an es- 
pecially contagious disease, though it appears to be 
epidemic at times. Indeed, it so closely resembles 


scarlet fever in the appearance of the rash when it 
first is noticed, that many physicians make the mis- 
take of pronouncing* it scarlet fever, causing - conster- 
nation and great trouble in the household. And even 
when the development of the case shows its nature 
they will not retract their first statement and admit 
their mistake. Thus scarlet fever epidemics are often 
largely composed of simple cases of German measles. 

Symptoms. — There are usually no premonitory signs, 
but the patient suddenly breaks out in a scarlet rash 
over the entire body (least on the face and extremi- 
ties). The eruption is rounded and slightly raised. 
It is often accompanied by a slight sore throat, back- 
ache and dizziness, and often a little nausea, the 
throat looking raw, and the eyelids usually somewhat 
puffed. The rash disappears, usually, inside of three 
days; frequently with very fine scales. At such a 
time catarrhal symptoms may occur, and trilling as 
the malady is, to catch cold then might lead to serious 
lung troubles. 

Treatment. — Warmth, light diet and mild teas, such 
as spearmint or sage or pennyroyal, taken occasion- 
ally, is all the treatment necessary; and even the teas 
may be dispensed with if the weather is warm and 
there are no complications. 

Having - the German measles does not exempt one 
from afterward contracting the genuine measles. 
Both usually occur in winter. 

Very often there is no fever at all worth noticing in 
German measles; and the rash may come and go for a 
week, giving no inconvenience whatever beyond an 
itching which becomes intolerable. Such cases should 
be sponged with hot water in which a little borax or 
cooking soda has been dissolved. Great care being 
taken to dry thoroughly and to avoid cold. 


Scarlet Fever. 

There is no disease more contagious than scarlet 
fever, and its treacherous and fatal character makes it 
imperative upon parents to take every precaution to 


guard against its being - contracted by children; and 
also it becomes the urgent duty of physicians and 
nurses attending cases to guard against its spread to 
others. It is a disease which may be carried great dis- 
tances. The bran-like scales or dust which peels off 
the body as the eruption disappears is highly poison- 
ous. This dust may be carried on the clothing of vis- 
itors, and it may be carried by dogs or cats or other- 
wise, and loses none of its virulence by time. But the 
infection of scarlet fever may extend from the first 
elevation of temperature before the rash till five or 
six weeks afterward. 

The patient should be isolated at once, and the iso- 
lation strictly maintained. Bed clothing and gar- 
ments should either be destroyed or placed in water 
containing corrosive sublimate. After the disease, 
the apartment and all the furniture, bedding, etc., 
should be thoroughly fumigated by closing the room 
tightly and burning in it two pounds of sulphur. The 
ordinary sulphur candles are the best means for such 

There are three general forms of scarlet fever — 
simple, anginose and malignant — and these are sub- 
ject to variations of symptoms. Epidemics of the 
disease are usually from four to six years apart, and 
one type or the other is most prevalent during any one 
epidemic. Unhygienic surroundings and bad living 
will intensify any case; it is usually mildest during 
summer; and some persons seem to be more liable to 
contract it than others. Children are the usual suf- 
ferers, and those having once passed through the dis- 
ease are considered exempt from a second attack. 

Simple Scarlet Fever. — Symptoms. — The period of 
invasion, that is the time intervening between the 
date of exposure and the first manifestation of the 
eruption, varies from one to ten days. During this 
period some very unpleasant conditions arise. A 
sore throat with painful swallowing will usually be 
noticed first. In very young children convulsions may 
occur. Great paleness is noticed and vomiting is 
often a symptom. Pain in the joints and muscles of 
the limbs, frontal headache, sleepiness during the day 


and sleeplessness at night or bad dreams are most fre- 

Following such symptoms there may be a slight 
chilliness or severe chill, and a high fever may sud- 
denly startup — the temperature reaching 103° or 104°, 
and the pulse rising to 120 or 135 inside of twelve 
hours. (Children of about ten years are here consid- 
ered.) The face becomes greatly flushed, the throat 
becomes more tender on swallowing, the neck stiff, 
and the pain in the limbs intensified. A burning sen- 
sation is experienced over the body, there is great 
thirst and restlessness. The eyes are usually watery. 
Looking into the mouth, the tonsils will be found in- 
flamed and swollen, and the tongue dry and furred 
(white or muddy). At the tip of the tongue and some- 
times along the edges will be seen a peculiar condition 
resembling the appearance of a strawberry. This is 
known as " strawberry tongue, " and is always pres- 
ent in scarlet fever. 

The eruption occurs on the second day of the fever, 
though occasionally on the first. It may first be seen 
on the upper part of the chest or on the neck, spread- 
ing on the face and then over the body. Often the 
face is puffy and the skin drawn, and wherever there 
is pressure, by lying down or otherwise, there is a 
bright scarlet appearance over that part of the body. 

In appearance scarlet fever eruption differs from 
that of other diseases. Masses of little red dots, 
about one-tenth of an inch in diameter, and of a bright 
scarlet color appear somewhat profusely close to- 
gether, and usually soon run together in groups, form- 
ing irregular blotches, not raised above the surface, 
although often a minute point is observed in the spots 
at first. The color of the eruption is brighter in the 
evening than in the morning, and is at its height on 
the fourth day after its appearance. Pressing upon 
the scarlet blotches and then suddenly withdrawing 
the fingers will leave a white or cream-colored mark; 
likewise drawing the finger-nail through a scarlet 
patch on the body will leave a white line. 

The temperature during the period of eruption may 
reach 104°, or even 106° (110° has been known), the 
skin will be hot and dry, and a burning and itching 


sensation will be experienced; while the eyelids, face, 
hands and feet are liable to be very puffy. 

The pulse frequency may reach 140 or 150 beats per 
minute. Its character depending" upon the vital re- 
sistance of the patient. 

The stomach during the eruptive period is very sensi- 
tive, and a disagreeable sensation is complained of, as 
a rule. If there has been no vomiting at the com- 
mencement of the attack, there is liable at this stage 
to be a peculiar ''thumping in the stomach" experi- 
enced which is very annoying. 

Fading of the eruption usually commences on the even- 
ing of the fourth day, and by the evening of the sixth 
day a complete disappearance of the eruption may be 
expected. The temperature now falls, often rather 
abruptly, to about 99° or 100°; sometimes to the nor- 
mal and occasionally not below 101°, especially if 
there are complications to retard the natural recovery. 

The frequency of the pulse in typical cases decreases 
with the temperature, though the volume may not be 
full — the fever having produced some prostration. 

Peeling of the cuticle (desquamation) commences on the 
seventh, eighth or ninth day after the first appearance 
of the eruption. Thin bran-like particles are plainly 
manifest coming off of the skin; sometimes they are 
very abundant, and masses of them cling together, 
forming apparent scales. They are very light and 
fluffy and for that reason the greatest precautions 
must be taken to prevent their being scattered over 
garments or being blown by drafts into other apart- 
ments while opening the doors. This desquamation 
process goes on for one or two weeks, frequently suc- 
cessive layers of cuticle being - peeled off. 

The kidneys are liable to be troubled during the 
period of desquamation. They become engorged with 
blood and are inflamed, almost as though the scales 
were present in the tubes. It is at this period that 
kidney difficulties may have their origin; likewise con- 
ditions may now arise which will later on, after re- 
covery seems established, terminate in a sudden and 
frequently fatal dropsy. The relief from violent fever 
and the rapid fading of the eruption should not deceive 
the patient or nurse into thinking the danger past. 


Indeed, the greatest period of danger has just com- 
menced, and too great vigilance cannot be exercised 
against cold, over-eating and over-exertion. Muddy 
urine, abundant in quantity, should now be noticed, 
and should be regarded as a good sign. 

The bowels, which have been usually constipated dur- 
ing the period of eruption, become free during desqua- 
mation; probably amounting to diarrhoea. 

Such are the general symptoms of a simple case of 
scarlet fever. Occasionally the disease appears in 
even a milder form, but all the symptoms mentioned 
may be noticed, although they may not be marked. 
Indeed, cases may occur where the patient does not 
feel it necessary to be in bed more than a [day or so. 
Nevertheless, the greatest precautions must be taken 
in even the lightest forms. The treatment here given 
is for a typical case of a child aged about ten years. 
In younger children quantities may be lessened, or 
they may be increased for adults. Always judgment 
should be exercised in dosing, temperament and sever- 
ity being considered. 

Treatment. — The first thing to do, if the bowels have 
not moved freely when the eruption appears, is to 
give an injection of boneset, one-half ounce, in one 
pint of boiling water; steep, strain and cool till luke 
warm, and add two teaspoonfuls of sugar. During 
the eruption pills should not be given, for the liver is 
seldom at fault. But daily evacuations of the bowels 
should be secured by using either milk or citrate of 
magnesia, castor oil, Rochelle salts, syrup of rhubarb 
or enemas, as above. 

The temperature of the room should be maintained 
at about 72°, and it should be well ventilated. Always 
isolate the patient, even if no other children be in the 
house, for, as stated before, the infection may perme- 
ate clothing, furniture, etc., and be dangerous to vis- 
itors for months to come. 

Bathing, if the skin is hot, should be pursued once 
or twice a day, making sure the water is warm to the 
touch, though not hot. Don't expose the whole body 
at once, and dry gently without rubbing. It is good to 
annoint the body with fresh cocoanut oil or goose 


grease, but never use lard or salves. Where there is 
much itching* and an intense burning sensation, witch 
hazel extract will be found very soothing and most 
beneficial in place of oil. A single garment, prefer- 
ably a gown of cotton, should be worn, and the bed 
coverings should be warm but not heavy. 

Diet should be very simple. Thin gruels are usually 
relished. Sea-moss farina, or the sea-moss prepared 
as a thin, warm blanc-mange is wonderfully nourish- 
ing and soothing. The liquor from raw oysters or 
oyster soup is good; and, if agreeable, onion broth 
with milk is excellent. These are merely suggestive 
of the character of foods to be given. Dry toast, oat 
meal, meats and all concentrated foods or soggy 
dishes should be avoided. As a drink lemonade is ex- 
cellent, and it may be given cold, though not much at 
a time. Even a lump of ice may be held in the mouth 
for a short time during the high fever. Malted milk 
is relished and nourishing, either hot or cold. Never 
overload the stomach — it is far better to feed lightly 
every three hours, if there is a demand for nourish- 

Medication. — During the fever and eruption use an 
infusion of the following: 

Take Pulv. Pleurisy Root one ounce. 

il Ladyslipper one-half ounce. 

" Queen of the Meadow . . .one-quarter ounce. 

" Ginger one-quarter ounce. 

Mix and steep in one pint of water; strain and sweeten 
and give one or tivo tablespoon fuls every two hours during 
leaking hours. 

For the throat use a spray of golden-seal (two table- 
spoonfuls to the pint of boiling water), with borax (a 
teaspoonful) added. This may be given every two 
hours, or it may be taken as a gargle. About the 
neck should be worn a thin band of flannel, moistened 
with stimulating liniment, if the soreness or stiffness 
is great. After the eruption, and during the period of 
desquamation, the following infusion can be used 
every two or four hours in tablespoonful doses: 


Take Pulv. Goldenseal. . one-quarter ounce. 

Queen of the Meadow one-quarter ounce. 

Blue Cohosh one-quarter ounce. 

Ginger one-quarter ounce. 

Mix. Steep in one pint of boiling water. 

It is a good plan during - desquamation to anoint the 
body with refined vaseline every day, being" sure to 
wash it off before making* another application- — using" 
castile soap. This use of vaseline aids in preventing" 
the fluffy scales from being" scattered about. 

Anginose Scarlet Fever is a most serious form of 
the disease; the throat symptoms predominating", and 
all the symptoms of simple scarlet fever being" inten- 
sified. The mouth and tonsils appear dark red, and 
swallowing" is very difficult. The mucus in the mouth 
and throat is viscid, and there is a tendency to ulcer- 
ation; small ulcerous spots often being" visible on the 
fourth day. These spots spread and the pus which 
fills them becomes acrid, and mingling" with the thick 
phlegm renders it putrescent, and it turns dark brown, 
covering" the tongue and teeth, and filling the nostrils, 
as it dries, with filthy scales. The pus in the nostrils 
often backs up into the eustachian tube (the canal 
from the throat to the middle ear) and thus getting 
into the middle ear, causes deafness, and if it burst 
the ear drum, results in permanent deafness. Some- 
times the purulent pus reaches the stomach and 
causes ulceration, and abscesses under the jaw, or 
elsewhere, are common. 

It is manifest that such a condition of affairs is ex- 
ceedingly dangerous, and that most strenuous meas- 
ures should be resorted to from the start. There is 
no better addition to the treatment given for simple 
cases than myrrh. To the infusion used for the erup- 
tive stage add one teaspoonful of compound tincture 
of myrrh. About the throat place flannel saturated 
with strong stimulating liniment. As a spray use 
borax, one-half teaspoonful to a cup of strong golden- 
seal infusion, with one-half a teaspoonful of compound 
tincture of myrrh added. Also spray up the nostrils 
hydrogen peroxide diluted one-half with water. This 


should be done every three or four hours, and after it 
is used an ointment made of vaseline with a little 
powdered borax may be put in the nostrils by the 

If there is great pain and swelling under the ears, 
poultices may be applied, made with ground flaxseed 
moistened with water containing compound tincture of 
myrrh and sprinkled over with pulverized goldenseal 
and kept soft by glycerine. The patient should be 
given a tablespoonful of strong infusion of composi- 
tion (see formulas) every three hours, and a teaspoon- 
ful of powdered composition should be added to the in- 
fusion mentioned to be used during the period of des- 
quamation in simple cases. 

Sometimes about the fourth or fifth day the putres- 
cent phlegm and crusts crowd the throat and fill the 
stomach. This will cause death unless attended to at 
once. The quickest and most effectual way to over- 
come this dangerous condition is to administer a stim- 
ulating emetic (see chapter on Emetics), and repeat it 
every twelve hours, till there is a marked change for 
the better. Two or three such emetics will work won- 
ders towards recovery. 

The diet in the anginose variety must be very nour- 
ishing. Broths are advisable and they may be highly 
seasoned. The bowels require strict attention. Senna 
and ginger in infusion may be given. 

Malignant Scarlet Fever seldom occurs. In this 
form the nervous system seems overwhelmed from the 
start; restlessness and delirium of a low grade may 
occur early and run into stupor and muttering delir- 
ium. The eruption is slow, of short duration and 
scattered, soon turning to purple spots. The finger 
nails are blue, the temperature varies and may fall 
below normal suddenty; the pulse is small and ranges 
about 140 or 150. There may be bloody diarrhoea or 
bloody vomiting. Throat trouble is usually slight. 
Such a condition is rapidly fatal, and death may occur 
in from two to four days. 

Treatment must be rapid, and vigorously carried out. 
Give injections to the bowels of powdered blue cohosh, 
composition and scullcap,each one teaspoonful, steeped 


in a pint of boiling water and strained, and one tea- 
spoonful of tincture of myrrh added. Give one such 
injection at tepid heat every hour until improvement 
is manifested. Apply to the spine, esj^ecially the 
upper portion, a liniment made as follows: 

Take Tincture of Black Cohosh ....... two ounces. 

Tincture of Lobelia two ounces. 

Essence of Ginger one ounce. 

Essence of Origanum one ounce. 

Mix, and apply every three hours. 

If the kidneys do not act freely, make an infusion 
of one ounce of burdock seed in a pint of boiling* wa- 
ter and add a tablespoonful of the above liniment. 
Saturate cloths with this and apply hot in the region 
of the kidneys. Hot sponge baths, of a temperature 
of 95°, should be given every ten hours, and perfect 
quiet enjoined. 

If convalescence is established, a tonic of the fluid 
extracts of goldenseal, peruvian bark and scullcap, 
each two drachms, in four ounces of syrup of ginger, 
may be given every three hours; and extraordinary 
precautions taken against relapse. 

Complications. — There may be serious difficulties 
following an attack of scarlet fever, which need 
prompt attention to avoid serious results. 

Dropsy. — This may occur early or as late as six 
weeks after the eruption. Use freely an infusion of 
pleurisy root and composition, each one-half ounce, 
and scullcap, one-quarter ounce, in a pint infusion. 
Every three hours a strong tea of peach leaves, 
goldenseal and queen of the meadow will increase the 
action of the kidneys and sustain the system. Over 
the entire body may be rubbed every six hours the lin- 
iment named under anginose scarlet fever. 

Deafness. — During painful inflammation of the mid- 
dle ear, relief may be obtained by saturating a piece 
of cotton with tincture of lobelia and inserting it in 
the ear. If glandular swellings are present use a 
syrup made by adding sugar to a strong infusion of 


yellowdock roots and burdock seeds. This may be 
given every three hours. 

Rheumatism, bronchial difficulties and other difficul= 
ties must be treated according to their nature; treat- 
ment being given elsewhere in their respective places. 

Always bear in mind that scarlet fever in any form, 
no matter how light, cannot be trifled with. Danger- 
ous symptoms are liable to manifest themselves at any 
moment. And fatal sequences may arise as late as 
six weeks after the disappearance of the eruption in 
the simplest cases. 



There is no other disease, except cnolera, that is so 
much dreaded by Americans as small-pox. Its filth, 
suffering and virulence render it an especially fright- 
ful malady, and one which requires every precaution 
to be taken against its contraction. 

It is an undeniable fact that small-pox is not near so 
prevalent or fatal as it was a hundred and more years 
ago, but it does not follow that this fact is due to the 
discovery and practice of vaccination. Small-pox is 
regarded by all as essentially a filth disease, propa- 
gated and intensified by unsanitary conditions, and it 
is always most fatal among the lower classes and in 
neighborhoods where the least regard is paid to hygi- 
enic considerations. 

It is only during the last century that especial atten 
tion has been given to the question of sanitary science 
and that individuals and municipalities have endeav- 
ored to evade disease by adopting proper methods of 
living and sanitary regulations. Such efforts have re- 
sulted in keeping our country free from cholera epi- 
demics for many years, although formerly it was sup- 
posed that cholera was an inevitable scourg~e to be vis- 
ited upon us periodically about every seventeen years. 
There has been no vaccination to secure immunity 
from cholera, and physicians as well as the general 
public rejoice in the fact that by proper precautions 
and sanitary regulations the scourge has been so long 


evaded, and all realize that negligence in these mat- 
ters in time of danger may again allow its develop- 
ment. Probably it is a matter of great regret to many 
physicians and others that some one did not long ago 
introduce some method of vaccination against cholera, 
to which could have been ascribed the "stamping 
out" of the disease, and which might even now and in 
the future be a source of revenue to the medical pro- 

It is the author's candid opinion, based upon large 
experience and observation, that vaccination does not 
give the least protection against small-pox, but on the 
contrary it increases the liability. See the articles on 
Cow-pox and Vaccination. 

Cleanliness, proper habits of life, and, in short, the 
observance of hygienic rules, will prove the most ef- 
fective means of escaping small-pox during an epi- 
demic. Those who are compelled to expose them- 
selves to the disease will do well to take pains never 
to enter the small-pox room when fatigued or when 
the stomach is empty. The most contagious stage of 
small-pox is when the pustules are bursting. Before 
the eruption appears there is no danger. The scabs 
and the scales are capable of conveying small-pox 
even a year or two after triey were shed. Persons 
who have once had small-pox are not likely to have it 
a second time, although many such cases are recorded. 

Symptoms. — From the time the poison enters the sys- 
tem and commences to affect the organism until the 
termination of the malady, the symptoms manifested 
may be divided into live periods: 

1. Incubation. — Literally, this is the "hatching* 
period, and lasts from the time of exposure until act- 
ive signs of small-pox become apparent. Its duration 
is variable. In rare instances it has been as short as 
eight days, and occasionally it has extended over a 
period of sixteen or more days, when there were pecul- 
iar circumstances which influenced delay. Nearly 
all cases of small-pox develop in ten or twelve days 
after exposure, and if the disease does not develop in- 
side of three weeks after direct exposure, the danger 


from that exposure will be past. During the period of 
incubation there may be no marked disturbance, but 
usually there is a feeling 1 of lassitude and loss of ap- 
petite, but nothing that would indicate the nature of 
the difficulty. 

2. Invasion. — Without warning there will be chilli- 
ness or a pronounced and severe chill, followed by 
fever of a high grade and severe headache and in- 
tense pain in the small of the back, and usually 
aching of the joints and a feeling of great prostration 
and realization that severe illness is at hand. There 
will be vomiting, or at least nausea and great thirst. 
The tongue will be found covered with white fur and 
red at the tip and edges. The pulse will be very full 
and very frequent, and every indication of Nature's 
effort to eliminate poisonous material and to over- 
come obstructions of a serious nature may be recog- 
nized. The temperature during the first day may 
reach 104° or 105°, and by the second day 106° or even 
107° may be reached. Children and sometimes adults 
become delirious or may have convulsions. The bow- 
els are constipated, except in unusual cases, when 
diarrhoea may occur. Sometimes a slight scarlet rash 
may come over the surface of the body for a few hours 
or days. This period of invasion usually lasts three 
days, though in mild cases it may last four days. 
When typhoid conditions are present there may be no 
eruption for a week or more. 

3. Eruption. — After three days, or occasionally four 
days, of almost unabated high fever, the eruption of 
small-pox makes its appearance. At once the fever 
abates and the temperature may fall to normal within 
a few hours; headache and pain will cease and a sense 
of complete relief will be experienced. A moist skin 
and a quiet, peaceful sleep and even a desire for food 
will add to the general indications of relief. 

The eruption first appears upon the face in the form 
of little red points which feel hard beneath the sur- 
face. As a rule they are first noticed on the forehead, 
about the roots of the hair; then about the mouth and 
over the neck; and within twenty-four hours they 
have pretty well covered the entire body. By the end 


of the third day after its appearance the eruption con- 
sists of masses of elevated pimples, surrounded by in- 
flamed tissue. Ordinarily these pimples are dull red 
and separated; but in severe cases they may be dark 
or purplish or they may run together into masses. 
Frequently the eruption appears in the mouth and 
nose and throat, affecting the mucous membrane, and 
often interfering with swallowing and causing trouble- 
some cough. 

4. Suppuration. — Usually upon the fourth day of the 
eruption, the pimples fill with a whitish fluid which 
gradually turns yellow as they contain pus, and their 
upper surfaces become depressed. When suppuration 
commences, fever again sets in and suffering recom- 
mences. The face becomes swollen and the eyes very 
sensitive to light. In severe cases the eyes will be al- 
most closed and the hands and feet greatly swollen. 
Tough phlegm will get into the throat and air pas- 
sages and almost cause suffocation. By the seventh 
day of the eruption, the pustules begin to burst and 
cause a peculiarly offensive odor. There will be great 
weakness and frequently lung troubles during this 
period, and death may follow neglect. 

5. Dessication. — About the eleventh day of the 
eruption, scabs begin to form on the pustules, and in 
three or four days these drop off and are followed by 
thin scales which in turn also drop off, only to be fol- 
lowed by thinner ones, and these in turn by others for 
possibly three or four weeks. Finally there is left a 
depressed scar, at first purple in color, but gradually 
fading until simple scars or pox-marks are left. These 
are usually confined chiefly to the face. 

Confluent small-pox is recognized early by the run- 
ning together of the pimples, and the formation of 
large pustules amounting, perhaps, to abscesses, and 
becoming very offensive. All through the course of 
the malady, the symptoms of the confluent variety are 
much more severe than the simple or discrete form. 
Confluent small-pox is dangerous and is apt to be fol- 
lowed by glandular or scrofulous difficulties. 


Malignant or Hemorrhagic— This is a very fatal 
form of the disease, although by prompt and vigorous 
treatment recovery may follow. The stage of incu- 
bation of hemorrhagic small-pox is usually shorter 
than that of the simple form; but all the symptoms of 
the other periods are much more severe. About the 
fourth day dark spots appear over the abdomen and 
limbs and soon cover the body, giving a black-and- 
blue appearance. There may be bleeding from the 
nose and mouth, and bloody urine and blood in the 
faeces. The pulse becomes very frequent and weak 
and the temperature falls. The pustules may become 
filled with blood and hemorrhages take place from 
them. In these cases death usually occurs in less than 
ten days from the first day of the eruption. Malig- 
nant small-pox is also known as Black Small-pox. 

Varioloid. — This is essentially a mild form of small- 
pox, which may affect persons exposed to the disease 
who have their systems in a comparatively good con- 
dition or who have formerly suffered from small-pox. 
The symptoms are not as severe as those of the ordi- 
nary variety; there is no fever during suppuration, and 
the whole difficulty is over within two weeks. It is 
very rarely fatal, but it usually gives immunity from 
small-pox, although persons may contract genuine 
small-pox from exposure to varioloid cases. 

Small-pox Fever. — During an epidemic of small- 
pox many persons may have all the symptoms pecul- 
iar to the stage of invasion, only milder in character, 
and escape the ordinary sequences of pustular erup- 
tion. Such cases usually indicate a good previous con- 
dition of the system, and others very rarely contract 
the disease from them. Whatever eruption occurs is 
more like that of measles or scarlet fever, and the 
difficulty seldom lasts beyond a few days. 

Treatment. — After exposure to small- pox a person 
should do everything possible to keep the system in 
good order. Bathing should be performed dairy in 
w T ater of an agreeable temperature; diet should be 
wholesome but not too heavy — fruits and vegetables 


are best; the bowels must be kept open, and excesses 
of all kinds should be avoided. 

When it is reasonably certain that small-pox has de- 
veloped, allow it to take its course and make all prep- 
arations accordingly. (See article on Contagious Dis- 
ease, page 124.) The great majority of cases of sim- 
ple small-pox would recover were Nature allowed to 
use her own best efforts under favorable circum- 

The favorable circumstances for small-pox patients 
are, cleanliness, good nursing, a darkened room, full 
and free ventilation, and an even temperature of 
about 62°, — never over 68° if it can be avoided. 
Clothing and bedding should be frequently changed. 
The diet should be very light, such as broths, milk, 
gruel, sea-moss farina, malted milk and similar arti- 
cles given frequently in small amounts. 

During the fever stage allow plenty of cold lemon- 
ade or cold water> and frequently sponge the face and 
hands or the whole body with warm water containing 
a little bi-carbonate of soda. If there is constipation 
give milk of magnesia or some other preparation to 
gently move the bowels. If the surface is very hot 
and dry, promote perspiration by giving freely an in- 
fusion of pleurisy root, one ounce, and ginger, one- 
eighth ounce, to a pint of boiling water. 

If the throat is sore, use a spray or gargle of borax 
in goldenseal infusion. If there is delirium and great 
restlessness, administer injections to the bowels of 
catnip and lady-slipper infusion every four hours. If 
there is great prostration use as a tonic sulphate of 
hydrastia and salicin, each one grain, in a capsule, 
every three hours. If there is a malignant tendency 
use composition infusion very freely. During the 
stage of suppuration, in all cases, a tonic is usually 
needed, such as the frequent use of infusion of blue 
cohosh and ginger. 

The eruption then may be intolerable itching which 
may be allayed by covering the whole face with a mix- 
ture of potters' clay and sweet oil; or witch hazel ex- 
tract may be used. 

To avoid pitting, the pustules may be pricked with 
a fine needle as soon as they become ripe — about the 


fourth day — and squeezing* out the contents. Protect 
the eyes from light and allow perfect quietude. Dur- 
ing convalescence use the compound gentian syrup 
(see formulas). 

If the directions for contagious diseases are fol- 
lowed there will be little danger of the disease 

Varioloid seldom needs more than the close observ- 
ance of the hygienic regulations mentioned, and pos- 
sibly the use of the pleurisy root and ginger infusion. 
The same may be said of small-pox fever. 

Articular rheumatism, nervous troubles, blindness 
or deafness may follow ill-manag"ed cases of small-pox. 

Fevers (Eruptive).— Varicella.— See Chicken-pox. 


How to Correctly Distinguish Eruptive Fevers. 

It often becomes most important to recognize at an 
early date the precise nature of eruptive fevers. 
Much anxiety and serious consequences to others may 
be averted by a knowledge of the disease present. 
The following table of early prominent symptoms, 
placed together for comparison, will be found conven- 
ient for ready reference. 

Measles. — Watery and blood-shot eyes, sneezing 
and catarrhal symptoms with cough. Temperature 
seldom over 102°, falling in the mornings. Symptoms 
commence in eig"ht or fourteen days after exposure; 
usually on the twelfth day. 

Eruption usually on the fourth day of fever, first on 
the forehead and face and then downward, like cres- 
cent-shaped flea bites, running together. Rash con- 
tinues four or five days; disappears first from the fore- 
head and face; countenance swollen during the rash. 
Fever ahvays increases during the eruption. 

Small-pOX. — Symptoms usually commence ten or 
twelve days after exposure. Sudden chill followed by 


high fever, temperature 105° to 107° within twenty- 
four hours, with almost no abatement. Great pain in 
the small of the back and joints; nausea or vomiting 
and severe headache. 

Eruption usually appears on the third day, as minute 
red points at the roots of the hair, feeling hard be- 
neath the surface. In three days more the pimples 
fill with fluid and are depressed on the top, and about 
the seventh day of the eruption the pustules burst. 
Fever and pain suddenly cease ivhen the rash appears. 

Scarlet Fever. — Symptoms commence in from 
three to seven days after exposure, without any pre- 
monitory signs. There will be vomiting, rapid pulse 
and high fever. Temperature rises quickly to 105° or 
106°. Throat sore and swallowing usually difficult. 

Eruption appears in from twelve to twenty-four 
hours, first on the neck and chest, in the form of small 
red spots, running together and not raised. It fades 
in five or six days. The fever continues during the 
rash. The tongue has a strawberry appearance at the tip. 

Chicken-pox. — Symptoms of very light fever com- 
mence in four or five days after exposure. 

Eruption appears with the fever as small round pim- 
ples scattered over the body; they are not flattened 
like small-pox pimples, and soon fill with clear fluid. 
Very frequently there will be no fever. 

German Measles. — This is a rash resembling both 
measles and scarlet fever. There is no fever, but pos- 
sibly nausea and dizziness. Rash lasts about three 
days and may be followed by catarrhal symptoms. 
Sometimes there is slight fever during the rash. 


Acute Cervical Adenitis. 

This disease is characterized by acute inflammatory 
swellings of the glands of the neck, accompanied by 
fever. Males are more frequently attacked than fe- 
males, and the difficulty seems to be infectious, as 



when one child in a family suffers the others usually 
suffer also. It is chiefly a disease of early childhood. 

Symptoms. — For about a week before the marked and 
characteristic symptoms of the disease there will be a 
general indisposition, with loss of appetite and con- 
stipation. Then suddenly there will be chilliness 
with possible vomiting - , followed by very high fever, 
the temperature usually reaching* 103°. The pulse 
will become frequent and the face flushed. The glands 
of the neck will become enlarged, and may be dis- 
tinctly seen and felt just beneath the ears, usually on 
both sides, resembling mumps in appearance. The 
neck is painful, though there are no throat symptoms 
beyond some internal redness. A feeling of great 
weakness sets in. The fever will persist intermit- 
tently for one or two weeks and the glandular swell- 
ings will continue from two to six or more weeks; 
fever being high during the afternoons, while in the 
mornings the child will feel greatly relieved. The 
tongue will be coated and there will be marked con- 
stipation. When the fever subsides the appetite will 
increase and strength gradually return. Sufferers 
from gland fever lose flesh rapidly and look very pale 
except during the hours of fever. Recovery will fol- 
low unless serious complications should arise. 

Treatment. — At the start open the bowels with anti- 
bilious physic (see formulas), or some other active ca- 
thartic. Give an infusion of pleurisy root and ginger 
during the hours of fever; and at other times admin- 
ister scullcap and gentian. Sustain the system by 
malted milk or other light and nourishing diet and 
keep the bowels open by using a mild laxative or 
aperient (see Cathartics). Equal parts of tinctures of 
calendula and ginger may be applied to the swollen 


Stomach Fever. 

Children, and grown folks as w^ell, are very liable 
to over-eat, or to eat some forms of food which do not 

O " •» 


agree with them; and as a natural consequence there 
follows a disturbance in the stomach. Sometimes the 
excess of food irritates the stomach so quickly that 
vomiting is very soon evoked, and the disturbing" con- 
tents ejected. But most frequently the food remains 
in the stomach and creates mischief, which in itself 
may be slight, but may nevertheless lead to anxiety 
unless its true nature is recognized. 

Symptoms. — Preceding stomach fever there is very 
seldom any perceptible chill, a sudden and general 
paleness being the only sign of depression. This pale- 
ness may come on at any time, though frequently just 
before commencing to eat, when the nervous depres- 
sion takes away the appetite and may cause food to be 
revolting. The paleness does not last long, and is 
quickly followed by a flush; the cheeks of children 
may become very bright. The tongue has a thin 
white coating and is usually moist, often having pin- 
head dots of red. The surface is not dry, although it 
may feel very hot at times, but the hotness is not con- 
stant, it varies frequently in a short time, and there 
may be several periods of paleness and flushing dur- 
ing the course of a day, and at night, especially with 
nervous children, there may be delirium. 

These symptoms may appear alarming in some re- 
spects, but the skin will be found soft and pliant and 
perspiration easily induced, while the pulse, although 
increased in frequency from ten to twenty beats, is 
full and soft and regular, and denotes no serious diffi- 

Treatment. — If there is a tendency to vomiting, a 
drink of lukewarm salt water will aid in hastening it, 
and relief will be quickly obtained. Where it is man- 
ifest the stomach is overloaded and sour, a simple 
emetic (see chapter on emetics) should be given, other- 
wise a neutralizing cordial (see formulas) should be ad- 
ministered every two hours during wakefulness. It 
should also be given after the emetic, if that is given. 
An attack of stomach fever may last from one to four 
or five days and is always inconstant. Plain and 
light food should be given, and the child allowed to 


sleep, which it is prone to do. A little syrup of wild 
cherry is good if there is much weakness following" 
the attack. 

Filaria. — See article on Guinea Worm. 
Fish-Skin Disease. — See article on Ichthyosis. 
Fissures. — See Anus Diseases. 
Fistula. — See Anus, Diseases of. 


Recto -Urethral. 

This is caused by abscess between the rectum and 
urethra, thus forming an opening between them. The 
symptoms are passages of faeces with the urine and 
occasionally urine passing fiom the bowels. The 
bladder should be evacuated by lying upon the belly, 
and then frequent injections to the bowels of some 
mild astringent, such as raspberry leaves and witch 
hazel and myrrh. Persistence will usually cause heal- 
ing of the fistula, along with healing of the abscess, 
which as a rule has an external opening. When not 
thus healed a surgical operation must be resorted to. 


Occasionally canals or fistulas are found running 
from the urethra to various parts of the surface. Their 
openings may be in the perineum, on the thighs or 
buttocks, or even above the share bone. During urin- 
ation the urine flows through these openings. Strict- 
ure of the urethra is the usual cause of urinary fistula. 
The urine being unable to flow through the natural 
channel, nature makes another, sometimes several. 
These fistulas maybe short and straight canals, or they 
may be very tortuous. 

Treatment. — It is of greatest importance to sustain 
the strength by nourishing diet and rigid hygienic 


measures. If stricture is present, its removal by in- 
troduction of the urethral sound will give a natural 
canal for the urine and the fistulas will heal of them- 
selves. Sometimes the fistulas become degenerate, 
when they will require expert surgical treatment and 
the continued use of the catheter to avoid urine flow- 
iug through them. Weak solutions of caustic potash 
injected daily may produce sufficient action to heal de- 
generate fistulas. 

Flatulency. — See article on Colic. 

Flux. — See article on Dysentery. 

Follicular Pharyngitis. See article on Throat 

Follicular Tonsilitis. — See article on Tonsillitis. 


Excessive Flow of Milk. 

Occasionally the breasts of women continue to flow 
after they have ceased to suckle or between intervals 
of nursing, causing great annoyance and probable 
weakness. Such a condition may be caused by irrita- 
tion of the breasts or nipples by pressure or other- 
wise, when removing the source of irritation will stop 
the difficulty. 

When the extraordinary flow is caused by an unus- 
ually large quantity of milk during nursing, the 
breast pump may be applied to advantage. When the 
fault lies in very soft and relaxed nipples they may 
be anointed with an ointment of one drachm of tannic 
rubbed into an ounce of vaseline. 

When the flow continues long after a child is 
weaned astringent drinks should be used, such as 
strong infusion of raspberry leaves. Occasionally the 


difficulty is caused by general weakness, when the 
flow becomes exhaustive. Such cases should be 
treated by using the compound syrup of mitchella (see 
formulas). This difficulty is often very obstinate. 


Biliary Calculi. 

These are accumulations of hardened bile within the 
gall-bladder or in the bile ducts. Persons in middle 
life and old age are most liable, especially those who 
are of a bilious temperament, who have lived in ma- 
larial sections, or who have been troubled by consti- 
pation or liver troubles, or who have eaten largely of 
animal foods. Their origin may be due to simply dry- 
ing out (inspissation) of the bile, altered characteris- 
tics of the fluid or accumulation about a nucleus of 
mucus or other material. The size of the stones vary 
from that of a grain of wheat to that of a hickory 
nut. If large, there are rarely more than two or three 
present, and if very small, there may be two hundred. 
They usually develop very slowly and give but little 
trouble until they commence to be evacuated, when 
they irritate the passages or become lodged in the 

Symptoms. — The paroxysms of pain which occur 
when the gall-stones are striving to leave the bladder 
are excruciating in character and very exhausting. 
They may come on regularly every few days or weeks 
or months. Sometimes they result in evacuations, 
and at other times the calculi are unable to pass 
through the duct. An attack commences with dull 
pain under the right ribs, usually after eating or ex- 
ertion. The pain soon grows sharp and intense, of a 
griping and boring character, extending to the abdo- 
men and shoulder. There may be vomiting of food 
and mucus, and occasionally chills and convulsions, 
but no fever. The face is pale, and when the calculi 
become fastened in the passages there will be jaun- 
dice; often the whole surface of the body is cold and 
covered with perspiration. 


Such symptoms may last for hours or for days be- 
fore the stones are evacuated, and then when they en- 
ter the small intestine (duodenum) the pain suddenly 
ceases and the jaundice disappears and intense relief 
is experienced, although there is great prostration and 
weakness. Occasionally a gall-stone may be of such 
large size or of such roughened character as to be- 
come firmly lodged in the duct and thus cause suppu- 
ration and death, unless surgical interference is 

Gall-stones are usually green or brown, but may be 
varied in color. They may be soapy and greasy to the 
touch, or hard or friable; they may be round or flat or 
oval, and smooth or roughened or warty. A very 
small angular calculus may cause graat pain, and one 
large one may be followed by numerous small ones. 
The discharges from the bowels after a paroxysm 
should be carefully searched for the gall-stones. 

Treatment. — During an attack relaxation must be the 
aim, so that the stones may be readily passed. Over 
the region of the liver place a large fomentation of 
lobelia seed and flax-seed and keep it warm. Every 
hour give an injection of half an ounce each of lobelia 
herb and lady-slipper in a quart of starch water and 
have it retained as long as possible. By the mouth 
administer small doses of an infusion of pleurisy root 
and spearmint every half hour. The stones will be 
discharged and relief follow. After an attack the 
bowels must be kept freely open by liver pills, and 
general treatment for congestion of the liver pursued. 
The stones are liable to be formed frequently unless 
such methods are adopted. 


Weeping Sinew. 

These are movable tumors frequently noticed on the 
back of the wrist or upper part of the foot, varying 
in size from a pea to a hen's egg. They are fibrous 
sacs containing a watery or jelly-like fluid. Being 
situated directly over a tendon they are often de- 


scribed as tumors of the tendon's sheath. They are at 
times unsightly and may cause pain and even weak- 
ness. The simplest way to get rid of these tumors is 
breaking them by a sharp blow, the patient's wrist be- 
ing flexed over the operator's knee. Sometimes they 
are punctured or squeezed sharply against the bone. 
They are liable to recur and may necessitate wearing 
a rubber bandage. After one has been broken, witch 
hazel extract may be applied and a pad and bandage 
worn for a few days. 



This is decay or death of soft tissues of the body, 
brought about as the result of injury or disease. 
Crushing or pressure, burns, corrosions by acids and 
frost bites are often followed by gangrene. The dis- 
eased conditions liable to precede it are carbuncles, 
anaemia, interruptions to arterial flow, poisoning, and 
all circumstances leading to a diminished flow of 
blood to a part. Two forms of gangrene are recog- 
nized — moist and dry. 

Moist gangrene is always preceded by inflammation. 
Then the parts become bluish or black and soggy, and 
are insensible to stimulating applications. There 
may be constitutional symptoms such as pain, sleep- 
lessness, prostration and feeble and frequent pulse. 
The decayed portion becomes separated from the rest 
as a " slough, " beneath which is ulceration, which 
gradually heals, or gangrene may be extensive and 
prove rapidly fatal, usually by blood poisoning and 
occasionally by destruction of a prominent blood 

Dry gangrene commences as a spot at some point 
where circulation is feeble, usually a toe, and spreads 
slowly, the skin wrinkling and turning gray, brown or 
black without sensibility. 

Treatment. — Nourishment, invigoration and stimula- 
tion are imperative. Highly seasoned broths, egg-nog 
(without alcohol) and pure milk are excellent. Fresh 


air must be supplied and quiet enjoined. Locally, 
over the seat of the difficulty, apply poultices of flax- 
seed, pulverized myrrh and goldenseal, and renew 
every six hours. Before each application cleanse the 
parts thoroughly with a fifty per cent solution of hy- 
drogen peroxide containing a little tincture of myrrh; 
or listerine, one ounce to eight of water, may be used. 
Where there is absolute loss of sensibility, com- 
pound tincture of myrrh may be used freely externally, 
or red pepper may be abundantly added to the poul- 
tice. Internally administer large drinks of composi- 
tion infusion, containing scullcap and a small amount 
of compound tincture of myrrh. The bowels must be 
kept open; and if the stomach is deranged stimulat- 
ing emetics must be given. Old persons are occasion- 
ally affected with senile gangrene, which is either 
moist or dry. Enfeebled constitutions offer little hope 
in old age or disease. Persons of ordinary good 
health may expect complete recovery. 

Gastralgia. — Gastrodynia. — This is a most agoniz- 
ing stomach trouble which is fully described in the 
article on Neuralgia of the Stomach. 

l ??- 

Gastric Catarrh. — See articles on Dyspepsia and 
on Diseases of the Stomach. 

Gastric Fever. — A name sometimes given to 
typhoid or enteric fever. Fully described in the arti- 
cle on Fever — Typhoid. 

Gastric Ulcer. — See Stomach Ulceration. 


Inflammation of the Stomach. 

This condition is usually caused by swallowing irri- 
tating substances or by injuries. The symptoms are 
violent pain in the stomach, tenderness on pressure 
and frequent vomiting, inability to retain medicine or 
nourishment. Feverishness may be present at first, 


but there is soon prostration and coldness of the ex- 
tremities. As a rule death follows severe cases in a 
few days, preceded by hiccough, clammy sweat and 
sudden relief from pain. Sometimes severe cases 
caused by corrosives prove fatal in a few hours; other 
cases of gastritis from excessive use of spices, mus- 
tard, etc., present milder symptoms and recover in 
from one to four weeks. 

Treatment. — Perfect rest is essential. Unload the 
bowels by injections. Give nothing to the stomach 
unless antidotes, as directed under poisoning. Put 
stimulating liniment or capsicum over the stomach. 
If there is great nervousness give an injection of lady 
slipper infusion. On the second day nourishment may 
be given by frequent injection of barley water. Al- 
low no water to the stomach for at least two days, 
but moisten the lips and tongue. When bad symp- 
toms have abated, give very small doses of witch 
hazel extract in gum Arabic water. Food must be of 
the lightest liquid forms for some time. 

Gastrotomy. — This term is applied to the operation 
of cutting into the stomach for the removal of foreign 
bodies, cancers, tumors, structures of the oesophagus, 

Giddiness. — Dizziness. — See Vertigo. 

GiraFFe. — A name frequently given to Break-Bone 
Fever or Dengue. See article on Break Bone Fever. 

Glaucoma. — See section on Diseases of the Eye and 



This is usually an incurable disease, contracted from 
horses or mules or asses suffering from it. Contagion 
may occur by inhaling the virus or by absorption 


through an abrasion of the skin. If by absorption, 
after an interval of from three days to three weeks 
after contraction, symptoms will commence as loss of 
appetite, sense of prostration and achings of the 
limbs. Where the virus entered, the surface will be- 
come red and swollen and angry and an ugly ulcer 
will form, having a degenerate appearance. When 
glanders is contracted by inhalation the first symptom 
is the eruption, which appears as minute red spots 
over the face and other portions of the body. These 
enlarge to the size of peas and, suppurating, form foul 
ulcers. The mucous membrane of the nose and throat 
may be similarly affected and the lymphatic glands 

Death usually occurs within ten or twenty days after 
the onset of an acute attack; but the disease may be- 
come chronic, and extend over several months with a 
large per cent of recoveries. 

Treatment. — Powdered sulphur, in teaspoonful doses, 
in glycerine, is said to be a reliable agent, in addition 
to hygienic measures and nourishing diet. The most 
likely success will follow the administration of large 
doses of an infusion of composition, to which may be 
added tincture of myrrh in case of offensive diarrhoea, 
which may occur. The mouth and throat should be 
frequently sprayed with peroxide of hydrogen and 
myrrh, and the ulcers elsewhere should be thoroughly 
cleansed with the same. The greatest precautions 
must be taken that others may not become infected. 
All animals affected with glanders or farcy should be 
killed at once, without hesitation, as they endanger 
human life. 


Brain Tumor. 

This is the most frequent form of tumor in the brain 
substance. It may be caused by disease or injury. 
Symptoms are usually obscure, though the presence of 
a tumor may be suspected when there is constant 
headache, with paroxysms of great intensity, tender- 


ness at some spot on the head and vomiting" spells. 
Paralysis may follow. Little can be done beside ad- 
ministering- soothing - nervines during paroxysms and 
adopting" hygienic measures and nourishing diet. 
Death usually follows within a couple of years. Sur- 
gical operations may be resorted to in some cases. 

Gleet. — Chronic Inflammation of the Urethra. — See sec- 
tion on Diseases of the Generative Organs. 

Glossitis. — Inflammation of the Tongue. — See article 
on Tongue Diseases. 

Glottis Spasm. — See article on Croup — False. 

Glycosuria. — Sugar in the Urine. — See article on 
Diabetes Mellitus. 


Bronchocele. Exophthalmic Goitre. 

This is enlargement of the thyroid gland, the gland 
that obscures the "Adam's apple" in women. The 
direct cause of the enlargement is not always mani- 
fest, though some families seem to be especially lia- 
ble. Bad habits of living, scrofulous diathesis, and 
certain localities seem to favor its occurrence. Ordi- 
nary cases may develop very slowly over a long term 
of years and cause but slight inconvenience, though 
usually their growth continues till breathing is inter- 
fered with, or the tumor becomes very unsightly. 

Exophthalmic goitre is usually associated with 
nervous diseases, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. The symp- 
toms besides enlargement of the gland are increased 
heart beat, prominence of the eyeballs (pop-eyes) and 
pulsations in the enlarged gland. 

Treatment. — Most important is regulation of the gen- 
eral health — the menstrual function usually being de- 
ranged. Electricity, with the negative pole on the 
gland and the positive between the shoulder blades 


for five minutes a day is the best local treatment. As 
a tonic two grains of iron and potassa tartrate and 
one grain of sulphate of hydrastia in capsule every 
six hours is most excellent. When death is possible 
through suffocation, surgical operation becomes neces- 

Gonorrhea. — This is specific inflammation of the 
urethral canal and is fully considered in the section on 
Diseases of the Generative Organs. 



This difficulty is usually inherited, and may be 
caused by excesses in eating and drinking, or by vio- 
lent grief, rage or physical exertion. 

Symptoms are loss of appetite, constipation, heart- 
burn and colic. The intestines are distended with 
gas and accumulations. The urine is usually scanty 
and red and passed with great pain, and contains a 
rose-colored sediment. An attack usually comes on 
at night with feverishness which lasts several days, 
the joint of the great toe becomes very painful, red 
and swollen; in repeated attacks, both great toes and 
the ankles and knees may be involved. Each night 
suffering is greatest and relief comes by early morn- 
ing and the patient is irritable during the day. At- 
tacks continue five or six days. 

Treatment. — Unload the bowels by injections of bone- 
set. Internally administer pleurisy root and ginger 
infusion to produce perspiration. Keep the affected 
limb perfectly quiet and saturate the joint with a lini- 
ment of equal parts of lobelia and black cohosh tinct- 
ures. Every drink of water should contain from one 
to five grains of citrate of lithia. Lithia water should 
be used abundantly between attacks, and the diet 
scrupulously regulated. 



Arthritis Uratica. 

In its general nature the chronic form of gout re- 
sembles the acute; though its symptoms may differ 
somewhat. Attacks may last for weeks or months, or 
be almost continuous, with slight intermissions during 
the summer months. The signs of inflammation are 
not so intense as in the acute form, and several joints 
may be affected at once, and these remain enlarged 
after the attacks. Indigestion is persistent and very 
slight excesses of diet may arouse an attack. Chronic 
gout may be inherited and may continue fifty years or 

Treatment cannot be expected to entirely overcome 
the conditions, though it may alleviate the difficulty. 
During an attack the same course must be pursued as 
for acute gout. Tea, coffee and alcoholic liquors must 
be strictly forbidden. An abundance of distilled wa- 
ter, containing a little carbonate or citrate of lithia, 
must be used, together with such an alterative as the 
compound syrup of yellow dock (see formulas). 

Green Sickness. — Chlorosis. — This difficulty de- 
rives its common name from the peculiar color of the 
countenance of those who suffer from it. Young 
women or girls of feeble constitution, or those who 
have improper surroundings at the time of puberty are 
the most frequent sufferers. The disease is fully con- 
sidered in the article on Chlorosis. 

Greese.— See Equinia Mitis. 

Influenza. Russian Epidemic. 

This particular form of catarrhal fever has during 
the last few years become often epidemic during the se- 
vere winter months. It differs from ordinary catarrhal 


fever by the great prostration present, the liabil- 
ity to complications and the prolonged convalescence. 
Grippe has been also called Russian Fever, it being 
epidemic in Russia and spreading through Europe 
from that country during cold and damp winters. 

Symptoms. — The disease usually commences with an 
uneasy feeling-, soon succeeded by a distinct chill, 
which may or may not be followed by fever. The 
nervous system is greatly prostrated, and there is 
headache in the forehead, pain in the back, indispo- 
sition to eat and sometimes vomiting. After a day or 
two of these symptoms (which may possibly be absent) 
the characteristic condition of grippe becomes mani- 
fest. There is great irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the head, causing severe catarrh of the nose, 
extending - downward into the larynx and through the 
lungs, and even into the stomach and intestines. 

The mucous membrane of the eyes becomes inflamed. 
Taste and smell are interfered with and there is ring- 
ing* in the ears. Dizziness, a sense of fullness in the 
head, often puffiness of the face, especially about the 
eyes and nose, are common. Breathing may be hur- 
ried and possibly rattling in the bronchi may accom- 
pany it. Irritable cough is sometimes present and the 
effort of coughing* proves weakening and causes a 
" splitting headache. " 

There is usually feverishness, increased toward 
evening; but the rise and fall of temperature is un- 
even. It rarely reaches 104 w . Sleep is perturbed and 
may be accompanied with delirium. The tongue is 
coated with a sticky, yellow fur. There may be ten- 
derness over the stomach and possibly diarrhoea, 
though constipation is the rule. Neuralgia through 
the face and joints is common, and in some cases the 
neuralgia and other head symptoms become intense, 
causing violent delirium and indications of temporary 
insanity, causing precautions against suicide to be 
necessary. Small children may sink into general 
prostration and stupor. 

One of the dangers of grippe is its possible compli- 
cation with pneumonia, which is liable to occur in very 


young- or old or feeble persons. It commences when 
the catarrhal symptoms are most prominent, with a 
chill and increased cough and difficult breathing 1 , not 
always painful, although there may be considerable 
effort during- expectoration. The tongue is yellow, 
dry and thick. Death is likely to follow this condition. 

Grippe, when not complicated, usually yields to 
prompt measures within two weeks, and light cases 
within three or four days. Complications make re- 
covery slow and convalescence may involve many 
months of prostration and liability to relapses, even 
among the heartiest. 

The disease is liable to occur during the winter 
months for several seasons, and removal during the 
period of liability to an equable or dry climate is ad- 
visable. Epidemics are most likely in northern cities, 
and attacks rich and poor alike. It aggravates any 
tendency to lung troubles, and leaves the system es- 
pecially prone to the contraction of tuberculosis. 

Treatment. — Mild cases require soaking of the feet in 
hot water containing red pepper, and frequent drinks 
of an infusion of pleurisy root and ginger with scull- 
cap herb. When neuralgia is severe asafoetida pills, 
three grains, one every four hours, will give relief. 

If catarrhal symptoms are severe along with nerv- 
ous prostration use freely of an infusion of composi- 
tion and scullcap, each one-half ounce to the pint. If 
the stomach is foul, as shown by a coated tongue, 
stimulating emetics should be given. In protracted 
cases a concentrated tonic is necessary, such as one 
grain each of capsicum, sulphate of hydrastia and 
salicin in capsule every six hours. 

Complications must be treated according to their 
nature as laid down elsewhere. Even the mildest 
cases require careful housing until all danger is past; 
and in severe cases exposures must not be allowed 
until full strength has returned. During convales- 
cence, if cough continues, s}^rup of wild cherry will 
be found useful. Nourishing diet is a necessity and a 
change of climate is always beneficial. 



This is a painful sore and abscess, usually upon the 
foot, brought about by the entrance, unnoticed, of a 
minute specimen of the filaria medinensis. It remains 
without special manifestations for five or six months, 
during which time it attains from fifteen to twenty-five 
inches in length and the thickness of a shoe string. 
Redness and swelling then commence, and a blister 
forms which bursts and reveals an opening from which 
the worm emerges. At this time asafcetida pills, 
three grains each, should be given every four hours, 
for a week. 

The w T orm will protrude an inch or two each day, 
and the protruded portion should be wrapped around 
a tooth-pick and held until the next day. When the 
whole worm has been removed, antiseptics like myrrh 
and borax must be freely used. This sore is common 
in hot sections, and renders the sufferer a cripple while 
it lasts. Speedy recovery soon follows, though neglect 
and irritation may cause serious consequences for a 


Gum Boils. Ulcerations. 

Sometimes, from the presence of decayed teeth, in- 
flammation of the gums occur, and terminates in an 
abscess or gum-boil. It is extremely painful for a few 
days until the pus is discharged. Lancing is often re- 
sorted to. The quickest relief is obtained by allowing 
a dentist to remove the cause. Tinctures of lobelia 
and broom- weed, held in the mouth, will frequently 
give relief. 

Infants sometimes suffer excruciatingly by hardness 
of the gums not permitting the teeth to be *'cut. " 
Pain, exhaustion and convulsions often follow. When- 
ever the gums are hard and swollen and the child is 
fretful, cross incisions should be made, the blood all 
wiped away and witch hazel extract applied. 

During the course of the disease called scurvy, the 



gums about the teeth become swollen, spongy and 
bleeding-, and a similar condition is occasionally met 
with under ill-defined circumstances. A wash pre- 
pared by infusing in vinegar blood-root and bayberry 
bark will be found an efficient remedy. The constitu- 
tional conditions being also appropriately treated. 
See Scurvy. 


Its Proper Care, Diseases and Treatment. 

Human hair grows upon the body like plants upon 
the earth. Upon the head it should be luxuriant and 
beautiful— an adornment. Care must be taken of the 
hair to preserve its health and proper growth. But 
just what constitutes the correct care of the hair may 
need explanation. 

Let it be remembered that all over the body the 
scarf or outer skin is constantly peeling off in the 
form of very fine scales, and the scalp is not unlike 
the rest of the surface. On account of the mass of 
hair with its oiliness, the scales shed from the scalp 
are not so easily carried off, and. are liable to become 
matted, and these scales and particles of dust, cling- 
ing to the oily hair, are liable to make a mass not 
at all cleanly. To get rid of the accumulations, the 
hair must be frequently brushed, and vigorously so. 
Using a comb is permissible to loosen out tangles, 
but the brush should be depended upon to remove the 
accumulations of dust and scales, with the aid of an 
occasional wash. Brushing the hair and scalp gently 
stimulates the glands and causes oil to be thrown out 
to keep the hair smooth and glossy. A comb is apt to 
irritate the scalp and cause an unnatural and. extraor- 
dinary amount of " scarf " to be shed- 
Washing of the head and hair is an important mat- 
ter. With men, whose hair is short, this may be done 
frequently. Daily head washings with plain water 
being beneficial. But with women, whose hair is long, 


washing" cannot be done so frequently. Long" hair 
dries slowly and women, after washing their hair, are 
extremely liable to catch cold or suffer neuralgic at- 
tacks. Catarrh is also a frequent result of wet hair. 
School girls often lay the foundation for much future 
annoyance by wetting their hair to keep it in place, 
and then going" out in the cold. 

Castile soap and water, or borax and water contain- 
ing a little distilled extract of witch hazel, make ex- 
cellent washes for the head. Always, of course, 
thoroughly rinsing the hair with clear water after 
washing. A fountain syringe filled with water and 
suspended far above the head will be found a suitable 
source of supply for the rinsing water — the small 
stream thoroughly washing out the remaining" dust and 

Some persons use a fine tooth comb to remove dan- 
druff. This is wrong - , as it irritates the scalp. Chil- 
dren frequently become infested with head lice (see 
pediculosis) and the fine-tooth comb is then necessary, 
but its use at other times is truly harmful. Brushing 
the hair daily will usually suffice to remove dandruff, 
unless the scalp is diseased or irritated. 

The hair, like a plant, has a period of growth and 
existence. It springs from its follicle, and after real- 
izing its full length, will die in from two to four years, 
and be replaced by another hair from the follicle, 
just as plants may spring up each year. If the folli- 
cles and their surroundings are healthy, the hair will 
be correspondingly healthy, and manifest its health 
by long growth and oiliness. Dry and short hair may 
always be considered as unhealthy hair. 

To use too much soap or other alkali on the hair 
will render it unnaturally dry, and for that reason it 
should be cautiously employed, although it is better 
for the hair to be dry than to be filthy. 

Cutting the hair is an important matter. It is al- 
ways best that children should have short hair. It is 
more convenient for them, and at the same time it 
causes the scalp to be more readily cleansed, and 
therefore kept in a more healthy condition. A meadow 
of grass that has once obtained its full growth and 
has been cut down, will not again grow to its former 


height. Similarly, when hair has been allowed to 
grow its full length and is then cut off, it very rarely 
again grows as at first. It is a good plan to prune the 
hair by cutting off the very tips once a month. 

The following constitutes a very pleasant and effect- 
ual preparation to use as a shampoo when washing 
the hair and scalp: 

Hair Shampoo. 

Tincture of Cinchona one drachm. 

Bay Rum four drachms. 

Glycerine four drachms. 

Carbonate of Ammonia four drachms. 

Florida Water one ounce. 

Mix thoroughly, and put just enough of it in a small 
quantity of water to cause a slight smarting of the scalp, 
and use as a shampoo. 

Pomades and cosmetics for the hair are usually pre- 
pared from cheap fats and oils, strongly scented, and 
as a rule are miserable and nasty preparations. Should 
the hair be too dry to be kept in place oil it with a 
vei y little fresh cocoanut oil perfumed with your favor- 
ite perfume. Buy only a small quantity of cocoanut 
oil at a time as it becomes rancid. 

A very pleasant and most effective oil preparation 
for the hair is made as follows: 

Hair Oil. 

Oil of Lobelia one-half drachm. 

Oil of Capsicum twenty drops. 

Oil of Cocoanut four ounces. 

Heat these gently together, mixing thoroughly. 

This oil should be applied not oftener than twice a 
week, and will keep the scalp healthy and the hair 
oily and beautiful, and cause the hair to grow rapidly. 
Cocoanut oil is rapidly absorbed, and for that reason 
is superior to all other oils for use upon the hair and 
scalp. Vaseline is also preferable to ordinary po- 
mades and greases, but vaseline is not absorbed, and 
can be used simply to keep the hair in position and to 
avoid its looking dry and fluffy. 


Some persons admire hair worn in special arrange- 
ments, requiring preparations to keep it in position. 
This is a matter of taste; and when it must be thus 
worn it is best to use some innocent preparation. The 
following is harmless and may be cheaply prepared; 
and it will answer the purpose of the most costly 
preparations of "Bandoline." 

Take gum tragacanth, four ounces, and soak it over 
night in one pint of distilled or pure water; next morn- 
ing strain it like jelly through muslin and add four 
ounces of alcohol and one ounce of rose water and 
any perfume desired. 

Bleaching the hair by peroxide of hydrogen is fre- 
quently resorted to. It can be effectually accom- 
plished by this means; but there are too many reports 
of dangers following this method to permit it to be 
recommended. The following is an excellent recipe 
to be used as an 

Invi^orator for the Hair. 

Take Bi-sulphate of Quinine one drachm. 

Alcohol four ounce*. 

Shake, and add Oil of Lavender ten drops. 

Oil of Rosemary ten drops. 

Cologne Water two ounces. 

Bay Rum. one ounce. 

Mix all thoroughly and apply every morning; rubbing it 
in thoroughly. 

Crimping the hair or curling it upon hot irons usu- 
ally cracks and destroys it, and hastens its death and 
consequent falling out. If the hair must be artifi- 
cially curled it is best to curl it over night by wrapping 
it about the ordinary " kid curlers," consisting of soft 
kid containing wire for stiffening. Tins and harsh 
pieces of paper will always cause damage to the hair. 

Superfluous Hair. — Many persons are annoyed by 
hair growing upon unnatural places. Women are es- 
pecially anxious to prevent the growth of hair upon 
the lip or chin, and very often their anxiety in this re- 
gard prompts them to do things that are calculated 
only to increase the growth. Pulling out hairs with a 


pair of tweezers will excite the roots of adjacent hairs 
to further growth. Shaving" off hair will render their 
later development coarser and more unsightly. Many 
hair removers are on the market, but most of them 
are absolutely harmful, often destroying - the skin as 
well as the roots of the hair; others are perfectly use- 
less. Much has been written in journals concerning 
the removal of hairs by electrolysis. This method 
consists in inserting electric needles at the bulb of 
each hair, and turning on a strong current of electric- 
ity. There will be a froth appear at the root of the 
hair, which will become loose and can be readily re- 
moved by a pair of tweezers. The operation is very 
tedious and expensive; and, unless dangerous anaes- 
thetics are employed, it is extremely painful. 

Probably the safest way to remove hair is to apply 
an ointment of one drachm of salicylic acid, rubbed 
into an ounce of vaseline. Apply as a plaster for 
four or five hours for several days. Use more vas- 
eline in the preparation if the proportions given prove 
irritating. After each application hairs may be re- 
moved. Anoint the parts with soothing oil after each 
removal of the plaster. 

Abnormal Growth. — Hirsuites. — Some persons have 
an abundant growth of hair, amounting almost to a 
deformity. In some instances the hair of the head has 
reached twelve feet, and the beard over ten feet. As 
it is an easy matter to cut the hair, no treatment for 
this peculiarity is necessary. When there is an over- 
growth of hair upon the face or arms of women, it 
becomes very unsightly, and requires treatment as 

Baldness.— Alopecia. — Ordinary baldness is chiefly 
confined to men; and although usually an accompani- 
ment of old age, young persons may be thus afflicted. 
It is, undoubtedly, an hereditary tendency of the scalp 
to draw tightly over the skull and choke the hair 
roots by pressure against the skull. Thus the sides of 
the head, where there are muscles, are seldom affected. 
When this form of baldness appears through heredity 
nothing can be accomplished. Hair tonics may for a 


time cause a slight growth of soft hair, but from the 
nature of the difficulty, full growth of hair cannot be 
expected. Persons whose ancestors have been bald 
may themselves delay baldness by using- freely cocoa- 
nut oil, containing - oil of lobelia, to relax the tissues 
of the scalp. 

Baldness From Disease. — This form of alopecia 
is due to a lack of nourishment and is always a sign 
of debility of the general system. It is a frequent se- 
quence of typhoid fever, scarlet fever, meningitis and 
other exhausting maladies. Women frequently lose 
their hair while nursing children, or when their sys- 
tems are enfeebled by womb troubles or nervous dis- 

Treatment. — Restoration of vigor to the body is the 
first consideration. During convalescence from ex- 
hausting diseases the habits of life, medical treatment 
and hygienic regulations must be in accordance with 
the directions given in the article on the various dis- 
eases. As an application to the scalp, the hair invig- 
orator, mentioned in the first part of this article, 
should be used freely. Although the constant falling 
of hair may be very annoying it is best not to wear 
caps or otherwise bandage the head. Cutting off the 
Jiair under these circumstances is a very good plan. 

Bald Spots. — Alopecia Areata. — This peculiar dis- 
ease is confined to the hairy parts of the body, espe- 
cially the scalp, beard and eyebrows; and it is proba- 
bly due to some peculiar condition of the nerves regu- 
lating the supply of nutriment to the hair follicles. 
The first sign of the trouble is the readiness with 
which the hair falls out, in bunches almost, leaving 
bald patches, perfectly white and glistening, sur- 
rounded by natural hair. These patches spread some- 
what and there may be quite a number of them. This 
condition may continue for some time, perhaps months, 
occasionally for years, and then a neAv growth of hair 
will start like down all over the spots, preceded by 
minute elevations of the surface corresponding to the 
X>oints where the hair follicles are located. 


Treatment. — Nervines, taken internally, such as 
scullcap and salicin, seem to arrest the disease by 
toning" the nervous system. To the parts may be ap- 
plied tincture of cinchona and tincture of capsicum, 
equal parts, twice a week. Ordinary baldness is 
termed simple alopecia. 

Hair-Worm. — Filaria, — This is the long" and thin 
worm — sometimes fifteen inches long" — occasionally 
found under the skin of the legs and feet and some 
other parts of the human body. It is fully described 
in the article on Guinea-Worm. 

Hammer Palsy. — This affection is the result of too 
long continued use of a particular set of muscles, and 
is similar to writer's cramp, and its symptoms and 
treatment are considered in the article on that subject. 

Hand Chaps. — Exposures to cold and wet, and the 
use of harsh soaps may cause the well-known " chap- 
ing" of hands, cheeks or lips. When this annoying 
difficulty exists, its treatment is very simple. Avoid 
the use of strong soaps— washing in borax water is 
best. Three or four times a day apply a mixture of 
glycerine and tincture of benzoin and witch hazel, 
equal parts. At night time it is well to rub the hands 
well with mutton tallow and wear gloves. Cocoanut 
oil containing a little oil of lobelia is also an excellent 

Ha re- Li p. — The upper jaw bone or the palate may 
be cleft, causing a most unsightly deformity. The 
separation may be single or double. It is most fre- 
quent among boys and is always congenital. Surgical 
operation is the only means of cure. This should be 
performed between the third and sixth months of age, 
and never while teething is being accomplished. Many 
prefer to wait until the age of seven or over, but it 
only makes the operation more agonizing to the child 
and the deformity and inconvenience greater. 



Autumnal Catarrh. Hay Asthma. 

This difficulty occurs from early June to September 
during - the period when hay is cut and when the great 
mass of flowers give off their pollen. It is doubtless 
an irritation caused by the pollen of various plants — 
some believing the rag-weed most responsible. 

Symptoms. — The difficulty commences suddenly, re- 
curring each year, with many the exact day of recur- 
rence being known; some cases not developing till 
late in August. There are tickling sensations in the 
nose, frequent sneezing, irritation and redness and 
swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, 
throat and bronchial tubes and of the eyes, causing 
distressing and wheezing breathing, husky voice, some 
cough, and smothering sensations resembling ordinary 
asthma. The eyes burn and are full of tears, and the 
skin about them greatly puffed. Altogether persons 
suffering from hay fever are objects of distress until 
frost puts an end to the free distribution of pollen. 

Treatment. — Journeys to high sections or sea voyages 
usually put an end to the trouble. No positive treat- 
ment has been found reliable. Some being relieved by 
articles which aggravate others. Smoking camomile, 
cubebs or witch hazel leaves often give relief. Light 
diet and mild nervines are appropriate. 


Its Varieties, Symptoms and Treatment. 

Sick Headache. — Megrim. — Various circumstances 
or imprudencies may cause this distressing difficulty, 
such as worry, anxiety, mental or physical overwork, 
improper food, excess of any kind, liver troubles and 
disorders of menstruation. Persons of nervous tem- 
perament and those who are thin-blooded are most 

Symptoms. — As a rule sick headache commences 
early in the morning with disturbed vision and possi- 


ble cold extremities. Headache commences upon one 
side, usually in the eye or temple of the left side, and 
increases for several hours to a point of distraction, 
and then gradually diminishes and disappears by night 
time. There may be great sickness of the stomach 
and vomiting. Prostration is marked, and a sense of 
exhaustion is experienced during the day following an 

Treatment. — Never attempt to wear out a sick head- 
ache, it can't be done. At the first symptoms lie 
down and abandon all thought of work for the day. 
Perfect quietude with fresh air must be secured. If 
the feet are cold put hot irons to them, or else put 
them into a hot foot bath. A good preparation to 
keep on hand for such attacks is fluid extract of wild 
yam, one -half ounce, in four ounces of compound 
spirits of lavender; dose, half a teaspoonful in a little 
water every half hour for a couple of hours at the 
start; if it does not relieve, keep it up in hourly doses. 

If nausea is a feature of the attacks add half an 
ounce of hyposulphite of soda to the preparation. 
The diseased condition back of the headache must be 
sought out and remedied. Diet must be carefully reg- 
ulated and the bowels kept freely open. Abundant 
time for sleep must be allowed, and the nervous sys- 
tem can be strengthened by the free use of scullcap 
and camomile. 

Bilious Headache. — A sluggish and congested 
liver, together with indigestion, may be the cause of 
this peculiar form of distress. Persons of a bilious 
temperament, who are in the habit of over-eating, or 
who have insufficient exercise, are the most frequent 

Symptoms. —Pain of a dull and persistent character 
is experienced about the forehead and temples and be- 
hind the eyes. Throbbing of the temples may be vio- 
lent, and noises and motion usually increase the agony. 
The head is hot and sore, the tongue coated and appe- 
tite lost — althoug-h previous to the attack over-eating 
is the rule. With many persons this form of headache 


becomes chronic and spells continue unabated for 
weeks at a time. 

Treatment. — In acute cases soak the feet in very hot 
water. If the stomach is still over-loaded take a 
quick emetic (see emetics), open the bowels freely, tak- 
ing" a dose of Rochelle salts, and follow at night by 
the liver pills. Allow but little food and absolutely 
forbid the use of coffee. 

Chronic cases must be treated as advised in the arti- 
cle on Congestion of the Liver. All persons suffering 
from bilious headache should take plenty of out-door 
exercise, be temperate and avoid excesses of all kinds 
and strictly observe the rules of hygiene. 

Plethoric Headache. — Full-blooded and hearty 
persons are often sufferers from this form of headache. 
Stooping - down causes a sense of fullness in the head, 
and noises and motion increases the pain. Pressure 
on the neck and shaking - of the head causes dizziness. 

Persons suffering - from plethoric headache should 
avoid stimulating - foods and take regular, but not vio- 
lent, exercise. At the time of the attack place the 
feet in hot water and use a quick cathartic. Injec- 
tions of an infusion of pleurisy root, one ounce, lady- 
slipper and black cohosh, each one-half ounce, in two 
quarts of water, used every three hours and retained 
as long - as possible will usually give prompt relief. 

Sympathetic or Rheumatic Headache. — Many 
diseases, especially rheumatism and kidney troubles, 
are accompanied by headache of an aggravating - char- 
acter. When there is rheumatism of the joints the 
pain seems to shoot back and forth between the head 
and the affected parts. In all cases of sympathetic 
headache, while the original difficulty is being - treated, 
relief can be obtained by cold applications to the head 
and hot applications to the feet, the use of aperients 
and general observance of hygienic regulations. 

Hungry Headache. — Many persons cannot miss a 
meal or be delayed long from their meals without suf- 
fering a peculiar dizzy headache, with probable 


throbbing - sensations in the forehead. Such persons 
are usually those of vital temperament. The only- 
treatment is to provide an acceptable but not too 
hearty meal. 

Nervous Headache. — Hemicrania. — This form of 
headache is often suffered by nervous persons or those 
using the brain excessively. Violent aching on one 
side of the head, and the temple and eye-ball, and 
sensitiveness to noise and light are prominent symp- 
toms. With some the pain commences at daylight and 
continues until nightfall. 

Relief is best obtained by injections of lady-slipper, 
one ounce, and blue cohosh, one-half ounce, in a quart 
of water, repeated every three hours and retained as 
long as possible. Perfect quietude must be enforced, 
and sleep enjoined. Gurania, in five grain doses, 
every hour, will prove most serviceable. Persons who 
suffer from nervous headaches should endeavor to reg- 
ulate their habits of life in such a manner as to avoid 
mental strain and worry and excesses of all kinds. 
Sexual over-indulgence is a not uncommon cause of 
this difficulty. 


Shrinkage of the Heart. Atrophia Cordis. 

This is a shrinking of the heart muscles, and may 
be the result of old age or of wasting diseases or de- 
bility, or of pressure exerted upon the organ by fluids, 
tumors, etc. It is usually soon followed by death, and 
the symptoms are too obscure to be recognized beyond 
the possibility of the difficulty from the conditions 
present, which must be appropriately treated. 


Cardialgia. Waterbrash. 

This common difficulty is a form of dyspepsia caused 
by improper eating, as a rule. Some persons, though, 
cannot eat certain foods, especially certain fruits. 


without suffering - from heart- burn. Exposure to cold 
or mental excitement, especially just after eating*, may 
cause it. 

Symptoms. — There is a burning sensation, sometimes 
amounting - to pain, at that end of the stomach nearest 
the heart (called the cardia). The stomach becomes 
distended with gas and there may be belchings, and 
often burning" sensations and constriction are felt in 
the throat. These symptoms usually come on soon 
after eating" and may continue an hour or more. 

Treatment. — Three or f our teaspoonfuls of lime water 
in milk will give prompt relief. If it is of frequent 
occurrence use tincture of camomile, one ounce, hypo- 
sulphite of soda, one-half ounce, in syrup of ginger 
sufficient for eight ounces; dose, a teaspoonful after 
each meal. 

Waterbrash is allied to heart-burn. After eating, 
a small quantity of acid fluid is belched into the 
mouth. A little witch hazel extract mixed with lime 
water in milk is a corrective. These difficulties are 
usually associated with dyspepsia, which should be 
appropriately treated. 


Enlargement of the Heart Cavities. 

One or both sides of the heart may oe dilated from 
various causes. Temporarily this condition may oc- 
cur during fever, infective diseases or by any circum- 
stances which impair nutrition- — such as chlorosis, in- 
digestion and hemorrhages. As a rule dilatation is 
caused by increased pressure of blood upon the heart, 
due to interference of circulation in the arteries, as in 
chronic lung diseases and aneurisms, or due to valvu- 
lar diseases of the heart allowing the blood to enter 
the cavities too forcibly; this is usually compensated 
by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart's wall, ex- 
cept in aged and debilitated persons. Excessive ex- 
ercise may cause dilatation in the extremely feeble. 
Continued over-eating is occasionally a cause. 


Symptoms. — The most prominent sign of dilatation is 
fullness of the veins while the arteries are small. 
This causes frequent tendencies to fainting". Palpita- 
tion of a peculiarly weak character, especially upon 
slight exertion, and a feeble pulse are usual. Difficult 
or asthmatic breathing, paleness and chilliness, and 
slight cough are frequent. Dropsy usually follows 
protracted cases, and death may occur during a faint- 
ing spell. 

Treatment. — Avoidance of undue exertion and emo- 
tions and excesses of all kinds is imperative. Tea, 
coffee and alcoholic liquors must be excluded from the 
diet, which should be highly nutritious, though not 
over-stimulating. Milk, with a little lime-water, is 
the most acceptable drink. The compound gentian 
syrup (see formulas) is excellent, taken night and 
morning, and half an hour after the mid-day meal 
should be taken a capsule containing one grain each 
of capsicum, sulphate of hydrastia and iron and po- 
tassa tartrate. 

When dilatation is caused by temporary disease, it 
may be completely overcome; and even when it is due 
to organic disease, life may be prolonged to old age 
and rendered comfortable by proper habits, care and 
suitable medication. 


Heart Strain. 

Occasionally the heart is strained, as any other 
muscle of the body may be, by excessive exercise. 
Too long and rapid walking, especially up hill, fast 
running, forced marches in army life, excessive gym- 
nastic exercise, jumping the rope, and similar exer- 
cises may cause heart strain. 

Symptoms. — These are paroxysms of palpitation and 
rapid pulsations upon the slightest exertions; merely 
going up stairs or walking across the room will cause 
a most perceptible increase of heart action, the pulse 
being regular but quite weak. Young persons, from 


fourteen to eighteen years of age, are mostly affected 
with heart strain, and the weakened condition may 
continue for years and recovery be gradual — the heart 
not being- able, like other muscles, to keep at perfect 

Treatment. — All that is necessary in the treatment of 
heart strain is quietude, nourishing diet, plenty of 
fresh air, abundance of sleep, freedom from study and 
anxiety, and regularity of habits. The use of tea and 
coffee and alcoholic liquors, and all bad habits should 
be prohibited. 


Fatty Heart. 

Two classes of persons may suffer from fatty heart: 
those of plethoric constitution and intemperate habits 
disposed to obesity, and those who are anaemic from 
diseases which interfere with the power of the blood 
to carry oxygen, such as consumption, chlorosis, can- 
cer, etc. The great majority of cases occur after the 
fiftieth years, and very few before the age of forty. 

Symptoms. — There are no signs by which fatty heart 
may be absolutely recognized during life, but many 
symptoms which belong to other conditions also may 
by their presence under circumstances spoken of, lead 
to the suspicion of the disease. They are weakness of 
the heart after slight exertion, the veins full and the 
arterial pulsations often irregular and very feeble; 
palpitation, copious perspiration and asthmatic 
breathing, and attacks resembling apoplexy, which 
pass away in a few minutes. The pulse may at times 
get as slow as eight beats per minute. The breathing 
at times presents peculiarities, first there being a 
couple of dozen very shallow respirations and these 
gradually becoming deeper and then slower, and then 
for a minute or less, ceasing altogether, and then re- 
suming of a shallow character. This form of breath- 
ing is termed Cheyne-Stokes' respiration. 


Fatty degeneration of the heart may mean the grad- 
ual substitution of fat molecules for muscular mole- 
cules of the organ, or it may be the accumulation of 
fat about the heart, upon its surface, and at the valves 
and where the arteries are connected. A person with 
fatty degeneration of the heart may by care live to 
old age. Death may be sudden from great mental 
or physical excitement. Usually death comes with 
dropsy or disease of the liver, kidneys or lungs. 

Treatment. — Intemperate persons or those inclined to 
obesity must regulate their habits and guard against 
all excesses. Massage should be relied upon for exer- 
cise of the muscles. Iron waters are excellent. When 
the heart's action is weak capsicum, goldenseal and 
scullcap will sustain it. The mind must be kept quiet. 
Anaemic persons must have very nourishing diet. 
Sponge baths are excellent. The bowels must be 
kept open so as to avoid straining. The following 
will be found advantageous for plethoric persons: 
Take fluid extracts bladder-wrack, scullcap and gen- 
tian, each one-half ounce; glycerine, one ounce; muci- 
lage, gum Arabic, six ounces. Dose, a teaspoonful 
after meals. Starchy foods and sugar must be 


Muscular Enlargement of the Heart. 

Anything that throws an extra burden upon the 
heart may cause the muscular walls of the organ to 
become enlarged. Aneurisms, kidney and liver dis- 
eases, goitre, valvular troubles and any disease caus- 
ing obstruction to circulation. 

Symptoms. — When the enlargement is considerable, 
especially in women and children, there will be bulg- 
ing of the chest walls. The heart impulse is in- 
creased and may be sufficient to be noticed through 
the bed clothing. In some cases the jugular vein is 
greatly enlarged and seems to throb. The patient 
may complain of difficulty in lying on the left side, 


and breathing- may be interfered with; dizziness, 
flashes of light, humming - in the ears, coug-h, enlarge- 
ment of the liver, irregular and rapid pulse, bleeding 
of the nose and dropsy may occur in bad cases. 

Treatment. — Drugs are of little avail, but a long life 
of comparative comfort may be had by observing great 
precautions. Avoid tea and coffee and alcoholic 
drinks and tobacco, violent exercise, and emotions, 
and excesses, and constipation, over-eating and the 
use of starch and sugar. Provide an abundance of 
fresh air, use easily digested vegetables, lean meats, 
eggs, milk, broths and fruits. Take lime-water for 
acidity of the stomach. Frequent sponge baths are 
beneficial. For weakness of the heart pursue the 
treatment mentioned under Heart Dilatation. 


Acute Myocarditis. 

When there is present in the system toxic particles 
from infective diseases they may find their way to the 
heart and lead to the formation of abscesses in the 
muscular body, which may discharge and be carried 
about with the circulation; or they may burrow 
through the walls of the cavities and cause great dis- 
turbances of circulation. The number of the abscesses 
may vary greatly. Their size is never large; but most 
serious results may follow. Diagnosis is difficult. 
The treatment accorded the infective disease present is 
all that can be relied upon for relief. 


Chronic Myocarditis. 

Chronic inflammation may follow rheumatism, gout, 
syphilis, injuries to the chest, long exposure to cold 
and excesses of all kinds, especially in the use of to- 
bacco, tea, coffee and alcoholic drinks. 

The symptoms may not be apparent until the disease 
is far advanced. Indigestion is commonly present, 



also pain over the stomach and abdomen and heart; 
palpitation, and often intermittent, feeble and slow 
pulse, though there may be paroxysms of greatly ac- 
celerated heart action. Shortness of breath, bluish 
cast to the skin, catarrh and swelling of the glands of 
the neck are frequent. Death may occur suddenly at 
any time. 

Treatment. — The origin of the disease must be ascer- 
tained and appropriately treated. When syphilis is 
the cause the probability of cure of the heart trouble 
is more favorable. The symptoms of heart failure 
which may arise must be met with promptness and 
vigor as mentioned for Endocarditis. The abandon- 
ment of harmful habits and excesses is imperative. 
Perfect quietude and light but nourishing diet are 


Inflammation of the Lining Membrane. 

A serous membrane covers the cavities and valves of 
the heart. This often becomes inflamed during an at- 
tack of articular rheumatism, sometimes during 
Bright 's disease, and occasionally during infective 
maladies, such as measles or child-bed fever, or with 
gout, gonorrhea, pneumonia or syphilis. Whenever 
there is a severe attack of articular rheumatism, en- 
docarditis should be feared and guarded against. In 
the course of the attack of rheumatism, when the 
heart is involved, there will first be a sense of discom- 
fort and palpitation, the heart beat at first being un- 
usually strong; there may be chilliness, followed by 
heat and irregular perspiration, often very profuse, 
yellowish skin and pinched countenance, and great 
prostration, sometimes diarrhoea and delirium. Pain 
may be great about the heart and extend down the 
left arm and over the abdomen, often of a cutting 

Treatment must be vigorous. Besides pushing the 
regular methods being employed for rheumatism, 
place over the chest hot fomentations of mullein 
leaves and capsicum, first rubbing the chest well with 


stimulating" liniment. Internally administer freely in- 
fusion of golden seal and scullcap containing - com- 
pound tincture of myrrh. Mustard plasters to the 
feet are often required. 


Inflammation of Heart Sac. 

The membranous sac containing" the heart is liable 
to inflammation. This is especially apt to occur dur- 
ing" the course of other diseases, such as Bright 's dis- 
ease, rheumatism, scrofula, pleurisy, pneumonia, scar- 
let fever, aneurism, heart disease, etc. 

Symptoms may be obscured by those of the existing 
disease. As a rule there will be distress in the region 
of the heart, with pain extending to the breast bone 
and left arm; inability to take a full breath, and pale 
and distressed countenance. The chest feels con- 
stricted and there is difficulty and distress in coughing 
and possibly in swallowing. The pulse at first is full 
and strong, possibly irregular or intermittent. Such 
a condition may last four or five days, when the heart's 
action grows weak and irregular and the skin cold 
and pallid. Death may be sudden within a few days, 
the sac becoming filled with serous fluid. 

Treatment is similar to that given for Endocarditis 
(which see). Sometimes relief is obtained and life 
prolonged by drawing off a portion of the serous accu- 
mulation by means of an extremely fine exploring 
needle. This operation requires great skill. In rare 
cases there are no violent symptoms to designate peri- 
carditis, the accumulation progressing slowly and the 
heart growing Weaker and weaker, and breathing 
more difficult and the surface pallid and cold, followed 
by sudden death. 


Ulceration of the Heart. 

This is an almost certainly fatal condition, caused 
by infective poison finding its way to the heart and 


causing - ulceration of the valves or walls. It some- 
times occurs during - typhoid fever or other infective 
diseases, and the symptoms are so closely allied to 
those of severe forms of the infective malady present 
that only the most skillful can recognize the differ- 


Missing of Heart-Beats. 

Some persons become alarmed upon ascertaining' 
that their heart pulsations drop one or more beats per 
minute; just as though they counted one, two, three 
(blank), five, six, seven (blank), etc. When the vol- 
ume of the pulse is good, such an intermittent action 
is of no consequence, and is of common occurrence, 
especially in elderly persons or those undergoing men- 
tal strain. Disease of the brain or heart may likewise 
cause intermittence, but other symptoms are also 

Many persons have the power to voluntarily alter 
their heart's action. When being examined for life 
insurance it becomes imperative to be able to control 
the impulses, for excitability or fear may cause great 
variations of the heart's actions. Thinking quietly of 
other matters will allow the pulse to act naturally. 
Controlling the mind is always an important factor in 
disease, and in heart troubles worry about the condi- 
tion present and the possible future only adds to the 


Floating Heart. 

Occasionally persons are met with the heart in un- 
natural position. In nearly all these cases the mis- 
placement is congenital; that is, the heart assumed the 
wrong position before birth. Sometimes the heart 
will be found far up toward the neck; again it may be 
far down, even in the abdominal cavity. The most 
frequent misplacement is a position in the right side, 


and in such cases all the organs are reversed in posi- 

In rare instances malformation of the chest bones, 
or perhaps their undeveloped condition, will allow the 
heart to be felt as though directly beneath the skin. 

Persons who have been suddenly reduced from great 
flesh tc leanness, may have the structures so greatly 
weakened as to allow the heart to become movable 
from its usual position — causing the condition com- 
monly known as floating heart. 



Persons of all ages and conditions, and those whose 
hearts are absolutely healthy, may suffer paroxysms 
of abnormal heart action. Nervous forms may be 
caused by fright, worry, grief, anger, joy, etc., and 
through the sympathetic nerve, by indigestion, sexual 
excesses, constipation, worms, colic, uterine disturb- 
ances, hysteria, etc. Too intense application to study, 
rapid growth and undue nervous strain may cause it in 
children. Poisonous drugs may cause palpitation and 
the immoderate use of alcohol, tea, coffee and tobacco 
are common causes. 

Palpitation may be in the form of excessive fre- 
quency of the heart's action, possibly reaching 160 or 
more per minute; it may be in the nature of very slow 
heart's action, or it may be intermittent in character — 
every third, fourth, fifth, tenth or other beat being ab- 
sent, or there may be great irregularity or a rolling 
motion to the heart. Sometimes palpitation is due to 
disturbances in the brain or spinal cord, and may pos- 
sibly be a symptom of heart disease, when other con- 
ditions are present, but as a rule palpitation is a sym- 
pathetic trouble and should give no cause for alarm, 
nearly every one being attacked at some time, to a 
greater or less degree. 

Symptoms. — Palpitation usually occurs in paroxysms; 
with dyspeptics soon after meals, with others at any 
time — frequently at night. Symptoms vary. There 


may oe great uneasiness about the heart, sense of con- 
striction in the throat, difficulty of breathing, sense of 
anxiety, headache, flushes of heat or chilliness, per- 
spiration, often faintness. All of these symptoms 
are rarely present in one case. Paroxysms may last 
from a few minutes to several hours, and may be fre- 
quent, perhaps several a day, or possibly one or two 
a year. Prolonged palpitation may give great weak- 
ness of the heart and prostration. An attack rarely 
proves fatal, but usually ceases suddenly and is fol- 
lowed by a free passage of urine and a sense of nerv- 
ous relief. 

Treatment. — Loosen the clothing and supply an 
abundance of fresh air. If the feet are cold give a 
hot foot bath. Administer a few drops of compound 
spirits of lavender in water, or ginger and lady slip- 
per tea, or any diffusive. If the heart's action is weak 
give composition; if irregular, add goldenseal. If 
there is great nervous excitement give tincture of 
valarian, and if nervous prostration, give asafoetida 
pills. When attacks are frequent the cause must be 
ascertained and removed. Frequent sponge baths 
and plenty of fresh air are always advantageous. 
Overloaded stomachs may cause palpitation, when 
emetics will give quick relief. 

Heart Parasites. — Parasites which affect other or- 
gans may invade the heart and form structures from 
the size of a grain of wheat to an orange. Detach- 
ments from them may enter the arteries and cause em- 
bolism and death. 


Cardiorrhexis Spontanea. 

This may happen, especially to old persons, after 
the heart structures have become degenerate. Violent 
exercise or emotions may produce it, though it may oc- 
cur during sleep. Sudden death is the rule, though 
there may be several hours of intense suffering. The 


pulse becomes rapid and almost lost, the face pale and 
the whole surface cold and clammy; occasionally there 
is vomiting - and purging - . 

Treatment. — There is seldom opportunity to do any- 
thing for relief. Compound tincture of myrrh, three 
drops in water, may be frequently administered for 
temporary relief. Persons suffering from heart dis- 
ease should take every precaution against this fatal 

Heart Tumors. — Occasionally tumors form upon 
the heart and interfere with nutrition or produce ob- 
struction to free valvular action and become causes of 
organic disease of the heart. 


Cardiac Asthenia. 

The heart is a muscular organ and is liable to be- 
come weakened on account of various conditions of 
the system, especially from strains on the nervous 
system, such as great anxiety, severe pain, sexual ex- 
cesses, etc. Often heart weakness is taken for organic 
trouble, causing much unnecessary worriment. 

Symptoms. — These are variable, and may include 
feeble pulsations manifested by a weak pulse, palpita- 
tion upon the least excitement or over-exertion, short- 
ness of breath, faintness on trifling occasions and feel- 
ings of weakness upon awakening suddenly from 

Treatment. — Proper habits of life and care in regu- 
lating the diet will do much toward strengthening the 
heart. Tea and coffee should be avoided, as well as 
all alcoholic liquors. Moderate out-door exercise and 
the cultivation of a cheerful disposition are great 
helps toward recovery. Cactina pillets, two before 
each meal, or ten drops of a mixture of equal parts of 
fluid extracts of goldenseal and mother-wort, will 
prove excellent for tonic purposes 



Tobacco or Smoker's Heart. 

Persons addicted to the habit of using" tobacco are 
sometimes affected by serious disturbances of the 
heart's action. The pulse may become small, frequent 
and irregular, and altogether too feeble to correspond 
with the temperament of the individual. The least 
exertion causes a feeling of heart weakness at times, 
which is depressing in character. 

Treatment. — This consists in abandonment of the 
habit of using tobacco. Probably the best aid in 
overcoming the tobacco habit is to grind together one 
ounce of gentian root and half a pound of slippery- 
elm bark, steam until soft and then press into cakes 
and dry. A piece may be carried in the pocket and 
nibbles taken from it frequently. The saliva may be 
swallowed, and the gentian will prove tonic and the 
slippery-elm soothing. Many persons can chew or 
smoke tobacco almost constantly for many years with- 
out apparent evil effects. Persons of a sanguine tem- 
perament, florid in appearance, inclined to be fleshy 
and who are nervous in their ways, are most liable to 
have tobacco heart. 


Organic Disease. 

The principal organic diseases of the heart are those 
affecting the valves. They may be thickened, or 
lacerated, or degenerated, or malformed, or the orifices 
of the valves may be dilated, or vegetations or growths 
may be upon them. The exact nature of the difficulty 
can rarely be ascertained during life, but it is impor- 
tant to know whether or not the condition present ob- 
structs the flow of blood or causes it to regurgitate. 
Aneurisms, fatty degenerations and various diseases 
may cause valvular troubles; they may also be 
brought about by excessive labor, and are very fre- 
quently hereditary. Persons in middle life or old age 
are frequently affected. 


Symptoms. — The various symptoms of valvular dis- 
eases of the heart may be classified technically to 
differentiate the especial valves involved and the pe- 
culiar conditions present in each case, but such a class- 
ification is unnecessary for present purposes. All 
forms of valvular disease have many symptoms in 
common, which may be mentioned as follows: 

Difficulty of breathing - , a sense of suffocation or op- 
pression in the chest, and a choking- feeling in the 
throat; beating violently of the arteries of the neck, 
coughing, headache, paleness or lividness of the coun- 
tenance, with an anxious look, are common; these are 
all increased upon slight exertion. There may be pal- 
pitation and pain about the heart, restlessness at 
night and bad dreams. As the disease advances 
breathing becomes extremely difficult, the kidneys be- 
come affected and dropsy follows, commencing with 
puffiness about the eyelids and ankles, and progress- 
ing rapidly. 

Treatment. — Light, nutritious diet, fresh air, regular 
habits and quietude are necessities. Excitement, 
highly seasoned foods, tea, coffee, alcoholic liquors 
and tobacco and excesses of all kinds must be avoided. 
Narcotics must never be administered. Intercurrent 
diseases must be promptly and appropriately treated. 
As a heart tonic the following is most excellent: 
Fluid extracts of goldenseal, scullcap and mother- 
wort, each one-half ounce, in S} T rup of ginger sufficient 
to make eight ounces. Dose, one teaspoonful night 
and morning. Frequent baths are beneficial and 
clothing should be changed regularly according to the 
weather. Persons suffering from valvular heart dis- 
ease may live to extreme old age, bat are liable to 
drop dead from indiscretions in diet or exercise. 

Heatstroke. — See article on Sunstroke. 


Fever of Exhaustion. 

Many exhausting diseases such as consumption, 
bone diseases, etc., cause disintegration of tissues, 


and the products of such disintegration becoming- ab- 
sorbed cause a slow blood poisoning throughout the 
system marked by peculiar characteristics. 

Symptoms. — These are not always of the same type, 
but embrace rise of bodily temperature during the aft- 
ernoons or evenings, bright spots upon the cheeks, 
lustrous eyes, nervousness and restlessness, dryness 
of the tongue and mouth and dry surface. Such con- 
ditions may arise daily or every other day, and are 
followed by profuse night sweats and disappearance 
of fever. Such conditions are extremely exhaustive, 
and the patient's strength gradually fails. Swelling 
of the feet and lower limbs is soon noticed and severe 
sores present a low grade of ulceration in the mouth. 

Treatment. — Pure air and pleasant surroundings are 
imperative, and the removal of the cause of the diffi- 
culty, if possible, should be the first aim. Abscesses 
should be evacuated, decayed portions of bones re- 
moved, etc. Frequent rubbings of the body by dry 
towels are beneficial for the night sweats. A drink of 
infusion of raspberry leaves and sage tea at bedtime 
will be found moat excellent. 

During the period of fever, substances cannot be 
employed to soften the skin, as they aggravate the 
night sweats. The compound gentian tonic (see form- 
ulas) may be given three times a day. For ulcera- 
tions of the mouth, there is nothing better than tinct- 
ure of myrrh and fluid extract of hydrastis, a few 
drops each, in borax water. Should diarrhoea be an 
aggravating symptom, use the neutralizing cordial 
containing a few drops of tincture of kino. 


Vomiting of Blood. 

By various causes blood may enter the stomach, 
usually as the result of injuries or of swallowing cor- 
rosives. It may be the result of violent vomiting or 
be present from other diseases, such as irregularities 


of menstruation, cancers, ulcerations, throat troubles, 

Symptoms. — There are rarely any special indications 
beside the symptoms of the disease present and the 
vomiting" of blood of a dark color resembling" coffee 
grounds. The quantity is usually small, thoug"h it 
may be larg"e and brig"ht red if expelled soon after it 
has entered the stomach from a severe hemorrhage. 
Symptoms of loss of blood may be present. 

Treatment should consist of rest, and severe cases 
should receive nourishment by rectal injections. 
Small bits of ice may be swallowed, and cold astrin- 
gent infusions administered, such as of tannin or kino. 
Stimulants aud other medicines, when required to sus- 
tain the strength and quiet the nervous system, should 
be given as enemas. 

Hematocele. — A collection of blood about the tes- 
ticle or ovary. It is usually caused by an injury or 
the bursting of a vericose vein. Hematocele, when 
not large, may possibly be absorbed, although sur- 
gical operation is almost always an absolute necessity. 

Hematuria. — Blood in the urine. See article on 
Urine, abnormal conditions. 

Hemeralopia. — This is a peculiar and as yet unex- 
plained condition of the eyes. The person afflicted is 
unable to see at all by artificial light, although able 
to see perfectly well during the day time. It seems to 
be an individual peculiarity, considered incurable. 

Hemicrania.— Headache upon one side. See article 
on Headache — Nervous. 

Hemiplegia. — Paralysis upon one side of the body. 
See article on Paralysis. 

Hemoptysis. — Hemorrhage of the Lungs. — See article 
on Lung Diseases. 


Bleeding. Loss of Blood. 

Whenever a blood vessel, artery or vein, large or 
small, is severed, hemorrhage or bleeding will occur. 
If an artery is severed the blood will be bright red and 
spurt or flow quickly, while blood from a vein will be 
dark and flow slowly. As a rule, in small vessels, the 
blood will coagulate and form clots in the vessels and 
thus stop the hemorrhage. 

Treatment for hemorrhage is given in the various ar- 
ticles on Epistaxis (bleeding from the nose), Lung 
Troubles — hemorrhage of the lungs, etc. Also see 
section on Accidents and Emergencies, and Diseases of 

Hemorrhoids. — See article on Piles. 

Hepatitis. — Inflammation of the Liver. — See article 
on Diseases of the Liver. 


Protrusion of the Bowel. Rupture. 

At the lower part of the abdomen in the groin are 
spaces between the muscles through which pass blood 
vessels, nerves, etc., and occasionally through these 
openings portions of the intestines may protrude, by 
violent exercise, straining, horseback riding, etc. 

Symptoms. — A rupture may be recognized by a swell- 
ing at the part, increased by standing and coughing, 
and causing pain on walking. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be done is to return 
the protruded portion of intestine. Place the patient 
on the back in such a position as to relax the muscles 
of the belly. Saturate cloths with strong lobelia in- 
fusion and lay them over the parts, and in an hour or 
so, after relaxation is secured, gently manipulate 
the intestine back to its proper place. Place a wad 


of cotton over the spot (after return of the hernia) 
and saturate it with tannic acid solution or some other 
strong" astringent. A truss must be secured and prop- 
erly fitted by a reliable surgical instrument dealer or 
physician. If rupture is left too long unattended to 
strangulation may occur and cause mortification and 


Fever and Cold Sores. 

From possible disturbances of the nervous system, 
perhaps aggravated by stomach irregularities and 
sometimes by improper living, small groups of blisters 
may appear on various parts of the body. Sometimes 
these blisters will be on the lips, or on the extremities, 
and sometimes on the genitals. Pregnant women are 
occasionally troubled with herpes, usually upon the 
extremities. The vesicles seldom last beyond a week, 
and either burst and leave scabs or gradually disap- 
pear by absorption. 

Treatment is seldom required beyond allaying the 
itching, which is often intolerable. Dusting the af- 
fected parts with starch and pulverized borax or using 
distilled extract of witch hazel is beneficial. The 
stomach may be disordered and the bowels irregular, 
in which case neutralizing cordial should be used. 
Persons troubled with herpes should ascertain the ir- 
regularities present in their systems and proceed to 
correct them. 

Herpes Zoster. — See article on Shingles. 


Spasm of the Diaphragm. Singultus. 

This is a very annoying difficulty and is extremely 
common and trifling in children, in consequence of an 


excess of food or liquid in the stomach. Such cases 
are usually relieved by small doses of peppermint, 
neutralizing 1 cordial, compound spirits of lavender, 
ginger, etc. Occasionally severe and protracted cases 
of hiccough occur in adults, becoming most dis- 

Placing the elbows out from the body and gradually 
bringing the finger tips as near as possible, without 
touching, often gives relief by steadying the dia- 
phragm and getting the attention from the cough. 
Oil of cloves, a few drops on sugar, has been success- 
fully employed. One case that continued for ten days, 
till the patient was exhausted and abandoned by his 
physician, was cured by teaspoonful doses of onion 

Hiccough is frequently a symptom of approaching 
death in severe diseases, though it may occur as a sign 
of weakness in debilitating maladies, such as diph- 
theria, typhoid fever, etc. 


Destruction of the Hip Joint. 

This affliction is most frequent among scrofulous 
persons and especially in early life. It may be the 
result of diseased conditions or of injury; and it is 
surprising how slight a fall or other injury may pro- 
duce serious results. 

Symptoms. — Probably trouble will be first recognized 
as stiffness of the joint, the knee being bent upward 
when the patient lies on the back. The large bone of 
the thigh being fastened to the hip bone, there will be 
a hollow in the small of the back whenever the limb 
is forcibly straightened. Occasionally there may be 
fullness in the region of the joint; though as a rule the 
affected limb and the corresponding buttock will di- 
minish in size. Limping will be noticeable, and there 
is usually considerable pain, which is sometimes felt 
as though on the inside of the knee. An abscess 
forms in the hip joint and the pus burrows. The head 


of the thigh bone decays and decided shortening fol- 
lows. Death is apt to follow from exhaustion, or else 
permanent stiffness and recovery may be the result. 

Treatment. — Stimulating liniment as an outward ap- 
pliance is serviceable. The general strength must be 
sustained by tonic and nourishing foods. Gelatine is 
most excellent along with broths. Abscesses and 
suppuration must be treated as laid down for those 
difficulties. If the limb is stiffened and crooked it 
may be thoroughly relaxed by lobelia fomentations 
and then straightened, when splints and apparatus 
manufactured especially for this purpose may be used. 
Such a difficulty requires the most skillful surgical 
treatment; and nursing and hygienic surroundings 
must be of the very best. 


Nettle Rash. Urticaria. 

This difficulty, frequently known as wheals, is very 
annoying and frequent among children, and occasion- 
ally with adults. It is usually caused by digestive de- 
rangements, such as are provoked by eating classes of 
foods which may be especially unacceptable to some 
stomachs. Honey and strawberries and cucumbers are 
often regarded as causes for hives. 

'Symptoms. — An attack lasts but a few days, consist- 
ing of hard, irregular and elevated patches upon the 
skin, usually white, surrounded by redness. They 
itch and burn and last but a few hours, possibly com- 
ing two or three times a day for a week. Fever is 
very seldom manifested. 

Treatment consists in keeping the bowels open and 
using a tonic to the stomach, such as goldenseal in- 
fusion. Should there be sourness of the stomach 
nothing will be better than neutralizing cordial. 
Witch hazel extract applied externally allays the 




Persons in early old age are the most frequent suf- 
ferers from this disease. It is characterized by white 
deposits in the spleen, liver or lungs, involving the 
lymphatic glands. Great paleness a.nd weakness are 
prominent symptoms. The stomach becomes de- 
ranged and nutrition fails. Sometimes there will be 
chilliness followed by hectic form of fever. The 
slightest exertion is exhausting, stair-climbing being 
especially difficult. The gland beneath the jaw usu- 
ally first commences to swell, and the cervical glands 
may one by one become involved, forming a chain of 
enlargements, often as large as hens' eggs, down to 
the collar bone. The glands soften and slowly sepa- 
rate, and if emptied they heal very slowly. It is a 
dangerous and annoying difficulty. 

Treatment. — Poultice the swollen glands, but do not 
lance them. When they discharge syringe them thor- 
oughly with boracic acid solution and then keep them 
covered with a salve of prepared earth and glycerine 
containing a little powdered myrrh. Dress them fre- 
quently. Internally give tartrate of iron and potassa 
and citric acid, half an ounce each, in eight ounces of 
water. Dose, a teaspoonful before meals. Compound 
gentian syrup is a suitable tonic. Keep the bowels 
open by liver pills. Hygienic measures and a light, 
nourishing diet are absolutely necessary. 

Horns. — These are excrescences of the epidermis. 
They appear often without any apparent cause and 
may attain enormous size, resembling small horns of 
animals in rare cases. They may be shaved off and 
caustic applied at the place of detachment. 

Horn-pOX. — In some cases of small-pox the eruption 
does not become suppurative, but reaches the papular 
stage and is then arrested, causing the elevations to 
resemble a mass of warts. Treatment is, of course, 
the same as for ordinary small-pox. 



Pimples on the Hands and Knees. 

Occasionally, without apparent cause, pimples vary- 
ing- in size from a pinhead to a small button, make 
their appearance upon the knees, back of the hands 
and wrists. Light redness surround the pimples, 
which are filled with transparent yellow liquid. They 
last a few days and disappear by absorption. Suc- 
cessive crops break out for three or four weeks. 
Sometimes they appear in the mouth or in the mucous 
membrane of the eyes. The chilly atmosphere and 
changeable weather of spring" and fall seem to be 
chiefly responsible for the trouble, along - with possible 
disturbed conditions of the stomach and blood. 

Treatment. — Outward applications are not needed un- 
less pimples appear on the mucous membrane, when a 
wash of borax in goldenseal infusion will be found 
serviceable. The bowels must be kept freely open by 
the liver pills, and acidity of the stomach relieved by 
neutralizing cordial. Persistent attacks require the 
use of compound syrup of yellow dock (see formulas). 
Frequent bathing with vigorous rubbings are excel- 


Inflammation of Sweat Glands. 

The sweat glands may become inflamed causing small 
lumps over the surface which do not suppurate, al- 
though they become red and tender. Such a condi- 
tion is frequently caused by excessive exertion in 
warm weather, or running to the point of fatigue. 
Applications of cloths wrung out of hot water will 
give relief. If the spots grow dark stimulating lini- 
ment should be applied. Nourishing diet must be pro- 
vided, and if there are glandular swellings, the com- 
pound syrup of yellow dock (see formulas) must be 
used internally. Hygienic regulations are important 
factors in the treatment of hydroadenitis and should 
be carefully observed. 




Cavities in the Spinal Cord. 

Under ill-defined conditions, usually congenital, 
cavities of varied extent may be present in the spinal 
cord, which contain a serous fluid. The symptoms 
are obscure, often manifesting themselves in the form 
of atrophy or of eruptions, especially upon the hands, 
and contractions of the fingers and swelling and gan- 
grene of their tips, resembling leprosy, have been 
noticed. There is no effective means of treatment be- 
yond nourishing food and hygienic measures. 

Hydropericardium. — This is dropsy about the 
heart, and is described under Diseases of the Heart. 



This is probably one of the most frightful diseases 
from which human beings can suffer. Fortunately it 
is comparatively rare, and would be more so should 
the thousands of worthless dogs which infest cities be 
annihilated. It is a disease communicated by the poi- 
son in the saliva of rabid dogs, wolves and rats, and 
possibly some other animals. Rat terriers and spitz 
dogs are most liable to "go mad," and sometimes 
dogs that have been given the greatest care are at- 
tacked. Dogs developing the disease become restless, 
look suspicious and sick, are irritable and snappish 
and have no appetite. Soon furious symptoms com- 
mence, such as barking, biting and evidences of delir- 
ium and frothing of the mouth, followed by weakness, 
tottering and paralysis, drooping of the jaw and 
death. Rabid dogs do not have the reported aversion 
to water; they may even lap it, but are unable to 
swallow it. Bites through clothing may possibly be 
harmless by the virus being prevented from entering 
the wound. 

Symptoms. — These rarely develop under six weeks 
from the time of being bitten, and may be delayed for 


several months. Less than ten per cent of persons 
bitten by rabid animals develop hydrophobia. The 
early signs are restlessness and great sensitiveness to 
light and sounds, melancholy, bad sleep and sense of 
constriction about the throat. Before long difficulty 
of swallowing follows and catching of the breath. 
Soon there is dread of water, and spasms throughout 
the body upon the slightest provocation. There is 
sleeplessness, sense of fear and anxiety, great thirst, 
tenacious and abundant saliva. 

Frightful symptoms now manifest themselves. Vio- 
lent convulsions come on frequently, the victim throw- 
ing himself about madly, struggling for breath and 
strangling on his saliva, which also comes from the 
mouth. During intervals of spasms he warns attend- 
ants of their danger and realizes his dreadful con- 
dition. These symptoms may continue several days, 
the patient usually dying from exhaustion in from 
three to eight days. 

Treatment. — Pasteur, of Paris, instituted a method 
of treatment for which much has been claimed, but 
when we consider that but ten per cent of those bitten 
contract the disease, and that Pasteur's treatment 
professes to be only a possible preventive a ad has 
never covered a developed case, we can put little if 
any trust in it. Most authorities declare the disease 
necessarily fatal. But it has been cured. 

As soon as possible, after being bitten, tie a tight 
bandage or ligature above the wound and cauterize 
the wound freely with a red hot iron or nitric acid; 
any injury is preferable to possible development of 
hydrophobia. Nervousness and fear ma}^ develop 
symptoms easily mistaken for approaching spasms, 
and always aggravate the difficulty. 

When actual symptoms of hydrophobia commence, 
relax the patient at once. To do this, lobelia must be 
used unsparingly. A teaspoonful of the herb in two 
cups of warm water should be given by injection every 
three hours or oftener and retained by compress if 
necessary. A weak infusion should also be given in 
teaspoonful doses by the mouth every ten minutes, or 
as often as it can be swallowed. Pulverized lady 


slipper or scullcap herb may be added to the injec- 
tions, and if the wound is angry, compound tincture 
of myrrh must be freely used upon it. 

Hydrothionuria. — Sulphur in the Urine. — This may 
occur when there is suppuration in the intestines or 
elsewhere. The urine will have the odor of rotten 
eggs (sulphuretted hydrogen gas.) When this occurs, 
it is evidence that destruction is progressing some- 
where, which should be attended to by appropriate 

Hydrothorax.— This is sub-acute pleurisy, charac- 
terized by a quantity of fluid in the sac about the 
lungs. Described under Pleurisy. 


Redness of the Skin. 

Rubbing, scratching, pressure, exposure to heat or 
cold, or anger or shame, may produce blushing or red- 
ness of the skin. The condition is also common in 
the course of various acute maladies. The extreme 
sensitiveness of some persons to blushing may be 
overcome by turning the thoughts to other subjects. 
"Hardening the skin," by cold applications is suc- 

Hypergeusia. — Nervous persons are not infre- 
quently afflicted with this malady. It is an increased 
sensitiveness of the sense of taste. Often salt or pep- 
per or condiments cannot be endured, and occasionally 
some simple articles seem to assume irritating charac- 
teristics. Relief is obtained only by treating the 
actual disorder. 

Profuse Perspiration. 

This condition may be general, in which case the 
whole body will be drenched with perspiration. It 


commonly occurs in the course of constitutional dis- 
eases, and is extremely weakening*. Local sweating 
is often annoying, the hands or feet or some portion of 
the body being affected. Profuse sweating of the feet 
makes them extremely tender and often offensive. 
Occasionally eczematious eruptions are started by hy- 

Treatment. — For general conditions the person af- 
flicted should drintf: freely of sage and kino infusion. 
The body may be sponged with vinegar and water, 
and rubbed with a dry towel. For local sweating a 
powder of starch, one ounce, and tannic acid, two 
drachms, may be dusted upon the toes. The stock- 
ings may be saturated with this powder and thus worn 
constantly. As a rule there is some nervous difficulty 
or functional disturbance to be sought for and rem- 
edied by appropriate treatment. 

Hypermetropia. — A condition of the crystaline 
lens of the eyes, usually occurring in old persons, by 
which objects are focused unnaturally upon the retina, 
causing the necessity of wearing glasses. See section 
on Diseases of the Eye. 

Hyperosmia. — This is exaltation of the sense of 
smell. Some persons become so sensitive to odors as 
to be sickened by the least disagreeable whiffs, and 
are able to distinguish persons and substances by their 
individual odors. Blunting the nerve terminals by 
cold water douches and frequent pinches of powdered 
bayberry bark often relieves the extreme sensitiveness. 



Persons suffering from hypochondria are often ridi- 
culed, but wrongly so. It is an actual disease, most 
distressing in character to the sufferer, and one of 
which he would be only too willing to be cured. It is 
a nervous condition, the exact seat of which cannot be 


ascertained. Men are more liable than women to suf- 
fer from hypochondria, and they usually between the 
ages of thirty-five and fifty. Causes of the difficulty 
cannot always be ascertained; often a taint of insan- 
ity in the family may be discovered. 

Symptoms. — These are very diverse in many respects. 
The main symptom of hypochondria is the patient's im- 
agining* that some serious organic disease has fastened 
itself upon him. He will relate his feelings to every- 
one willing to listen and ask if they "ever had any- 
thing like it. " He will visit various physicians and 
clinics and exaggerate his symptoms, telling different 
tales to different physicians, and become convinced 
that they do not understand his case. He will pre- 
scribe for himself and swill himself with nauseous 
drugs, for he is anxious to get well. He often de- 
clares he wishes he could die, but takes great pains to 
prolong his life. He cannot get his thoughts off of 
himself night or day. But his troubles are not all im- 
aginary. Usualty symptoms of dyspepsia are pres- 
ent, excessive appetite and distress after eating, possi- 
bly heartburn and disturbances of breathing from 
pressure of gas in the stomach. These signs lead him 
to believe he has heart trouble, especially as palpita- 
tion often occurs. He will usually read medical works 
and come to the conclusion that he has a hopeless or- 
ganic disease. He may grow despondent at times, 
though during intervals may attend to business and be 
cheerful and apparently without concern with stran- 
gers. Persistence and indulgence in such thoughts and 
experiences gradually have their physical effect and 
his strength begins to fail and he may fall away in 
flesh and become pale or sallow. 

Treatment. — Secure the confidence of the patient by 
considering his real sufferings and never ridiculing his 
expressions. Direct his mind off of himself, establish 
an aim in his life and interest him in it. Keep him 
from reading medical works and talk as little as pos- 
sible with him concerning his case except about his 
actual symptoms and the assurance of their gradual 
relief. Excesses in all things must be forbidden, ex- 


ercise can be allowed only in moderation, never to the 
point of fatigue. A diet of fruit and vegetables is 
advisable. Nutrition is all important, egg-nog" (plain) 
is excellent, but alcoholic liquors, tea and coffee must 
be prohibited. Change of climate and of habits are 
most beneficial and often bringing* about a speedy and 
permanent cure. 

Medication should not be directed to the relief of 
symptoms, but to the general toning up of the system. 
The compound syrup of gentian (see formulas) is ex- 
cellent. The bowels must be kept free, better by an 
abundance of fruits and laxative foods than by drugs. 
If there is a rheumatic taint back of the difficulty 
lithia water will be found most excellent. 


Nervous Convulsions. 

This is a most annoying nervous disorder, the exact 
seat of which cannot in all cases be located. Young 
women, and unmarried women approaching the change 
of life, are the ones chiefly affected; though persons of 
any age may be affected. Anxiety, overwork, indi- 
gestion, menstruation, indolence, excesses of all kinds, 
grief, indulgence in morbid or lascivious thoughts and 
in some instances downright perverseness are all 
causes of hysterics and the cause should be properly 
ascertained in each case in order to deal successfully 
with hysterical persons. 

Symptoms. — A person never takes a lit of hysterics 
while asleep, but always manages that others shall be 
present, an uncontrollable desire for sympathy or for 
frightening or disturbing others being a prominent 
symptom. An attack is gradual and the patient pre- 
pares herself for it. Usually the commencement is a 
sob, a laugh, a sigh and random or excessive talking 
in rapid succession. There may be twitching of the 
limbs and even violent convulsions, the patient throw- 
ing herself about, apparently unconscious, but taking 
care to prevent injury or too much dishevelment of the 
dress The teeth may grit and gurgling sounds and 


possibly saliva come from the mouth. The pulse is 
normal and the face not livid. Belchings may occur 
and free discharge of urine follow an attack, preceded 
by crying, laughing, yawning, etc., and then exhaus- 

Treatment. — Firmness, but not cruelty, must be ex- 
ercised. Excitement or sympathy about the patient 
must not be allowed. Ascertain the cause of the lit 
and act accordingly. If from perverseness dash a 
small cup of water in the face and follow it by several 
more at intervals. But do not be too hasty in con- 
cluding it is only "ugliness." Girls are sensitive 
about mentioning menstrual disorders, and such often 
cause uncontrollable hysterical fits, calling for the 
greatest kindness. Smelling salts and the adminis- 
tration of valerian and compound spirits of lavender 
are beneficial. Never scold or make fun of hysterical 
persons after their attacks; and do not dwell upon 
them or speak of their difficulty as * ' simply hysterics. " 
Take as little notice of them as possible. 


Unhealthy Pus. 

This is the name given to the thin and acrid pus 
which flows from unhealthy wounds that are not in- 
clined to heal. In extensive wounds the appearance 
of ichor is always a bad indication and calls for 
prompt action in sustaining the system by such stimu- 
lation as large and frequent drinks of composition in- 
fusion (see formulas). In such cases the wound must 
also be thoroughly cleansed two or three times a day 
with diluted compound tincture of myrrh, or by injec- 
tions of fifty per cent solution of peroxyde of hydrogen. 

Icterus. — See article on Jaundice. 



Imbecility. Cretinism. 

This is an imperfect development of the whole body 
in general and the head in particular. Idiocy, inabil- 
ity to hear or talk and impaired sensibility are pe- 
culiarities of complete cretinism. Some are only par- 
tially affected, and nearly all suffer goitre. The val- 
leys of some mountainous countries abound with Cre- 
tans. It is said that marriages of cousins or blood 
relatives, or of persons afflicted with goitre, whose 
parents were similarly affected, are apt to result in 
offspring of Cretans. Idiotic asylums are the proper 
places for persons thus affected. Should the difficulty 
be recognized soon after birth, hygienic measures 
might be employed to advantage. 

Ileus. — This is constriction of the bowels or intes- 
tines, causing obstruction and most serious conse- 
quences. It is fully considered in the article on Bowel 

Impetigo. — This is a skin affection very closely al- 
lied to eczema, pustules being formed about the hair 
follicles upon the head, hands and face. Thick crusts 
and scabs make the disease most disgusting. The 
general treatment laid down for eczema will prove 
efficient. Great cleanliness and the internal and ex- 
ternal use of sulphur are indicated. Scabs may be 
removed by poultices. 

Impetigo Contagioso. — A contagious form of the 
above, accompanied by fever and the formation of 
scabs very much resembling vaccination scabs and 
often appearing like isolated small-pox pustules. 


Sexual Incapacity and Debility. 

Through excesses, bad habits, various diseases and 
many other causes men may lose their sexual powers 


and suffer from impotency. Much has been written 
upon this subject that is calculated to frighten individ- 
uals into the cessation of bad habits. But impotency, 
like all other diseases, is an unnatural condition, and 
its careful consideration and judicial treatment will 
produce far better results than fright. 

The author has, during the past twenty-five years, 
given especial attention to the treatment of impotency, 
and although all classes of cases have come under his 
care, he has yet to meet the first incurable case. Im- 
potency is one of the curable diseases, although one 
of the most humiliating and discouraging. It is more 
fully considered in the section on Diseases of the Gen- 
erative Organs. 

Inanition. — This is simply lack of nourishment and 
may be caused from an insufficient supply of food, or 
from diseased conditions preventing the assimilation 
of food. See the articles on Marasmus and Starva- 

Incontinence Of Urine. — Enuresis.— This annoying 
difficulty, frequent to children and old and feeble per- 
sons, is fully considered in the article on Bed-Wetting. 


Stomach Distress after Eating. 

Under this title many disturbances of the stomach 
have been classed and other names given them accord- 
ing to their individual characteristics, such as heart- 
burn, g'astralgia, etc. But indigestion proper is sim- 
ply an arrest of digestion and a consequent crowding 
of blood upon the stomach and liver. 

Symptoms. — An attack comes on some time after eat- 
ing, causing paroxysms of pain in the stomach and 
back. The patient may retch and become cold and 
clammy and very pale and experience great misery. 
After several hours of suffering the paroxysms grad- 
ually cease; leaving weakness, loss of appetite and 


constipation for several days, and liability to renewed 

Treatment. — Rub stimulating liniment over the stom- 
ach, give an emetic of warm salt water. Bathe the 
feet in hot water and internally administer live-drop 
doses of compound spirits of lavender in water con- 
taining soda, and followed by infusion of ginger. 
After an attack diet must be rigidly guarded and hygi- 
enic measures — bathing and exercise — provided. See 
articles on Dyspepsia, and Catarrh of the Stomach. 

Indolent Ulcers. — These are ulcers which refuse to 
heal on account of unfavorable conditions of the sys- 
tem, or from neglect or improper treatment. They 
may continue for many years and finally be healed by 
proper treatment. They are fully considered in the 
article on Ulcers. 

Inebriety. — See the article on Alcoholism. 


Increased Activity of Local Circulation. 

In general, inflammation, marked by redness, swell- 
ing and sensitiveness, may be considered the reaction 
of the tissues to injuries or obstructions which are not 
sufficient to cause destruction of the parts. In some 
cases the inflammation (increased ^activity) may be 
sufficient to overcome the obstruction and restore free- 
dom of action. In other instances the excess of blood 
will be sufficient to repair damages done by injuries, 
as in the cases of cuts, broken bones, etc. 

Very frequently the excessive action, manifested by 
inflammation, fails to accomplish its purpose, and the 
increase of blood becomes stagnated and serious con- 
sequences follow. Thus, while inflammation is not of 
itself a disease, it must be appropriately treated that 
Nature's effort may be aided and not thwarted. Al- 
ways regard inflammation as a vital effort to remove 
obstructions and act accordingly. This is not the 


usual view taken of inflammation, but it is the reason- 
able view, and indicates the proper course of treat- 
ment. When the injuries or obstructions are profound , 
increased vital efforts to overcome them may prove 
unavailing - . The first indication of this will be a 
tendency to congestion, and if this progresses the 
parts will become dark with stagnated blood, and 
gradually vitality will lose control of the tissues and 
they will fall under chemical forces and degenerate, 
and suppuration will take place. 

Treatment. — In all forms of inflammation the minute 
blood vessels are liable to become over-crowded and 
dilated and their walls must be strengthened; applica- 
tions of cold water or of distilled witch hazel extract 
will in mild cases sufficiently tone the parts to prevent 
over dilation of the capillaries. When the inflamma- 
tion is in mucous surfaces, such as the throat and eye 
membranes, where the tissues are very soft and the 
small blood-vessels easy dilated, mild astringents 
must always be employed. In deep-seated and dense 
structures, joints, etc., where the walls of the blood- 
vessels are naturally firm, the tissues must be relaxed 
that the force of increased vital reaction may the more 
readily be enabled to overcome the obstructions pres- 
ent. In such cases the infusion or tincture of lobelia 
or other relaxants should be employed. Inflamma- 
tions of various organs and structures are considered 
in the articles treating" of diseases of those organs 
and structures. 

Inflammation Of the Bladder.— Cystitis.— See ar- 
ticle on Bladder Difficulties. 

Inflammation of the Bowels.— See Bowel Diffi- 

Inflammation of the Brain.— Cerebritis — See the 
article on Brain Diseases. 

Inflammation of the Bronchi.— See Bronchitis. 


Inflammation of the Eye and Ear. — See the sec- 
tion on Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 

Inflammation of the Kidneys.— Nephritis. — See 
article on Kidney Diseases. 

Inflammation of the Larynx.— See article on 

Inflammation of the Liver. — Hepatitis. — See Liver 

Inflammation of the Lungs. — Pneumonitis. — See 
article on Pneumonia. 

Inflammation of the Peritoneum.— See article on 

Inflammation of the Pleurae. — Pieuritis. — See 

Inflammation of the Stomach. — Gastritis. — See 
Stomach Troubles. 

Inflammation of the Throat.— See Throat Dis- 

Inflammation of the Tonsils. — TonsUUis. — See ar- 
ticle on Throat Diseases. 

Inflammation Of the Vagina. — Vaginitis.— See sec- 
tion on Diseases of Women. 

Inflammation of the Womb. — Metritis— See sec 
tion on Diseases of Women. 


Sthenic or Ardent Fever. Synocha. 

This form of fever is mostly confined to those of 
plethoric habits, and may be caused by over-eating 1 , 
sudden cold, exposures, etc. 


Symptom*.- — At first a feeling" of depression with 
chilliness, quickly followed by high fever. The body 
becomes intensely hot, the temperature probably 
reaching- 106°. The pulse is high and full, and every 
blood vessel over the body seems to throb almost to 
bursting. The face is bright red and burning sensa- 
tions are experienced. Occasionally there will be de- 
lirium. The urine is scanty and the bow T els consti- 
pated, and the tongue coated white, yellow T or brown. 

The obstructions in the system, which cause such in- 
tense vital manifestations, are great, and if not over- 
come quickly, serious consequences follow. In a few 
da}'s the pulse becomes feebler and more frequent, the 
skin assumes a darker color, the tongue becomes 
brown and dry, the urine is scanty and high colored, 
and the mind "becomes drowsy. Such a state of affairs 
is known as the typhoid condition and will prove fatal 
if not relieved. 

Treatment. — The first thing to accomplish is to un- 
load the bow T els. Give a large enema of boneset in- 
fusion in slippery-elm w T ater. Allow the patient to 
drink freely of spearmint tea or other mild relaxant. 
During the height of the fever give an infusion of 
pleurisy root, two ounces; lady slipper, one ounce; 
ginger, one-fourth ounce, in a quart of boiling w r ater. 
Dose, half a teacupful every half hour. 

Bathe the body with luke-warm water and provide 
fresh air and absolute quietude. If the stomach is 
foul, shown by a heavily coated tongue, a relaxing 
emetic should be given (see article on Emetics). 

Should the pulse grow weak and frequent and the 
face darker and the strength fail, use composition, 
one ounce; goldenseal, one- half ounce; queen of the 
meadow, one-half ounce, in a pint of boiling w r ater. 
Dose, a tablespoonful every hour. Diet must be ex- 
tremely light and nourishing, and care must be taken 
not to allow too early exertion. 

Influenza. — This is a mild form of grippe, and the 
term is also used to designate a severe form of catarrh 
accompanied by fever. See the articles on Grippe 
and Catarrh. 



Mental Aberrations. 

A great many nervous disturbances are classified un- 
der the general term of insanity, all of which have as 
a prominent symptom greater or less inability of the 
patient to exercise will power over thoughts or actions. 
The number of insane persons is very large, and is 
constantly increasing, due to the modern life of worry 
and excesses, coupled with the use of narcotics, head- 
ache powders, hypodermic injections, etc. Many per- 
sons afflicted with insanity recover and become most 
active brain workers. Some of the most noted char- 
acters of history passed through periods of insanity. 
It is a disease, curable or incurable, according to the 
individual nature of the case and the circumstances 
surrounding it. 

The causes of insanity are varied, such as grief, 
fright, worry, self-abuse, unsatisfied longings, im- 
proper living, functional disturbance, especially of the 
sexual organs. A f amity taint of insanity ma}^ exist, 
when slight causes may produce the disease. It is 
common to excuse rash acts or disagreeable or crimi- 
nal performances by regarding as insane the person 
committing them. Many insanity ex23erts take the 
ground that the normal mind will live at peace with 
all mankind and harbor no feelings of revenge, malice, 
etc., and that all others are abnormal and conse- 
quently more or less insane. Accepting such ideas we 
would all be partially irresponsible for evil acts on ac- 
count of abnormal conditions. 

The ideal human mind cannot be taken as the stand- 
ard of sanity. Eccentricities, bad natures, self indul- 
gences and individual peculiarities are not incompati- 
ble with sanity, and downright viciousness or ugliness 
should not be excused upon the ground of insanity. 

Dementia is a low grade of insanity, often a se- 
quence of milder forms, the unfortunate victim being 
absolutely incapable of controlling speech or actions, 
stupidity being a pronounced characteristic. Persons 
suffering from dementia may become dangerously vio- 
lent at times. Such cases are occasionally curable. 


Kleptomania is a mild form of insanity. The suf- 
ferer loses all control of the power to resist tempta- 
tion to steal. Many women in high life are thus 
afflicted, and the disease is growing*. Unrestrained 
covetous thoughts may be mentioned as the great 
cause of kleptomania, and there is little sympathy 
for persons who allow themselves to run into this de- 
grading condition. Still this form of insanity may be 
manifested in little children who deserve great s}^m- 

Dypsomania is the uncontrollable impulse to delib- 
erately enter into a debauch. The condition is a pro- 
nounced disease of the brain, and persons thus afflicted 
should be sent to retreats or asylums and not cruelly 
forced into reformatories or prisons. 

Melancholia is an inability to keep the mind from 
brooding over gloomy thoughts or forebodings. Dis- 
appointments in love, grief over the death of friends 
or relatives, especially at the change of life, are fre- 
quent causes of melancholia. It is the most frequently 
curable form of insanity. 

Pyromania is manifested by an uncontrollable de- 
sire to start a conflagration. This form of insanity is 
frequently manifested in children. 

Other forms of insanity are named, according to their 
most prominent symptoms, and it very frequently be- 
comes difficult to exactly determine when a person is 
or is not insane, for an exact and impregnable defini- 
tion cannot be given of the disease. Insanity ex- 
perts, by long association with the insane, are apt to 
become convinced that all unusual acts are due to in- 
sanity, and they themselves would frequently be 
classed as insane under their own definitions. 

Treatment.— Violently insane persons, who manifest 
a tendency to do mischief, should be confined in asy- 
lums or retreats. They cannot be trusted, and in ad- 
dition to the burden their condition enforces upon the 
family, they are liable to inflict great sorrow and suf- 
fering by their abuse and perhaps homicide of some 
member of the family. 


Melancholia is distressing - , but gives hope for recov- 
ery. As long" as patients do not evince suicidal tend- 
encies they should be kept with relatives. Travel- 
ling", change of habits and surroundings, patience and 
careful nursing may accomplish much. Such persons 
cannot be argued out of their melancholy thoughts. 
It is best not to scold or laugh at their expressions, 
but to endeavor, without their knowing it, to turn 
their thoughts upon other subjects. Years may be 
necessary to overcome melancholy. 

Every case of insanity must be treated upon its in- 
dividual characteristics. The functional disturbances 
must be ascertained and properly attended to. Opi- 
ates and narcotics of all kinds must be positively for- 
bidden, and soothing nervines employed. Exercise 
must be provided if possible, and nothing but the 
greatest kindness shown upon all occasions. Frequent 
bathing, most nourishing and easily digested foods, 
fresh air, daily evacuations of the bowels and kind- 
ness may work wonders in cases of insanity. 


Wakefulness. Sleeplessness. 

Lying awake at night for hours may or may not be 
a serious matter. Worry, excitement and over-eating 
may cause sleeplessness without serious consequences 
for a time, though constant loss of sleep is always in- 
jurious. Just what constitutes a normal amount of 
sleep depends upon temperament and habit. Some of 
the greatest workers require but six hours while others 
need ten. Usually elderly women arise with the lark 
and are in no hurry to retire at night. 

When sleeplessness is not temporary, but occurs 
night after night, there is probably a disturbance of 
the nervous system which needs correcting. Habits 
often cause sleeplessness, such as sleeping in the chair 
immediately after supper, planning for the next day 
after retiring, or thinking of the past day's work. 
Often persons who claim to have " not slept at all," 
do sleep without being conscious of it. 



Treatment. — Never use opium preparations, bromides, 
chloral or narcotics in any form to overcome sleep- 
lessness; they will do far more injury than good. See 
to it that the causes mentioned are discontinued and 
if sleep is not obtained readily observe the following 
and select the most appropriate means . 

Take a walk after supper or engage in active con- 
versation or employment till bedtime. Indulge in a 
ten or fifteen minute bath in luke-warm water before 
retiring. Drink an infusion of lady-slipper and camo- 
mile at bedtime. Sleep with the head very high to 
prevent rush of blood to the head, or place a cold wet 
cloth on the forehead. Dismiss all thoughts from the 
mind; do not even think of the sleeplessness; let the 
mind be a blank, it can be done, and it is the very best 
method of procuring sleep; it is a self -hypnotism. A 
three-grain asafcetida pill taken an hour or later after 
supper will allay nervous irritability, likewise five- 
drop doses of fluid extract of valerian in anise water 
every half hour will be' beneficial. 

Intermittent Fever. — See article on Ague. 

Intussusception. — See obstruction of the bowels 
in the article on Bowel Troubles. 

Invagination. — A condition of the bowels where 
one portion telescopes into another and thereby cause 
obstruction and fatal results if not promptly relieved. 

Inverted Toenails. — See article on Onychia. 



This is an infection of the skin which for years went 
by the name of " seven years' itch, " on account of its 
apparent resistance to treatment. But since its na- 
ture became known it has become a simple thing to 
overcome. Its cause is a minute insect known as the 
itch mite (acarus scabies). This burrows beneath the 


skin where there is warmth and moisture or where the 
skin is thin. It is not found upon the face, but usu~ 
ally appears between the fingers, on the front of the 
forearm and wrists, in front of the elbows and occa- 
sionally on the genital organs. In children the but- 
tocks and feet are favorite localities. Itching is in- 
tolerable, especially at night, when the body is warm. 
Irritation and scratching cause the formation of pim- 
ples 5 wheals, pustules and crusts. 

Treatment. — Mix one drachm of sulphur with one 
ounce of vaseline and apply thoroughly over the skin, 
wear tight drawers, stockings and gloves night and 
day. Repeat the application every forty-eight hours 
three times. Too free use of sulphur causes rash. 
Before each application, thoroughly wash the body 
with tar soap. A few days will thus completely cure 
itch. Wash all clothing with boiling water, but 
clothing which cannot be washed must be ironed with 
a hot iron to destroy insects which may cling to them. 



Any disease which causes obstruction to the flow of 
bile through the ducts or suppresses the secretion of 
bile so that its ingredients enter into the circulation, 
may be a cause of jaundice. Atrophy, or congestion 
of the liver, malaria, tumors, cancers, some forms of 
intestinal diseases and various maladies may all give 
rise to the difficulty. 

Symptoms. — Yellowness of the skin is first noticed 
about the ears, and in the conjunctiva of the eyes and 
whites of the eyes. The tongue is yellow, and diges- 
tion disturbed, there is a bitter taste in the mouth, the 
bowels are constipated and the passages usually clay- 
colored. Diarrhoea may occur for a short time. Pulse 


rate is diminished, also the volume of blood through 
the arteries. The mind becomes melancholy. The 
perspiration and the urine may be tinged yellow and a 
slight and irritating eruption often makes its appear- 

Severe cases of long duration, tending to a fatal 
termination, give hemorrhages from the nose, stom- 
ach or bowels, perhaps dark and bloody urine, de- 
lirium, convulsions or stupor. 

Treatment. — Diet is important. Coffee and alcoholic 
liquors must be forbidden, exposures to cold must be 
avoided and precautions taken against excesses of all 
kinds. Lemonade and acid drinks and pure water in 
abundance may be allowed. Liquid diet is best, but 
all fatty substances must be excluded. Frequent bath- 
ing in warm water containing soda should be prac- 
ticed. The bowels may be moved by injection and by 
taking drinks of senna tea or salts, or large doses of 
aromatic syrup of rhubarb. Each night take a tea- 
spoonful of the following: Fluid extracts bitter root 
and cascara, each one-half ounce, in syrup of ginger, 
seven ounces. Before each meal an infusion of golden- 
seal and peach leaves is advisable. 

In chronic cases a small amount of fluid extract of 
juniper may be added to the compound gentian syrup, 
to be taken three times a day. When there is 
diarrhcea the neutralizing cordial is indicated. A few 
grains of hyposulphite of soda held in the mouth may 
lessen the bitter taste of the bile and prove otherwise 


Inflammation. Abscess. White Swelling. 

From injuries, exposures to cold and other causes, 
various joints of the body may become diseased, most 
commonly in the form of inflammation or suppuration. 

Synovitis. — Inflammation of a joint is called syno- 
vitis, and the symptoms are pain, swelling, heat and 
tenderness. There is usually feverishness and a puffy 


appearance in the region of the joint. Unless consti- 
tutional disease is present, such as scrofula or syph- 
ilis, recovery may be confidently expected. 

Treatment requires perfect rest, the joint being" fixed 
in one position by splints or otherwise. Cotton satu- 
rated with distilled extract of hamamelis should be 
applied and held in position by bandages. When the 
pain is intense and the swelling - great, with tenseness 
of the parts, hot fomentations of lobelia herb may be 
applied. The bowels must be kept open and a lig*ht 
diet allowed. Restlessness may require small doses 
of lady slipper infusion. 

Abscess of the joint is a severe difficulty, charac- 
terized by pain, heat, swelling and redness. Chills, 
followed by high fever, are common, and there is fluct- 
uation in the neighborhood of the joint. The limb be- 
comes fixed in one position and there is great danger 
of the use of the joint being" lost, causing" anchylosis. 
Blood-poisoning" may set in and endanger the life of 
the old or feeble. 

Treatment necessitates the service of a surg"eon to 
open the abscess and apply the proper bandages and 

White Swelling or scrofulous knee-joint is a severe 
difficulty which may last for years, causing" pain and 
swelling" and stiffness of the joint. Persons of scrof- 
ulous diathesis may provoke this condition by injudi- 
cious use of the joint or by injury to it. Blows and 
heavy falls upon the knee, and constant kneeling", as 
in scrubbing", are frequent causes of white swelling, 
especially in unhealthy persons. 

Treatment. — Surgical operations are sometimes nec- 
essary. Compound syrup of yellow dock (see formu- 
las) should be used internally, and stimulating lini- 
ment externally. The most nutritious diet should be 
provided, and every effort made to maintain nutrition 
and a healthy circulation. 



Venous Hyperaemia of the Kidneys. 

Exposure to cold or dampness and interference with 
venous circulation, as in liver troubles, injuries and 
the use of irritating - agents such as turpentine, Span- 
ish flies, saltpetre, etc., may cause congestion of the 

Symptoms. — The flow of urine diminishes, and upon 
standing a sediment is seen. There may be a sense of 
fullness and dull pain and tenderness in the region of 
the kidneys. Usually the symptoms of disturbances 
of the liver are well marked, such as sallowness, con- 
stipation and loss of appetite and dizziness. 

Treatment. — This difficulty of the kidneys is second- 
ary to other troubles which must be first relieved. As 
a rule the following will be found valuable: Take 
fluid extracts cascara, goldenseal and althea, each one- 
half ounce, in syrup of ginger for eight ounces. 
Dose, a teaspoonful after each meal. Let the patient 
drink freely of an infusion of mint and shepherd's 
purse. Rest in bed is usually imperative. Fomenta- 
tions of smart weed and mullein over the small of the 
back will give prompt relief. Diet must be nourish- 
ing but moderate in quantity. 



The kidneys may become inflamed by exposures to 
cold, or the use of irritating fluids internally, such as 
turpentine, Spanish flies, etc. In the course of scarlet 
fever desquamation may prove very irritating to the 
kidneys and be followed by nephritis. 

Symptoms. — These are pain and tenderness in the 
small of the back, sometimes extending to the groins 
and bladder, headache and feverishness, high-colored 
and scanty urine, often mingled with blood or pus. 


Following* back injuries such symptoms are bad, and 
in scarlet fever, dropsy is liable to follow. Conges- 
tion is liable to follow inflammation. 

Treatment. — If there is fever, give a strong" infusion 
of pleurisy root and marsh-mallow T s. In all cases pro- 
vide quietude and light food, allowing no tea, or coffee 
or meats. Over the small of the back rub equal parts 
of tinctures of lobelia and mullein. Internally use, 
every three hours, one-fourth of an infusion of shep- 
herd's purse, peach leaves and hollyhock flowers, each 
one ounce, in one quart of boiling water. If there is 
blood in the urine, add witch hazel leaves, and if there 
is pus, put in a small amount of myrrh. 


Addison's Disease. 

The supra-renal capsule, situated, as a sort of pro- 
tection, above the kidney, may undergo cheesy degen- 
eration, from causes not fully known; though it may 
follow injuries, or accompany cancer, tuberculosis and 
other diseases. It is a serious disease and is usually 
fatal within three months' time, though cases may 
live two or three years. 

Symptoms. — The premonitory signs are not marked. 
The general symptoms may include headache, pain in 
the back and about the stomach, persistent diarrhoea, 
dyspepsia and vomiting. Pulse is small and frequent. 
Great debility progresses, sometimes almost amount- 
ing to paralysis of the lower limbs. Pains of a rheu- 
matic character may be experienced, also delirium 
and convulsions toward the end. The most character- 
istic symptom of Addison's disease is discoloration of 
the skin. Spots appear over the body, of a dirty 
bronze color, often giving the appearance of a mu- 
latto, with the palms and soles white, and the nails 
and whites of the eyes pearly. The appearance is 
that of a "spotted man," though the spots may run 
together all over the body. 


Treatment must be for the alleviation of the symp- 
toms, and good nourishment, fresh air and other hygi- 
enic measures provided. 

Kidney Inflammation (Diffuse).— This is fully 
considered in the article on Bright 's Disease. 


Arterial Spasm. 

During pregnancy, cholera, tuberculosis, cancer, 
chlorosis and several other diseases, the arterial sup- 
ply to the kidneys is liable to be greatly interfered 
with at times. The symptoms may be trifling and con- 
fined to scantiness of urine and the presence of albu- 
men. But graver manifestations may occur, such as 
dropsical effusions beneath the skin, headache, diar- 
rhoea, and vomiting and convulsions, known during 
pregnancy as eclampsia. Ordinary cases require 
great attention to nutrition, and convulsions are 
treated by injections to the rectum of infusions of 
scullcap, lady-slipper and cramp bark. 


Ren Mobills. 

From various causes, such as injury, congestion, 
general weakness, difficult labor, hernia, tight lacing, 
decrease in flesh, etc., a kidney, especially the right 
one, may become loosened from its natural attach- 
ments and literally float about in the abdominal cav- 

Symptoms. — Various symptoms may present them- 
selves. Vomiting, clammy perspiration, scantiness of 
urine and occasionally presence of blood in the urine 
and distress in passing it may be noticed. Sometimes 
the kidney may be distinctly felt out of position, and 
pressure upon it will cause a sickening feeling. Hys- 
terical symptoms are apt to be manifested. 


Treatment consists of improving" the general health 
according" to the nature of the disturbances and re- 
moving the provoking - cause of the displacement. 
Surgical operations are often absolutely necessary. 


Cancer. Dropsy. Amyloid, Etc. 

Among the rare diseases of the kidneys may be 
mentioned tubercles, cancerous growths, cysts, dropsy, 
partial adherence of the two kidneys, known as horse- 
shoe kidney; absence of one of the kidneys, fatty 
kidney, obstruction of an artery, and waxy or amyloid 
kidney. These conditions require a perfect knowledge 
of diseases for their recognition. 


Renal Abscess. 

Injuries, gravel, blood poisoning and various other 
causes may result in suppuration of the kidneys or 
their lining membranes. 

The symptoms embrace severe pain in the small of 
the back, shooting to the thighs, bladder, urethra and 
testicles, accompanied by great tenderness. Chills 
are the first indication, followed by fever and prostra- 
tion. The urine is scanty and may contain blood, and 
when abscess in the kidney forms and bursts, pus may 
be present in the urine. The testicles are usually 
drawn up, and symptoms of uraemic poisoning may be 
present. Sometimes a large abscess forms in the kid- 
neys and bursts outwardly. 

Treatment must be energetic. Composition infusion 
containing goldenseal must be given freely, and when 
there are evidences of pus in the urine, tincture of 
myrrh should be added. The action of the skin must 
be maintained by vigorous rubbing and warm baths. 
Very nourishing foods must be provided. 


Kidney Tumors. — These are easily recognized by 
their size and shape in the region of the kidneys. 
They are immovable and cause varying- degrees of dis- 
turbances. Their removal by surgical operation is the 
only treatment available. 

Kink-Cough. — A term occasionally applied to 
whooping cough. 


Genu Valium. 

This is a deformity consisting of the bending of the 
knees inward. It is usually the result of rickets in 
children, or of too long standing, or carrying excess- 
ive burdens by people of weakened constitutions, es- 
pecially about the age of puberty (fourteen years). 
Many cases of knock-knee are cured in childhood by 
the application of splints or suitable apparatus man- 
ufactured by surgical instrument-makers. Operations 
of a difficult nature are occasionally resorted to. 

Kyphosis. — A disease of the spine where the spinal 
column in the lumbar region is bent backward. 


Inflammation of Larynx. 

Exposures to cold or dampness, inhalations of irri- 
tating vapors and over-use of the vocal organs may 
be causes of laryngitis; though various diseases or en- 
feebled conditions of the system may bring about the 

Symptoms. — Usually laryngitis is ushered in by the 
ordinary symptoms of acute catarrh, with feelings 


of irritation in the throat. The voice grows weak and 
may amount to nothing- more than a whisper; there will 
be a tickling" and dry cough and, in a short time, ex- 
pectoration of thin mucus, which, in prolonged cases, 
may contain blood or purulent material. 

In small children there may be nightly attacks of 
false croup. In most cases there is considerable dif- 
ficulty in swallowing", and sometimes difficult breath- 
ing", which, in severe cases, bring" about symptoms of 
threatened suffocation; and there may be great pale- 
ness, irregular pulse, stupor and death. The tissues 
about the vocal cords may become greatly swollen, 
causing oedema glottidis. In such a case the patient 
becomes livid and can scarcely breathe, grows cold 
and weak and, unless relieved, will die within a few 

Treatment.— Nearly all cases are easily managed. 
The bowels must be kept open with salts or senna. A 
gargle of raspberry leaves in infusion, containing a 
little borax, will be most useful. A flannel may be 
tied about the neck, saturated with some kind of mild 
liniment. Flax-seed tea, containing lemon and lico- 
rice, is soothing and pleasant. 

Severe cases need more vigorous treatment. Use a 
spray of eucalyptol and menthol in glycerine, or of 
tincture of myrrh and a little borax in infusion of 
goldenseal. Stimulating liniment should be applied 
to the outside of the throat and the feet should be 
frequently bathed in hot water containing vinegar. 
Broths, soups and milk should constitute the diet. 

Oedema Glottidis. — This is swelling about the vo- 
cal organs, and when it occurs life is in danger. Ad- 
minister at once a teaspoonful of tincture of kino, or 
of tannic acid infusion, and repeat in small doses 
every half hour. It may be necessary to administer 
by using the spray. Convalescence may be slow, and 
probably many days will elapse before the voice can 
be used as well and safely as formerly. CEdema glot- 
tidis may be caused by sudden compression of the 
throat resulting from accidental injuries. In all caseu 
action must be prompt or death will occur suddenly. 



Chronic Laryngeal Catarrh. 

Some persons who have neglected acute cases of 
laryngitis, or who are intemperate in eating or use to- 
bacco or alcoholic liquors, may be troubled with this 
chronic form of throat trouble, which is very annoy- 
ing and difficult to overcome. 

Symptoms. — These usually include extreme hoarse- 
ness of the voice or suppression of the voice to a 
muffled whisper, and a cracked sound to it when sing- 
ing; hacking and tickling cough and expectoration of 
small, jelly-like lumps of mucus. The condition may 
develop ulceration and possibly become malignant. 

Treatment. — This must be persistent and necessitates 
as much rest from using the voice as possible, prefer- 
rable removal to an equable and dry climate, nourish- 
ing food and some miid digestive tonic. Coltsfoot 
candy is excellent in place of lozenges. Goldenseal 
infusion mixed with witch hazel extract is an excellent 
spray. Fluid extract of collinsonia, one drachm, in two 
ounces of wild cherry syrup makes an excellent prep- 
aration. If the palate has fallen down touch it with 
dry tannic acid. 

Lead Colic. — See article on Painter's Colic. 


Elephantiasis Graecorum. 

This is one of the most ancient diseases, and is 
widely prevalent in Asia, Africa, the Sandwich Is- 
lands and many tropical countries. It is met in Lou- 
isiana, California and a few other States. The fright 
ful character of the disease makes it especially to 
be dreaded. Leprosy is not contagious unless virus 
enters into an abrasion. Its cause is not absolutely 
known, but it may possibly be accounted for by the 
fact that it is most prevalent where the poor subsist 


largely upon fish, which may be consumed as "left 
over" stock after failure to sell. 

Symptoms. — These vary in different cases. There 
may be small tumors over the skin, or reddish brown 
spots changing to white. Tubercles may appear upon 
the nose, ears, forehead and other places and undergo 
ulceration. Loss of sensation is common and decay 
of bones not infrequent — the ends of the toes and fin- 
gers sometimes dropping off from destruction. 

Treatment. — An ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure. Isolation of cases as they occur is 
most desirable. Many agents have been lauded as 
leprosy specifics, but none have proven to be such. 
Death of lepers usually comes in the form of maras- 
mus or exhaustion. Nourishing diet, most nutritious 
food, an abundance of fresh air in a bracing atmos- 
phere and tonics to aid intestinal digestion seem es- 

LeilCOrrhea. — See section on Diseases of Women. 


Increase of White Blood-Corpuscles. 

This difficulty is most common among men in active 
life who live in poor quarters and have insufficient or 
improper food; though it may be caused by diseases of 
the spleen or bones or other exhausting conditions. 

Symptoms. — Paleness and increasing weakness are 
early signs. The pulse is small and frequent, night 
sweats are common, the breathing is interfered with 
and dropsical conditions of the skin are frequent. 
The glands of the neck, groins and arm-pits become 
enlarged, and the spleen increases in size and may be 
extremely tender upon pressure. Hearing and eye- 
sight may become impaired. Sometimes the mouth 
and throat become inflamed, accompanied by thirst 
and loss of appetite. 


Treatment. — The disease is usually fatal; but life may 
be prolonged by nutritious diet and hygienic meas- 
ures. A capsule containing one grain each of sulphate 
of hydrastia, tartrate of iron and potassa and capsi- 
cum, given after each meal, will greatly aid intestinal 
digestion; a most desired factor. 

Pseudo-Leukaemia. — See Hodgkin's Disease. 



There are three kinds of these parasites which live 
upon the human body; they are called (1) head lice, or 
pediculosis capitis; (2) body lice, or pediculosis cor- 
poris; (3) crab lice, or pediculosis pubis. Their names 
describe their haunts, the crab lice dwelling in the 
hairs about the genital organs. Filth favors lice, so 
that cleanliness is of first importance. The most effi- 
cacious agent for destroying these parasites when they 
come in the hair is frequent saturations of the hair 
with kerosene oil. Vinegar will soften out the nits, 
all may then be removed by means of a fine-tooth 
comb. Body lice or "gray- backs" can be extermi- 
nated by boiling the clothing or subjecting it to a very 
high heat and having the unwelcome intruders picked 
off of the body. Childrens' heads if neglected are apt 
to become so infested with nits as to destroy the hair 
and compel its being removed. The diluted tincture 
of staphisagria is often employed effectively. Oint- 
ments recommended for the removal of lice usually 
contain corrosive sublimate, and while they produce 
the desired effect, they are otherwise dangerous and 
should not be used. 


Skin Papules. 

This is a skin disease characterized by irritating 
eruptions. Simple forms consist of reddened papules 
on the back of the neck or other parts of the body, 


lasting - four or five days and disappearing by scaling" 
off, often accompanied by slight fever and general dis- 
turbance. Sometimes the papules may become en- 
larged and coalesce, having" a purple or livid appear- 
ance, and extend over the body from the extremities, 
causing great itching - , and appearing" and disappearing 
for several months, proving very annoying and often 

Occasionally lichen manifests itself in a more severe 
form; the skin about the joints and the nails thickens 
as they are surrounded by the papules, which run to- 
gether and become filled with thick fluid, mingled with 
blood. Whenever scrofula is apparent the difficulty is 

Treatment. — The compound syrup of rumex (see 
formulas) must be given internally. Frequent baths 
in borax water must be taken, and a light diet and 
general hygienic measures enforced. Locally there 
should be applied a lotion of sulphur, one-half ounce, 
thoroughly shaken with seven ounces of glycerine. 


Suppurative Hepatitis. 

In nearly all cases, abscess of the liver is preceded 
by inflammation or congestion of that organ. There 
may be one or several points of ulceration, and they 
may discharge outwardly, or through the stomach, 
bowels or lungs, penetrating the diaphragm. The 
last method of discharge is most favorable, though it 
may last for many months, resembling consumption. 

Discharge into the abdominal cavity is usually fatal 
in a few days. 

Symptoms. — These may not be marked, but usually 
there will be frequent chills followed by fever, sharp 
pain and disturbed sensations in the region of the 
liver, bowels, stomach and right shoulder; there may 
be diarrhoea or dysentery and great debility; the pa- 
tient may lie in bed for weeks or months. 


Treatment— No medication will thwart an abscess of 
the liver. The strength must be maintained by care- 
ful diet; blood poisoning" guarded against by small 
doses of myrrh along with treatment for mild cases 
of congestion. Operation may be necessary, though 
when there is a tendency to outward opening it should 
be favored by poultices. Convalescence may extend 
over many months. 


Hob-Nail Liver. 


Excessive use of alcohol is the most frequent cause 
of this condition, though it may be a sequence of syph- 
ilis, consumption, malaria, etc. It is the result of 
chronic inflammation of the connective tissue of the 
entire organ. It is slow in developing and gives rise 
to various functional disturbances. 

Symptoms. — Indigestion, heartburn, belchings, coated 
tongue, constipation and occasional vomiting are 
prominent signs. The liver gradually diminishes in 
size and the skin becomes first pale and then decidedly 
sallow, dry and harsh. Strength and flesh are lost 
rapidly, the abdomen becomes distended and dropsy is 
apparent. Difficulty of breathing and palpitation and 
hemorrhages from the bowels occur in advanced cases. 

Treatment. — Tea, coffee, alcohol and spices must be 
forbidden. The bowels should be kept open with liver 
pills. Hot fomentations as advised for inflammation 
of the liver should be applied when there is pain. 
Hyposulphite of soda will relieve the nausea and vom- 
iting, and compound gentian syrup will be a suitable 
tonic. Diet must be very light and bathing frequent, 
and abundance of fresh air allowed. 


Torpid Liver. 

This form of liver trouble is extremely frequent and 
may be provoked by a variety of causes, among which 


may be mentioned, excessive eating-, associated with 
indolence; subjection to the unusual heat of a tropical 
climate, malaria, exposure to dampness and cold, and 
diseases of the heart and lung's. 

Symptoms. — Enlargement of the liver, which may be 
distinctly felt, is a prominent symj^tom; sallowness of 
the complexion, a furred tongue, loss of appetite, diz- 
ziness, frontal headache, constipation with occasional 
attacks of bilious diarrhoea, accompanied by bitter 
taste in the mouth, nausea and possibly vomiting are 
all characteristic of congestion of the liver. 

Severe and persistent cases may show jaundice, and 
occasionally dropsy. Melancholy and hypochondria 
are common. The skin may become dry and harsh and 
the urine scanty. Occasionally there will be pain un- 
der the shoulder blades, and not infrequently a "liver 
cough " of a hacking - character may prove very an- 
noying - . There is general lassitude and indisposition 
to mental or physical exertion. 

Treatment. — The use of tea and coffee and of alco- 
holic liquors must be forbidden, and fatty meats and 
rich condiments are not to be allowed. Whole wheat 
bread is best and a generous diet of vegetables and 
fruits, prunes, figs and oranges are especially desira- 
ble. Exercise in the open air must be taken with reg- 
ularity, and also baths with rubbings. Liver pills 
will relieve obstinate constipation. 

The following will be found a most valuable prep- 
aration for this difficulty: Fluid extracts of wahoo, 
cascara and butternut, each one-half ounce; tincture 
of capsicum, one drachm, in simple syrup for eight 
ounces. Dose, one teaspoonful after each meal. 

The compound gentian syrup (see formulas) is useful 
when the difficulty is of malarial origin or accompa- 
nied by intermittent attacks. Sulpho-saline waters 
are most valuable aids to treatment; and vapor or 
Turkish baths are of especial value. An over-loaded 
stomach with a foul tongue calls for a stimulating 




Fatty Defeneration. 

The most common cause of fatty liver is over-indul- 
gence in alcohol or fatty foods, or such as contain ex- 
cessive quantities of starch or sugar by persons of in- 
dolent natures inclined to obesity. But the condition 
may arise in connection with consumption or other 
wasting" diseases, or heart or lung- troubles which pre- 
vent proper blood aeration. There are seldom any 
marked symptoms, though disturbances of digestion 
are common, and diarrhoea of clay-colored stools and 
nausea and vomiting. The liver may be distinctly felt 
to be enlarged. Unless occurring as an accompani- 
ment of serious disease, waxy liver is seldom fatal. 

Treatment depends upon the cause. Those persons 
who indulge freely in sugars, starchy foods, fats and 
alcholic drinks must abandon such things, as well as 
tea and coffee. Saccharine, in very small quantities, 
is used as a substitute for sugar by many. The fol- 
lowing has been found most excellent: Fluid extracts 
of poke berries and cascara, each one ounce; saccha- 
rine, twenty grains. Dose, ten drops in water night 
and morning. Frequent bathing and out-door exercise 
are imperative. 


Echinococcus Tumor. 

This is a frightfully distressing malady, fortunately 
rare in this country, though not infrequent in the far 
north. It is developed by embryos of the tape-worm 
of the dog (taenia echinococcus). The eggs of this 
tape-worm may enter the stomach and bowels of hu- 
man beings and the embryos bore through the walls, 
establishing themselves in the liver. The cyst de- 
velops variously, and more than one may be present. 
The form known as multilocular may reach an enor- 
mous size, possibly eight inches in diameter. 


Symptom*. — There may be no marked signs of liver 
disturbance beyond enlargement, and this may be 
enormous, perhaps pressing upon the lungs and threat- 
ening suffocation, in which case relief may be obtained 
by the aspirating needle. Occasionally cysts burst 
and are discharged through the lungs or otherwise. 
The multilocular form usually suppurates and termi- 
nates fatally. 

Treatment. — Little can be done in the way of treat- 
ment beyond sustaining the general strength and di- 
recting medication to alleviate symptoms. Children 
often run great risk of acquiring this frightful malady 
by their companionship with dogs; possibly drinking 
after a pet animal or eating food it has licked, or al- 
lowing it to lick the lips, the egg of the echinococcus 
being thus conveyed to the stomach. 



Intemperate persons and excessive eaters, especially 
those living in warm climates and leading indolent 
lives, are most subject to inflammation of the liver, 
though it may be the result of malaria, following con- 
gestion of the liver, or of injuries in the region of the 

Symptoms. — These may include impairment of appe- 
tite, constipation and attacks of bilious diarrhoea; 
tenderness and pain in the region of the liver, some- 
times pleurisy pains in the chest, nausea or vomiting, 
and white fur on the tongue. Attacks of this charac- 
ter may be frequent and ushered in by chilliness and 
fever. Chronic congestion is likely to follow, and 
possibly abscess from improprieties. 

Treatment. — Unload the bowels by Seltzer Aperient 
or senna and salts. If fever is present give infusion 
of pleurisy root and boneset. Over the region of the 
liver apply a warm fomentation of mullein leaves, 
sprinkled over with pulverized wahoo and ginger. If 


the stomach is foul administer a stimulating - emetic 
(see Emetics). Keep the feet warm by frequently 
bathing them in hot water and vinegar and applying 
hot bricks. Acid drinks are usually acceptable and 
may be freely used. After-treatment must be as laid 
down for congestion of the liver. 


Waxy Defeneration of the Liver. 

This condition is always dependent upon previous 
disease, such as syphilis, ulceration, or wasting dis- 
eases. The liver becomes increased in size and its 
structure very dense. Some of the symptoms are 
great paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting and indigestion 
and progressive debility. The liver may be distinctly 
felt as enlarged, and the spleen is usually also en- 
larged, often causing disagreeable sensations of full- 
ness. Dropsy is most common, but jaundice is absent. 
Treatment must be such as will be favorable to the 
disease of which waxy liver is secondary. The treat- 
ment laid down for Anaemia will usually be found to 
be required. 


Falling Liver. 

The liver is held in its position by ligamentous at- 
tachments, which, under certain conditions, become 
elongated and allow the liver to fall low down in the 
abdominal cavity. Women of lax tissues who have 
passed through frequent pregnancies are the persons 
most liable to such a condition. Treatment consists 
in proper bandages to keep the organ approximately 
in position, and the administration of astringent tonics. 


Atrophia Flava. 

This is a rare difficulty, and is a rapid breaking- 
down of the liver cells by fatty degeneration and con- 


sequent diminution in size of the % liver itself. Preg- 
nancy and emotional or alcoholic excesses are most 
frequent causes. 

Symptoms. — During" the first few days, or possibly 
weeks, there is considerable disturbance and irritation 
of the stomach and bowels, accompanied by jaundice. 
Then nervous symptoms such as violent delirium, con- 
vulsions and stupor. The tongue and teeth become 
covered with dark "sordes," the bowels are inactive 
and the urine very scanty. Dark material may be 
vomited and hemorrhages from the nose and other 
parts of the body are common. Temperature may fall 
below normal. Breathing is irregular, and the heart's 
action greatly enfeebled. The pronounced symptoms 
rarely last over a week before death relieves the suf- 
fering - . 

l » 

Treatment is of little avail beyond relieving symp- 
toms as they occur. The bowels should be kept open 
by the use of liver pills, and the nervous system sus- 
tained by frequent enemas of scullcap infusion, to 
which tincture of myrrh may be added for its antisep- 
tic action. 


Tetanus. Trismus. 

This is a frightful condition, characterized by pain- 
ful and rigid contractions of various muscles of the 
body, including those of the jaws. The cause is al- 
most universally an injury. 

Symptoms. — These are stiffness of the neck and. at 
the back of the head, followed by painful spasm of 
the neck and muscles of the jaw, the mouth being 
firmly closed and swallowing painful. Breathing may 
become difficult, the muscles of the chest and dia- 
phragm becoming involved. The abdominal muscles 
may likewise contract, becoming hard and tense; the 
limbs may be stiffened and every muscle of the body 
undergo contraction upon the slightest excitement. 


The contractions come on spasmodically and are ex- 
tremely painful, often causing" hideous contortions of 
the face and body. These spasms are excited by 
merely touching" the patient, walking" across the room, 
slamming the door, loud talking" or other disturb- 

The suffering of lockjaw is intense, bringing about 
great exhaustion from loss of sleep, agony, anxiety 
and lack of nourishment. Death usually occurs 
within twelve days; though with proper treatment 
recovery may slowly follow, and may be hoped for 
should the patient survive two weeks after the symp- 
toms commence. 

Treatment. — Usually the wound will be found in a 
bad condition and will need arousing by poultices of 
flax-seed, covered with powdered myrrh and golden 
seal, and the adjacent tissues bathed with compound 
tincture of myrrh. Medication must be given by the 
bowels, and must be most vigorous. 

The following should be given every two hours with 
unfailing regularity: Lobelia herb and scullcap, each 
one teaspoonful, in half a pint of boiling starch water; 
steep, strain and inject into the rectum luke-warm, 
and have retained as long as possible. Malted milk 
or other nourishing liquid preparations may be placed 
between the clenched teeth and the cheeks, in tea- 
spoonful doses, and will usually find its way down the 

Liquid foods may be given by enema between the in- 
jections of the remedies mentioned. Perfect quietude 
must be secured, and an abundance of fresh air. 
Bathing would be beneficial were it not for the provo- 
cation of spasms, the avoidance of all exciting causes 
of which must be studied. Opium, chloral, brandy 
and similar agents are positively harmful. When 
lockjaw is confined to the muscles of the jaw it is 
termed trismus; when it involves the muscles of the 
whole body it is known as tetanus. 

Locomotor Ataxy.— See article on Ataxy. 


Long Sight. — Hypermetropia. — A flattened or short- 
ened condition of the eye-ball, which makes it possible 
to clearly see objects from a distance, while near ob- 
jects appear blurred. It is fully considered in the sec- 
tion on Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 

Lumbago. — Crick in the Back. — See article on Rheu- 
matism — Muscular. 


Chronic or Interstitial Pneumonia. 

This is a contracted or hardened condition of the 
lungs, the air vessels being - partially obliterated and 
the bronchial tubes dilated. It may follow pneumonia, 
bronchial dilatation, continued inhalations of mineral 
dust or other irritating substances, or it may arise 
during tuberculosis and prove sufficient to stop further 
advance of that disease and result in a cure. 

Symptoms. — At first no marked signs of cirrhosis will 
be noticed, but after the disease has advanced, promi- 
nent symptoms may be recognized. There will be ir- 
ritable cough, usually of a spasmodic character, caus- 
ing great effort and accompanied by the expectoration 
of stringy mucus. Shortness of breath, and dragging 
sensations and considerable pain in the sides will be 
experienced. Strength and flesh will gradually be 
lost, and there may be night sweats and pronounced 
anaemia. Persons suffering with tuberculosis will ex- 
perience relief and progressive improvement when in- 
duration or hardening of the lung becomes established. 

Treatment. — Fresh air, sunshine, cheerfulness, an 
equable temperature and all the surroundings neces- 
sary for consumptives, as well as the diet advised for 
them, will be beneficial. Cough must be treated as di- 
rected for bronchiectasis (bronchial dilatation). Ex- 
ertion must never be violent, as shortness of breath of 
a very annoying character is likely to follow. 



Uninflated Lung,. Atelectasis. 

This is a condition of absence of air in the lungs 
and may occur during" the course of certain diseases at 
any age, although it is usually met with in new-born 
infants or children under two years of age. In the 
latter cases congenital conditions or obstructions of 
the air passages prevent air getting into the lungs at 
certain parts. When atelectasis occurs during wast- 
ing disease, as typhoid fever, marasmus, chronic diar- 
rhoea, etc., it is due to loss of muscular power, or to 
long-continued lying on the back, preventing lung ex- 
pansion, or to diminished power of the nerves control- 
ling expansion. 

Symptoms. — The signs of lung collapse in new-born 
infants is given in the section on Maternity. In the 
course of disease the existence of atelectasis may be 
known by the apparent insufficienc}^ of breathing and 
the physical signs indicating absence of air in the 

Treatment. — In wasting diseases collapse may be 
guarded against by frequent changing of position and 
general observance of the rules of good nursing. A 
few drops of Lippia Mexicana or of Greek Valerian 
in water may be taken as an expectorant. The treat- 
ment of new-born children is given in the section on 


Pulmonary Hyperaemia. 

This is a crowding of blood upon the lungs. It may 
occur in the course of heart troubles, or it may be oc- 
casioned by irritating substances breathed into the 
lungs, or it may be a sequence of other difficulties, 
which crowd the vessels and force blood into the lungs. 
Usually it is the first stage of inflammatory lung 


Symptoms. — As a rule the direct symptoms are diffi- 
cult to distinguish, as they are usually those of inten- 
sified existing- symptoms. Difficult breathing- and a 
sense of constriction across the chest are most relia- 
ble sig-ns. 

Treatment.— Hot applications across the chest, bath- 
ing- the feet in hot water and the use of infusion of 
pleurisy root, and lady slipper infusion to promote out- 
ward circulation will be found beneficial in acute cases. 

Lung Emphysema. — Dilatation of the Air Vesicles. 
See article on Emphysema. 


Pneumonia. Inflammation of the Lun^s. 

This is a hig-hly dang-erous condition, sometimes 
known as pneumonitis, pleuro-pneumonia, inflamma- 
tion of the lungs or cong-estion of the lungs. It is the 
result of exposure to cold and consequent complete 
chilling of the surface, driving the blood inward upon 
the lungs, causing an excess of blood in the tissues of 
those organs, some of the blood exuding through the 
walls of the air-cells, thus filling them and causing 
exclusion of air from them. 

Equalizing the circulation may result in having this 
excess of blood in the lungs carried around in the gen- 
eral circulation. If not thus remedied, the blood con- 
tained in the air cells may undergo decomposition and 
become gangrenous, and thus cause death, or interfer- 
ence with proper aeration of the blood or exhaustion 
of the heart may prove fatal. 

The most frequent method of contracting pneumonia 
is exposure to cold and dampness for a great length of 
time and then suddenly coming into a hot and dry 
room. Children often suffer pneumonia from having 
the lower limbs exposed, especially during change- 
able weather. While the young, old and feeble are its 
most frequent victims, still the heartiest and most ro- 


bust men may succumb in a few days. Men of large 
chest expansion and of florid complexion, disposed to 
fleshiness, are very susceptible. 

Symptoms. — In nearly all cases there are premonitory 
signs, which, if heeded, give sufficient warning to al- 
low the attack to be averted by proper and prompt 
treatment. There will be chilliness and creepy sensa- 
tions along with slight feverishness. The least 
draft of air "cuts like a razor" and there is inabil- 
ity to get warm in any way. At night there will be 
achings through the joints, and hacking cough, which 
usually subsides by morning, leaving a slight indispo- 
sition attributed to "cold." 

At this stage, if steps are promptly taken, pneumo- 
nia may be averted; if not, the more serious symptoms 
will set in as follows: Sudden and prolonged chill, 
followed by painful breathing, headache and vomiting 
and possibly convulsions in children, and fever soon 
follows. There are sharp, lancinating pains in the re- 
gion of the nipple, greatly aggravated by coughing. 
Breathing is very short and shallow; in adults it soon 
reaches to thirty per minute, and in children forty-live 
or fifty. The temperature increases and may reach 
102° or even 106° in a couple of days. The pulse is 
usually full and strong at first, and may be about 100 
in an adult and much higher in children. A dry cough 
is persistent. There is great restlessness and sleep- 
lessness, and possibly delirium or convulsions in chil- 
dren. The appetite is lost early, the tongue becomes 
coated, white and dry, and there is constipation. 

In three or four days the cough apparently loosens 
and there is expectoration of tenacious and glary 
mucus, often streaked with blood. Breathing becomes 
difficult. The ribs are usually fixed while the muscles 
labor to perform respiration. The face becomes dusky 
in appearance and the whole surface of the body very 
hot. The patient prefers to lie on the back and be- 
comes exceedingly restless. The chest, when sounded 
by striking with the fingers, gives a solid sound, and 
placing the ear against the chest the obstructions to 
breathing may be readily recognized. The tongue be- 


comes exceedingly dry, and thirst is urgent and per- 

On the seventh or eighth day a turning point in the 
disease may be expected. If recovery is likely to fol- 
low, the pain abates, breathing grows easier, cough- 
ing is looser, a warm moisture is likely to occur, and 
sleep followed by a sense of relief upon awakening 
precede rapid improvement. 

Unfavorable symptoms commencing about the eighth 
day will be increase of fever, restlessness and pulse 
rate and number of respirations per minute, delirium, 
stupor, dark or dusky countenance and profuse per- 
spiration. Death usually occurs before the seventh 
day in fatal cases, and may be looked for when expec- 
toration is thin and dark, and the skin dusky or yel- 
low and the extremities cold and blue, while the body 
is very hot, breathing and pulse very rapid, and delir- 
ium or wandering of the mind. 

After the eighth day suppuration or abscesses may 
occur in the lungs, causing expectoration of pus and 
slow recovery. Possibly gangrene may set in, denoted 
by very offensive breath, pale and pinched features, 
great debility and weak and irregular pulse. Such 
cases very rarely recover. 

Old and feeble persons, or those suffering from 
chronic disease, may have a form of pneumonia known 
as typhoid pneumonia, which progresses slowly and 
is marked by great prostration and possibly tender- 
ness of the abdomen and diarrhoea, and the formation 
of brown crusts over the tongue and teeth and lips. 

Treatment. — This must in all cases be prompt and 
vigorous, and calculated to promote an outward cir- 
culation of blood at the same time that it sustains the 
heart's action. Quietude, good nursing and an 
equable temperature are of the greatest importance. 
A temperature of not over 70° should be maintained in 
the room during the day, and not lower than 66 c at 
night. Fresh air must be provided, although drafts 
are to be avoided. The air must likewise be moist; 
keeping a pan of water on the stove just warm 
enough to evaporate slowly is a good plan, and a few 


drops of spirits of turpentine may be occasionally 
added to the water. 

At the commencement of an attack severe symp- 
toms may possible be averted by early administering - , 
freely and frequently, an infusion of ginger and pleu- 
risy root, and bathing the feet in hot water. When the 
fever is on, this must be continued and scullcap added 
to the infusion. Water may be allowed in abundance, 
but it must not be cold. Stimulating liniment should 
be rubbed over the chest and flannel cloths wrung out 
of hot water applied frequently. The bowels should 
be moved gently by milk of magnesia, or similar mild 
preparations, and if there is great dryness of the skin 
warm sponge baths may be given. Milk may be given 
as food at this time. 

After the third day there will be need of sustaining 
the heart and nervous system. This may be done by 
adding scullcap to the infusion and also giving every 
three hours a capsule containing one grain each of 
capsicum and sulphate of hydrastia. Should the ex- 
tremities grow cold and the face blue, and the pulse 
weak and frequent, and the breathing rapid, the infu- 
sion should consist of ginger and blue cohosh with a 
little prickly ash bark, and the capsules continued. 
Hot cloths wrung from capsicum infusion should be fre- 
quently applied to the chest. Rubbing the chest with 
camphorated oil is of service, and injections of scull- 
cap and goldenseal will be useful in severe cases. 

During convalescence the syrup of wild cherry is 
excellent, and gentian compound for a tonic. Food 
must be nourishiug and light and given frequently in 
small amounts. Great caution must be exercised 
against too early exposure. 


Gnawing Ulcer. 

This is a destructive growth starting upon the skin 
and eating into the deeper tissues, resembling the bite 
of a wolf in appearance, hence its name (Iujjus, mean- 
ing wolf). It usually commences upon the face, and in 
many respects resembles cancer. It first causes a lit- 


tie hardened lump, underneath which softening" pro- 
gresses, and eventually there is a depression, often 
amounting - to a deep hole, the bottom of which is 
ashy gray and the edges thickened and angry looking. 
A case of lupus may slowly develop over a term of 
years and if neglected may cause great destruction 
before death ensues. 

Treatment. —The wisest thing that can be done is to 
perform early surgical operation and remove the de- 
generate structures. The system should be sustained 
and the treatment advised for scrofula vigorously ad- 
ministered. Externally, oxide of zinc ointment will 
be found serviceable, the parts being most carefully 
washed for renewed applications. No specific treat- 
ment can be laid down. It will be necessary to en- 
join exclusion of tea, coffee, alcohol and highly sea- 
soned foods, and to provide healthful surroundings 
and exercise in the fresh air. 

Inflammation of Lymphatic Glands. 

This condition usually arises from absorption of 
poisonous material from wounds or abscesses. It is 
recognized by a red streak following the chain of 
lymphatics, and hardening of the lymphatic cords, 
the limb being hot, swollen and tender. Usually an 
attack is ushered in by a chill, followed by rise of 
bodily temperature to possibly 105°. Unless pyaemia 
or general blood poisoning should set in lymphadenitis 
is seldom fatal. 

It must be treated by rest and light diet and the 
outward application of tincture of lobelia. The bow- 
els must be kept open; and when fever occurs it must 
be treated as laid down under the general remarks 
upon fever. 

Lymphangioma are dilatations of lymphatic ducts 
or glands, forming tumors. They may be small and 
very numerous and exert no unfavorable influence 
upon health. 


Lymphoma is the term used to designate a form of 
tumor involving the lymphatic glands, or the forma- 
tion of material resembling- lymphatic cells. See Tu- 

Mad-dog Bite. — See article on Hydrophobia. 

Malarial Fever. — Malaria. — A species of fever 
prevalent in countries poorly drained; undoubtedly 
caused by miasm of the atmosphere — malaria meaning 
bad air. It is fully considered in the article on Ague. 

Malignont Diseases. — Some diseases, among 
which may be named diphtheria, small-pox, scarlet 
fever, cancer, etc., assume a malignant form, in which 
there is a tendency to the breaking down of tissues 
and blood poisoning. To all such the term malignant 
is applied. 

Malignant Pustule. — See article on Charbon. 


Wasting Disease. 

This is a general and gradual wasting away of 
strength and flesh, which often occurs to children as 
the result of poor food, unhygienic surroundings and 
intestinal derangements. 

l &" 

Symptoms. — At first there will be no prominent symp- 
toms, but the child will become listless and then pale 
and weak and refuse to enter into play, and yet not 
complain of any disturbance. In time the body be- 
comes thinner and thinner, and resembles that of a 
consumptive. Weakening diarrhoea is often present, 
and sometimes a hacking cough and hectic fever. 

Treatment. — Fresh air in abundance, in the country, 
if possible, must be provided. The most nourishing 


food must be given, and plenty of it, such as broths or 
meat jellies, egg-nog, without alcohol, rich milk, 
malted food preparations, condensed milk, etc. The 
digestion maybe aided by small doses of peptenzyme 
after meals. A capsule containing tartrate of iron 
and sulphate of hydrastia, each one-half grain, taken 
between meals will be a sufficient tonic. Kindness 
and good nursing are imperative. 

Measles. — This is essentially a disease of child- 
hood, characterized by the general symptoms of a bad 
cold and catarrhal manifestations, with fever of a 
high grade and an eruption commencing on the face 
and extending over the body. It is simply managed 
and is seldom fatal, unless through imprudences. 
''Catching cold " during measles may cause very dan- 
gerous symptoms and sudden death, or may absorb 
the disease and lay the foundation for serious difficul- 
ties in after life. It is fully considered in the article 
on Measles, to be found under the title of Fever — 

Medinensis. — This is another name for Filaria; 
fully described in the article on Guinea Worm Disease. 

Melancholia. — A mental difficulty, caused by grief 
and anxiety and aggravated by liver troubles or dis- 
eases peculiar to women. A severe form of melan- 
cholia is classed as insanity, and is fully considered 
in the article on Insanity. 

Melanoderma is the term applied to darkened con- 
ditions of the skin, or parts of it, during pregnancy 
or other special conditions of the body. Intemperate 
persons often present such characteristics. 


Deposits of Dark Pigment. 

This a condition which may arise in the course of 
diseases involving degeneration of tissues, such as 


certain forms of cancer, Addison's disease, etc. Its 
characteristic is the discoloration of the skin by de- 
posits of pigment material. This discoloration may 
be dark brown or black, and may be very extensive; 
sometimes the whole body turns black and the person 
is regarded as "changing to a negro." Treatment 
must be according to the nature of the disease — usu- 
ally cancer. 

Membranous Croup. — This dangerous disease is 
essentially confined to childhood. It is fully consid- 
ered in the article on Croup — True. 

Meningitis. — Spotted Fever. — See article on Fever — 


Miliary Tuberculosis of the Brain. 

This is a deposit of minute tubercles (miliary) in the 
membranes of the brain. It rarely occurs in adult 
life, and is most common between the ages of two and 
seven years, and the adults attacked are usually be- 
tween twenty and thirty. Predisposition from hered- 
itary tendencies, unhygienic surroundings and im- 
proper food and clothing, and cigarette smoking in 
adults, may be named as causes of the difficulty. 

Symptoms. — While the tubercles are forming there 
may be no pronounced symptoms, though bad dreams, 
restlessness and irritability with irregularity of the 
bowels may be noticed. Soon characteristic signs ap- 
pear, such as headache, hectic fever, constipation, 
vomiting, stiff neck, head thrown back, abdomen 
drawn in, possible convulsions and evidence of pain 
in the head. This condition may last from two to four 
days, when symptoms of depression will be manifested, 
such as slow and irregular pulse, lowered temperature, 
tossing of the head, and drowsiness, rolling of the 
eyeballs, a pitiful, moaning cry, frequent convulsions, 


irregularity of breathing - , alternate coldness and 
slight feverishness, great weakness and emaciation. 

Paralysis may set in, also stupor, and, just before 
death, profuse cold perspiration and loss of sensibil- 
ity. The victim of tubercular meningitis is a pitiable 
object and a frightful sufferer. Death usually occurs 
within three weeks, during a convulsion or spell of 
smothering or choking. Some cases are prolonged a 
month, or even longer. Recovery is extremely rare, 
and death must be expected. 

Treatment. — This must be in accordance with the 
symptoms, though opiates must not be employed. In- 
jections of lobelia and lady slipper to the bowels are 
most soothing. The application to the head of cloths 
wrung out of cold water are very grateful. Diet must 
be extremely nourishing. Gelatin, egg-nog, without 
alcohol, malted milk, or other similar food prepara- 
tions are usually relished. Absolute quiet is impera- 
tive, and fresh air and cleanliness must be provided. 
Everything conceivable should be done to alleviate 
the suffering and quiet the irritability of the patient. 


Protrusion of the Brain. 

Sometimes children are born with imperfect devel- 
opment of the skull, allowing a protrusion or hernia 
of the membranes of the brain, termed meningocele. 
When a portion of the brain itself protrudes it is 
called enCephalocele. Such tumors are readily recog- 
nized and their treatment consists in applying a pad 
of soft cotton, wet with extract of witch hazel or 
other mild astringents, and held in place by secure 
bandage. Perfect recovery can hardly be expected. 

Menorrhagia. — Flooding. — An excessive flow at the 
menstrual period. See section on Diseases of Women. 

Menstrual Disorders. — These are fully considered 
in the section on Diseases of Women. 



Menta^ra. — Barbers' Itch. — See the article on Bar- 
bers' Itch. 

Metritis. — Inflammation of the substance of the 

Metrorrhagia. — This is hemorrhage from the womb. 
It is fully considered in the section on Diseases of 


Sweat Blisters. 

This is the formation upon the skin, principally over 
the abdomen, of very minute blisters containing" sweat, 
and may occur during the course of an acute disease 
accompanied by profuse perspiration. The bursting 
of the blisters may cause irritating and smarting sen- 
sations, in which case, bathing the parts with soda 
water will give relief. Special treatment is unnec- 

Migraine. — See article on Headache. 
Milk Crust. — See article on Eczema. 


Third Day Fever of Confinement. 

The flow of milk in the breasts of women in confine- 
ment does not naturally commence until the third day 
after delivery. Its establishment is frequently char- 
acterized by " milk fever. ' ' This is ushered in by dis- 
tinct chilliness and nervous sensations, often causing 
the belief that child-bed fever is threatened; soon the 
temperature begins to rise and there may be consider- 
able flushing of the face. The breasts become pale 
and filled, and withdrawing the milk gives relief. 


Treatment. — Small doses of infusion of camomile and 
lady slipper will be found sufficient medication. Fee- 
ble persons, and those who take insufficient nourish- 
ment after delivery are the most frequent sufferers 
from milk fever. The difficulty is transient, and 
should not be considered as important as was formerly 
supposed. Many women are not troubled by it. 

Milk Leg** — Phlegmasia Dolens. — A condition liable 
to occur to weak women during - confinement. See sec- 
tion on Diseases of Women. 


Poison from Improper Milk. 

In some sections of the country, the milk of cows 
frequently becomes poisonous presumably on account 
of poisonous plants being* eaten. Such milk renders 
butter and cheese also harmful, though very rarely 
produces fatal results. 

Symptoms. — As a rule, before the full attack mani- 
fests itself, there will be feeling's of debility, loss of 
appetite, etc., followed by retching and vomiting - , 
headache, intense thirst, constipation and very offen- 
sive breath, and sometimes high fever. 

Treatment. — If the attack comes on suddenly, first 
give an emetic, and in all cases administer an infusion 
of senna leaves containing a dose of Rochelle salts, 
and repeat each evening. 

Monomania. — A condition of the brain which 
causes a person to dwell constantly and peculiarly 
upon one class of thoughts. See the article on In- 

Morbilli. — Measles, — See article on Fevers (eruptive) 
— Measles. 



Inflammation of the Sebaceous Glands. 

This is an affection of the sebaceous glands of the 
skin, contagious in character, thought to be caused by 
a parasite, and occurring most frequently among chil- 

Symptoms. — It commences as a hard, white swelling, 
very small and glistening; and increases to the size of 
a pea, or possibly larger. It may have a sort of neck 
and the top of it be flattened, in the center of which 
will be found a small opening of a sebaceous gland. 
Squeezing the tumor will cause a milky fluid to exude. 
After the tumor has been evacuated it shrivels into a 
wart or horny process. Molluscum may occur upon 
an}^ part of the body, but most frequently on the face, 
breasts, arms and limbs. It may appear singly or in 

Treatment. — This is simple, and consists in lancing 
the tumor across its face, evacuating the contents, and 
applying some healing lotion or salve, such as witch 
hazel ointment. They are readily recognized and sel- 
dom reappear. 

Morbus Coxae. — See article on Hip Disease. 


Skin Stains. 

This is a rare disease of the skin, characterized by 
the appearance of yellowish, lilac or violet spots, two 
or more inches in diameter, on various parts of the 
body. They burn and tingle and cause rigidity of the 
skin, interfering with muscular action, especially if 
they are situated near joints or over muscles fre- 
quently used. They may last for years and then grad- 
ually disappear. Usually they leave scars and 
shrunken spots. Local treatment is useless. The 
compound syrup of gentian (see formulas) is indica- 
tive of the best tonic treatment. 


Motes. — Muscoe Volitantes. — These are dark specks 
floating - before the eyes. They usually indicate dis- 
turbances of the nervous system or irritations of the 
brain, and are not to be regarded as denoting serious 

Mouth Diseases. — The mouth is liable to suffer 
various troubles, mostly diseases of the mucous mem- 
brane. These are mentioned in the articles on Canker 
of the Mouth, Thrush or Sprue and Nursing Sore 


Inflammation of Parotid Gland. Parotitis. 

This is essentially a disease of childhood, although 
adults are sometimes affected. It is an inflammation 
of the parotid gland, at the angle of the jaw, which 
may extend to other glands, and may be upon one or 
both sides. 

Symptoms. — These usually commence two or three 
weeks after exposure, the disease being infectious, 
and are slight fever, coated tongue, disturbances of 
digestion and irregularity of the bowels. There is 
stiffness of the jaw and some difficulty of swallowing. 
Acids in the mouth cause considerable pain. 

Swelling soon commences at the angle of the jaw, 
usually the left one first, and extends until the whole 
side of the face protrudes. The swelling is elastic, 
though somewhat hard toward the center. There is 
tenderness upon pressure and occasionally redness. 
The duration of the swelling is usually about a week. 
Talking, yawning and swallowing are difficult, masti- 
cation is painful, and occasionally there may be deaf- 
ness and humming sounds in the ears. 

Sometimes, through neglect, such as taking cold or 
exposure to inclement weather, abscess of the gland 
occurs. More frequently the mumps are "translated, " 
or as it is commonly expressed " go down. '' Females 
thus may have the breasts or ovaries enlarged, and 
males may have the testicles enlarge to great size. In 


very rare cases the brain becomes involved, causing" 
great danger. But almost universally mumps result 
in recovery. 

Treatment. — Provide light diet and move the bowels 
gently. Keep indoors unless the weather is warm; 
avoid draughts. Tie a handkerchief loosely over the 
swollen parts after bathing them with a liniment of 
equal parts of fluid extract of verbascum and lobelia. 
Should they be translated, warm baths morning and 
night, with thorough rubbing, and frequent drinking 
of ginger tea, or other diffusive, will be sufficient. 
Delicate children may be nervous for some time after 
an attack of mumps and may require frequent and 
small doses of infusion of scullcap. 

Muscular Rheumatism.— Lumbago. — See the arti- 
cle on Rheumatism. 

Myalgia. — See article on Rheumatism — Muscular. 

Mydriasis, — See section on Eye Diseases. 

Myocarditis. — See article on Heart Diseases. 

Myodynia. — Lumbago. — Another name for Muscular 
Rheumatism (which see). 

Myoma. — Theoretically this is a form of tumor con- 

sisting of muscular cells, associated with fibrous 

Myopia. — Short Sightedness. — See section on Dis- 
eases of the Eye. 

Myosis. — See section on Eye Diseases. 

Mysophobia. — A morbid fear of becoming contam- 
inated by contact or association with diseased persons. 


False Dropsy. 

Women who have reached middle life are occasion- 
ally subject to peculiar deposits of mucus-like sub- 
stances in the skin without apparent cause. There 
will be puffiness of the eyelids, swelling's of the fin- 
ers and toes, lips and nostrils, and possibly of the 
arms and limbs very closely resembling" dropsy, al- 
though not leaving indentations on pressure, and 
lacking* the doughy feeling of dropsy. 

Usually there is redness and fullness of the capilla- 
ries over the cheek bones. Along with these physical 
signs will be progressive mental debility. The mem- 
ory fails, and hearing and vision are disturbed, hallu- 
cinations are common, insomnia becomes pronounced 
and insanity may result, accompanied by great physi- 
cal weakness. 

Treatment. — This has proven of little avail. A nour- 
ishing diet, hygienic surroundings and a change of 
habits and climate are most advantageous. The com- 
pound syrup of Mitchella (see formulas) will be found 
useful as a general tonic. 


Vascular Tumors. 

These are tumors which are made up almost en- 
tirely of minute blood vessels or capillaries. They 
are usually congenital or develop in early childhood. 
They are soft and compressible and of small size, usu- 
ally of wine color (hence the name '' port- wine mark ' 
applied to some of them). They mostly occur on the 
scalp or tongue, and between muscles. They seldom 
develop after birth, but should they do so they may 
attain sufficient size to interfere with the performance 
of functions. Removal by surgical operation is the 
only effectual means of treatment. 




Ingrowing Toe-Nail. — By pressure from tight shoes 
or by not cutting' the toe nails squarely, the flesh at 
the sides of the toe-nails (especially the big toes) may 
overgrow the nail and become extremely sensitive. 
Rest is imperative in bad cases, though usually a 
broad slipper will afford sufficient relief from pres- 
sure. Do not cut the nail, as often recommended, but 
insert between the edge of the nail and the over- 
growing flesh, a small piece of cotton saturated with 
witch hazel ointment. Poultices of flaxseed covered 
with goldenseal and powdered lobelia herb may be 
necessary in severe cases. Occasionally the nail must 
be removed. 

Onychia. — Scrofulous persons or those in bad 
health may suffer from ulceration about the roots of 
the nails, causing foul discharges and intense pain, 
and blackening and peeling off of the nail. Injuries 
may produce similar conditions. Treatment necessi- 
tates removal of the nail and carrying the hand in a 
sling. Internally, tonics will be required. Locally, 
the Black Salve (see formulas) is the most beneficial 

Psoriasis is a thickening of the central portion of 
the nail and consequent peeling off in layers; the skin 
at the bottom of the nail is loose and ragged, and the 
whole nail is roughened. Usually the blood will be 
found disordered, requiring compound syrup of fumex 
or similar alternative. Locally, witchj hazel salve 
should be applied. 

Nasal Polypus. — Tumors, soft or hard, may de- 
velop in the nasal passage and develop to considerable 
size, causing great annoyance and interfering with 
respiration. They are fully considered in the article 
on Polypus. 

Neck Injuries. — See the article on Sprains and the 
section on Dislocations and Fractures. 


Necrosis. — See article on Bone Diseases. 

Nephritis. — Inflammation of the Kidneys. — See the 
article on Kidney Diseases. 


Traumatic Neurosis. 

Injuries to the nerves, especially to the spinal cord, 
brought about by falls, blows, railroad accidents and 
various other means, often give severe nervous symp- 
toms, besides the general class of symptoms known as 
shock, described elsewhere. There may be headache, 
sleeplessness, failing eyesight, rumbling sounds in the 
ears, progressive debility, heart irregularities and 
perhaps mental hallucinations or uncontrollable imag- 
inations. These symptoms may develop long after all 
supposed effects of the injury have disappeared. 
Treatment consists in perfect rest and light diet, 
massage and frequent cold water packs along the 
spine. The nerve tonic (see formulas) should be used 
twice daily. 

Nervous Debility . — See special article in the sec- 
tion on Diseases of the Generative Organs. 

Nervous Prostration. — See article on Prostration 
of the Nervous System. 

Nettle Rash. — Urticaria. — See article on Hives. 


Paroxysmal Pain from Nerve Irritations. 

This may be described as acute paroxysms of in- 
tense pain confined to some special region of the 
body, and should be considered according to the part 

Tic douloureux or trigeminal neuralgia, also 
known as facial neuralgia, usually involves but one 


side of the face, and most commonly the pain is felt 
over the eyebrow or through the temple or cheek. 
Paroxysms may last but a few seconds at a time, but 
be very intense in character and cause twitchings of 
the muscles of the region involved. Attacks are fre- 
quently preceded by tingling sensations and sometimes 
by chills and perspirations (known as brow-ague). Ex- 
citement, or fatigue, or drafts of air, or exposure 
to heat, cold or dampness, or decayed teeth may be 
exciting causes of neuralgia. Usually there will be 
found back of the trouble some derangement of the sys- 
tem or functional trouble. In this connection may be 
mentioned stomach or liver troubles, menstrual diffi- 
culties, malaria, improper food or clothing, and unhy- 
gienic surroundings and bad habits. 

Treatment.- — The removal of the predisposing clause 
is of first importance and medication must be directed 
accordingly. The exciting causes must be avoided — 
an equable temperature being desirable, and drafts, 
exposures and dampness must be guarded against. 
The wearing of woolen underclothes, varying in 
weight according to the season, is advisable. Farin- 
aceous foods, fruits and vegetables are the best foods. 
Tea, coffee and alcoholic drinks are injurious. 

During an attack rub over the parts freely stimulat- 
ing liniment, and then apply to the temple a hot fo- 
mentation of mullein leaves and lobelia herb and keep 
in place by a flannel bandage. Local applications of 
laudanum or other opium preparations will give tem- 
porary relief, but they should not be employed as they 
do permanent harm. 

Internally administer an infusion of lady slipper, 
scullcap and black cohosh in teaspoonful doses every 
hour. Bathe the feet in hot water containing vinegar 
and capsicum. If there is any malarial tendency a 
few drops of fluid extract of gentian should be given 
in water every three hours. Keep the bowels open 
with liver pills, and correct acidity of the stomach by 
neutralizing cordial. 

Intercostal Neuralgia is characterized by parox- 
ysms of pain in the region of the chest, and may ex- 


tend from the collar bone to the hips, usually on the 
left side, and often the slightest movement may cause 
severe pain. Its causes may be the same as those 
designated under facial neuralgia, though it is fre- 
quently associated with lung troubles. Treatment is 
similar to that for facial neuralgia. 

Neuralgia of the Breasts. — Mastodynia. — This is 
common among young women, and often gives rise to 
great anxiety least cancer is forming. Sometimes it is 
associated with menstrual disorders or too long nurs- 
ing. Besides the treatment given for facia] neuralgia, 
mustard plasters are especially favorable in this con- 

Occipital Neuralgia involves the back of the neck 
and may extend to the top of the head. 

Sciatic Neuralgia is a very common trouble. It is 
described and treated under Sciatica. 

Spermatic Neuralgia is characterized by agonizing 
pain in the testicles and along the spermatic nerve. 
It is usually caused by sexual excesses. 

In all forms of neuralgia the application of elec- 
tricity affords relief, and its persistent use often re- 
sults in permanent recovery. 


Bad Dreams. Ni^ht-Mare. 

All persons are subject to night-mare after eating 
improperly at the evening meal, the distended stom- 
ach pressing upon the plexus of nerves and causing 
the sympathetic disturbance. In such cases an ounce 
of prevention is worth a pound of cure. 

Children are sometimes troubled by night terrors 
without apparent cause. A little child may cry out in 
terror during the night and appear slightly delirious, 
apparently imagining the presence of harmful objects 


or persons. Parents sometimes become alarmed at 
such demonstrations; but unless they are allowed to 
continue constantly they are of little consequence. 

Gently lift the child from bed, and in soothing 
words quiet its fears. Passing the hand gently over 
the forehead or placing a damp cloth on the head will 
usually cause the child to fully awaken. As a rule 
there can be traced disturbances of the bowels or 
stomach as the origin of night terrors. 


Cracked and Sore Nipples. 

Nursing women often have their nipples become ex- 
tremely tender, or even cracked, bleeding or excori- 
ated. Too frequent nursing, or possibly disease of 
the mucous membrane of the child's mouth, may cause 
the trouble. 

Treatment is often difficult unless the child can be re- 
fused nurse, which is often inadvisable. The simplest 
application is an infusion of strong boiled tea con- 
taining borax. Witch hazel salve is excellent, or an 
ointment may be made by thoroughly incorporating a 
drachm of tannic acid in an ounce of vaseline. The 
nipples should be thoroughly cleansed of all such 
preparations before nursing and wiped very dry after 
the child has finished. 


Depressed and Retracted. 

Frequently women have their nipples depressed or 
on a level with the breasts, which becomes a matter of 
concern at confinement. The breast pump should be 
applied, and after suction is made, be allowed to re- 
main half an hour or more. A common and handy 
method is to heat glass fruit jars and place one over 
each breast until cool. When the nipple is flacid an 
infusion of bayberry bark may be used to advantage. 



Sometimes through too strong suction of the child, 
or through exposure or accumulations of dirt, the nip- 
ples may become inflamed and swollen and perhaps 

For simple cases the application of witch hazel ex- 
tract will be sufficient. Severe cases may need poul- 
tices of flaxseed, and evacuation of pus which is lia- 
ble to form at the tips of the nipples. 


Mucous Ulceration of the Genitals. 

Female children occasionally suffer from a low 
grade of ulceration of the mucous membranes of the 
genitals. Bad surroundings, filth and improper food, 
together with irritation, cause it. There will be a low 
grade of inflammation and the formation of numerous 
spots of grayish ulceration. Extensive sloughing 
may occur, and death may possibly result after the 
system has become greatly debilitated. 

Treatment must be vigorous. The providing of most 
nourishing diet and fresh air and hygienic surround- 
ings must be considered as imperative. Locally, poul- 
tices of flaxseed sprinkled with powdered myrrh and 
golden seal must be frequently applied. 

Internally, there should be given frequent drinks of 
composition infusion, and also small doses of com- 
pound syrup of rumex (see formulas). The discharges 
from the ulcers are poisonous and care must be exer- 
cised in dressing and washing the parts. The disease 
is closely allied to cancrum oris. 

Nose Diseases. — The nose is subject to many acci- 
dents and diseases. They are fully described in the 
articles on Acne Rosacea, Cancer, Catarrh (Ozena), 
Frost Bites, etc. 



Ni£ht Vision. 

To some this peculiar condition is known as "owl- 
sight. " It is a disease caused by nervous irritation, 
characterized by inability to see during- the day time 
and ability to see during the night. Both eyes are 
affected, and the duration of the peculiar condition is 
uncertain. Some are born thus and never recover. 

Treatment must be based upon soothing the nerves, 
wearing smoked glasses and slowly accustoming the 
eyes to stronger light. If there is general weakness, 
as is common, the system must be built up by tonics 
and nourishing food and hygienic surroundings. 
Counter-irritation is frequently made over the tem- 

Excessive Sexual Desire. 

In very rare instances women become possessed of 
an almost uncontrollable desire for sexual intercourse. 
In some cases this becomes a mania and restraint is 
necessary to prevent indecent attempts to secure grat- 
ification. With some this condition is periodical with 
menstruation. Lack of cleanliness during menstrua- 
tion, masturbation, enlargement of the clitoris, or its 
covering, or of the inner labia, and ovarian irritation 
may be causes. 

*- Treatment. — The mind should be employed so as to 
turn the thoughts upon other subjects. The diet 
should be light; coffee, tea and alcoholic liquors 
should be denied, and fresh air and out-door exercise 
should be provided. Cold sitz baths are excellent, 
and occasionally it becomes necessary to remove the 
prepuce or covering of the clitoris, or even the clitoris 
itself. Ten-drop doses of fluid extract of scullcap in 
water three times a day is probably the best agent to 
physiologically subdue abnormal sexual desire. The 
trouble is one that can be overcome only by careful 
and persistent management. 



Spasm of the Gullet. 

Sometimes persons of excitable or nervous temper- 
aments, or those suffering" from various forms of nerv- 
ous diseases, experience great difficulty in swallowing" 
on account of spasm of the gullet (oesophagus). With 
some this is provoked by drinking too freely or by 
swallowing too large mouthfuls of either solids or 
liquids. The sensation is that of choking, and usually 
subsides in a few minutes; but is desperately annoy- 
ing while it lasts. 

Treatment. — Turning the mind upon other thoughts 
while eating or drinking will often suffice to overcome 
the trouble when due wholly to excitability. Persons 
whose nerves are "unstrung " should use the Nervine 
Tonic (see formulas) ; and when cesophagismus is the 
result of serious nervous disorders it can be cured 
only as such conditions are remedied. The eating of 
starchy foods, or of substances which form a mass 
when mixed with the saliva often causes these chok- 
ing sensations in the gullet. 

Oesophagus Stricture.— As the result of injuries, 
swallowing poisons, very hot substances, ulceration, 
cancer and various diseases, the gullet may become 
contracted by stricture, and interfere with, even if 
not wholly prevent, swallowing. Starvation may fol- 
low such a condition. The careful introduction of a 
bougie will reveal the true state of affairs. If caused 
by pressure of tumors or other removable conditions, 
recovery may be possible. Most cases are fatal, and 
life may need to be sustained by enemas of food. 

Oionomania. — See article on Alcoholism. 

Onychia. — See article on Nail Diseases. 

Ophthalmia. — This is inflammation of the con- 
junctiva, and is fully considered in the section on Dis- 
eases of the Eye. 


Orchitis. — See section on Diseases of the Gener- 
ative Organs. 

Osteo-Myelitis. — See article on Bone Diseases. 

Osteotomy. — This is the division of a bone and the 
removal of a portion of it; frequently resorted to for 
overcoming deformities. 

Ostitis. — Inflammation of the Bones. — See the article 
on Bone Diseases. 

Otorrhea. — Running of the Ear. — -This is usually the 
result of inflammation from injuries or diseases; and 
frequently occurs in scrofulous persons. 

Ovarian Diseases. — The ovaries are subject to 
many diseases, such as inflammation, hypertrophy, 
atrophy, dropsy (ovarian tumors), etc. They are all 
fully considered in the section on Diseases of Women. 

Ozena. — This is a purulent and offensive form of 
catarrh. See the article on Catarrh. 


Lead Colic. Saturnism. 

In various wa,y& lead may enter the system and 
cause degeneration of tissues wherever it is deposited, 
the nerves and muscles being chiefly affected through 
impairment of nutrition. Persons who handle the 
metal or its salts, and painters and white lead workers 
are chiefly affected, though the metal may be inhaled 
from newly painted walls, or it may be absorbed from 
lead ointments on the skin, and it may enter the sys- 
tem through the stomach by the use of contaminated 
water — rain water being easily contaminated by pass- 
ing through lead pipes. 


Symptoms. — There is constipation, nausea or vomit- 
ing - , hiccough and belchings, spells of colic with 
drawing in of the abdomen, disturbances of vision, 
and perhaps trembling or partial paralysis, especially 
of the arms or wrists. There will be great paleness 
and dryness of the skin, the breath will be offensive 
and the gums blue and the teeth darkened. 

Treatment. — Colic must be treated as ordinary forms 
of the trouble. Iodide of potash is useful — not as a 
remedy, but as a chemical agent — lead forming with it 
a soluble compound which is eliminated from the sys- 
tem with the urine. Hygienic observances are very 
necessary. Great care should be taken against inhal- 
ing or otherwise introducing lead into the system. 
After handling lead or paint the hands and nails should 
be thoroughly cleaned before eating, and very soft 
water should never be used for drinking purposes 
after it has stood in lead pipes any length of time. 
The free use of milk and the employment of sulphur 
baths will prove beneficial. 


Relaxation of the Uvula. 

From cold and various other causes the uvula, usu- 
ally known as the palate, becomes elongated and 
hangs down, touching the back of the tongue, giving 
rise to a tickling sensation which provokes coughing. 
The use of astringent gargles, such as of raspberry 
leaves or bayberry bark will usually be sufficient to 
afford relief. 

Obstinate cases should be treated by touching the 
pendant uvula with dry tannic acid or powdered wild 
cherry bark, which may be placed upon the end of a 
knife-blade and thus conveyed to the part. Occasion- 
ally this falling of the palate is so persistent that it 
can be permanently relieved only by cutting off a por- 
tion of the uvula with an instrument made especially 
for the purpose. 

Palate — Cleft. — See article on Hare-Lip. 



Palate Ulceration. — This occasionally occurs dur- 
ing" certain diseases, chiefly syphilis, and must be 
treated accordingly. 

Palpitation. —Tachycardia. — This is fully considered 
in the article on Heart Palpitation. 

Shaking Palsy. Paralysis Agitans. 

The chief characteristic of palsy is trembling of the 
limbs, chiefly the arms. The sufferer is unable to con- 
trol the trembling' except by holding - the limb. The 
difficulty of itself is not fatal, but its duration may 
extend over many years and prove very annoying - . 

The causes of palsy may be various, such as great 
mental or nervous strain, anxiety, excessive labor or 
physical strain or fatigue, the result of poisoning - by 
alcohol, stramonium, opium, etc. 

Treatment. — There is no specific treatment for palsy. 
Seek out the cause and remove it if possible, employ 
frequent baths with friction; avoid strains and excess 
of mind and body; use a most nourishing diet and 
keep the mind cheerful and the surroundings pleasant. 
A cure is occasionally affected when the cause is ab- 
solutely known and it is possible to act accordingly. 


Inflammation. Softening. Degeneration, Etc. 

The Pancreas is the human "sweet bread " and its 
secretion (pancreatic juice) plays an important part in 
the digestion of food within the intestines, and any 
disease or derangement of the pancreas necessarily 
interferes with perfect digestion. 

Inflammation, softening, hardening, fatty degener- 
ation, calculi, cysts and malignant diseases of the 
pancreas may occur. Usually the symptoms are very 
obscure and are concealed by the symptoms of other 
forms of diseases generally present at the same time. 


Deficiency of pancreatic juice is a frequent cause of 
intestinal indigestion, giving a sense of uneasiness 
and possibly pain just beneath the stomach a couple 
of hours after meals. Pancreatin is a preparation 
useful in such cases. Peptenzyme is likewise most 
beneficial taken in the form of elixir. Dose, a tea- 
spoonful or more half an hour after meals. 

Parageusia or perversion of the sense of taste is 
not uncommon among insane or even hysterical per- 
sons. Inability to recognize sweet from sour is prob- 
ably a most aggravated form. 


Paraplegia. Hemiplegia. Palsy, Etc. 

Under the general term of paralysis are classed 
various conditions which involve inability, partial or 
complete, to control various muscles of the body. 
It may be caused by nerve diseases, muscular strains, 
excesses, poisoning, scarlet fever, diphtheria, menin- 
gitis, etc. Paralysis may also be the result of apo- 
plexy, or softening of the brain, or of injuries. It 
may affect almost any part of the body and render 
various actions impossible. 

Paraplegia is paralysis of the lower limbs and 
possibly also of the muscles of the bladder and rectum. 
It is the result of disease or injury of the spinal cord, 
sometimes involving the brain. It nearly always oc- 
curs suddenly, heralded by pain in the back and ting- 
ling and numbness, soon followed by partial or com- 
plete loss of pow T er. 

In some cases, especially when it is secondary to 
previous constitutional disease such as syphilis, para- 
plegia may cause sudden and complete paralysis of 
the whole lower half of the body. Usually muscular 
inability is progressive and accompanied with cramps, 
pains and twitchings of the muscles. The sufferer 
loses all control of the bladder and rectum, and when 
these are full their contents are slowly discharged in- 


voluntarily and unknowingly. Bed sores are liable to 
form and become extremely bad, often eating into the 
bones; treatment for them is given elsewhere (see 

Treatment. — Extreme cleanliness is a necessity in all 
cases. Drawing off urine by a catheter regularly 
should be practiced, or a rubber urinal worm. Treat- 
ment is of little avail. Electricity is employed in 
most cases, and nervine liniment over the spine is ad- 
visable. Diet must be nourishing and easily digested, 
and the surroundings cheerful. 

Hemiplegia is partial or complete paralysis of one 
lateral half of the body, usually the arm and leg of 
one side, and one side of the tongue and possibly of 
the face. The paralysis comes on suddenly as '*a 
stroke " and the victim falls, or it may occur at night 
time, and then the first manifestations will be a sud- 
den awakening with a groan, inability to move, and 
probably unconsciousness. As a rule consciousness 
is regained, and the sufferer all through the difficulty 
is completely conscious of his affliction. 

The paralysis of the muscles of the face give un- 
sightly contortions, the cheek and lips on the affected 
side hang down and the eyes and head are usually 
turned toward the well side. Speech is greatly inter- 
fered with and often entirely lost. In most cases 
there is control over the bladder and rectum, although 
pronounced constipation is the rule. 

Treatment. — It must be remembered that the seat of 
the difficulty lies in the brain. If the right side of the 
body is paralyzed, then the left side of the brain is 
affected, and vice versa. Electricity in hemiplegia is 
usually more harmful than beneficial. Perfect rest, 
freedom from excitement, careful nursing, light and 
nourishing diet, abundance of fresh air, avoidance of 
effort, and the observance of the general rules laid 
down for apoplexy are essentials in the treatment of 
hemiplegia. The bowels must be kept open, and 
stimulation in the form of liniments or washes applied 
to the affected limbs. Tenrporary cases should com- 


mence to improve within ten clays and gradually pro 
gress toward recovery. Hopeless cases remain sta 
tionary for a long time. 

Facial Paralysis involves chiefly the muscles of 
expression on one side of the face, though both sides 
may possibly be affected. The seat of the disease 
does not lie in the brain, but is situated just outside 
the cranium behind the ear, where the nerve issues 
that supplies the muscles of the face. Pressure from 
various causes upon this nerve may produce the par- 

The first symptom is usually inability to keep the 
food, while eating, between the teeth, due to loss of 
action of the muscles of the cheek, for the muscles of 
mastication are not affected. The mouth becomes 
drawn down on one side, and there are hideous contor- 
tions of the face during attempts to laugh or talk, and 
the eyelid of the affected side remains open. 

Treatment. — Use stimulating liniment freely behind 
the ear and place a bandage about the head and thus 
keep in place borated cotton at the seat of the diffi- 
culty. In from one to four weeks there should be 
complete recovery. Often glandular and other dis- 
eases produce permanent facial paralysis. 

Ascending Paralysis. — From conditions not yet 
fully ascertained arises this fatal form of paralysis. 
It commences in the feet and rapidly extends upward 
to the legs, thighs, chest, arms, throat and face. The 
muscles become flaccid and the victim helpless and 
confined to bed. Difficulty of breathing and swallow- 
ing progresses and the power of speech is lost. Death 
from asphyxia usually occurs within two weeks, possi- 
bly earlier or later. 

Recovery seldom occurs. The difficulty may or may 
not be ushered in by fever. Treatment must be con- 
fined to relieving the symptoms, as the nature of the 
cause is not known. 

Glosso-Pharyngeal Paralysis.— The early symp- 
toms of this distressing condition is inability to use 


the muscles of the tongue, lips and soft palate, and 
then of the larynx and pharynx. This causes pecul- 
iar and inevitable conditions. The victim cannot 
whistle, or spit or pucker the mouth at all. The 
tongue becomes hollowed out and insensible, and there 
is insensibility of the palate. Eating is difficult on 
account of improper handling of food in the mouth, 
and the impossibility of swallowing, the food being al- 
lowed to fall down the gullet by throwing the head 
back. Ability to talk is lost. Breathing becomes 
shallow. The pulse is frequent and the bodily tem- 
perature below normal. Great weakness rapidly fol- 
lows and death from inability to get sufficient air into 
the lungs is the almost inevitable result. Treatment 
is ineffectual beyond relieving symptoms and aiding 
deglutition and respiration. 

Parasites. — These are the various vegetable and 
animal growths which live and multiply upon diseased 
human structures. They are almost innumerable, and 
vary in size and characteristics. Skin diseases 
abound with them and they are found to be present in 
almost every abnormal condition of serious conse- 
quence; so much so that they are believed by many to 
be the sole causes of disease. Others hold that the 
healthy organism does not permit their existence and 
they are found only after unnatural conditions have 
been manifested. See also articles on Lice, Echino- 
coccus and on Worms. 

Parosma signifies a perversion of the sense of 
smell. Epileptic, insane or hysterical persons are 
often thus affected. To some the odor of a rose is 
disgusting, while that of onions or other usually dis- 
agreeable articles is enjoyed. 

Parotid Tumors. — These are enlargements of the 
parotid glands (hypertrophy) at the angle of the jaw. 
They may be of variable size and consistency. Some 
are small and soft and cause little annoyance; others 
are large and hard and may cause great disturbance 
by pressure. Occasionally parotid tumors become 


malignant and result fatally. Removal is the only 
method of cure. 

Parotitis. — Inflammation of Parotid Gland. — See the 
article on Mumps. 

Pediculosis. — See article on Lice. 

Pellagra. — A disease mostly confined to Southern 
Europe, characterized by pigment deposits of the skin, 
eruptions and scales. It is followed by depressed con- 
ditions of the system, melancholia and brain disturb- 
ances. It is supposed to be caused by long exposure 
to the sun's rays. It runs a course of from eight to 
twelve years, and usually proves fatal. Occasionally 
recovery may follow the observance of strict hygienic 
regulations, seclusion from the sun's rays and a nour- 
ishing diet. 

Pelvic Abscess and Cellulitis.— See section on 
Diseases of Women. 

Pemphigus. — See article on Bullae. 

Pericarditis. — This is an inflammation of the cov- 
ering- of the heart. See article on Heart Diseases. 

l & 

Periostitis. — Inflammation of the covering of the 
Bone. See article on Bone Diseases. 


Inflammation of the Peritoneum. 

The peritoneum is a membrane which hangs over 
the bowels in a fold, like an apron, and is reflected 
and adhered upon the internal organs of the body. 
Any injury to the abdominal cavity or in the region of 
the peritoneum or exposure to severe cold or infective 
diseases or inflammation of organs may excite inflam- 
mation of the peritoneum, known as peritonitis. 

Abortion and imprudencies during confinement often 
cause peritonitis, which is described as Child-Bed 


Fever. Ordinarily peritonitis is an uncommon diffi- 
culty and is exceedingly dangerous. 

Symptoms. — A sudden and severe chill is the first 
manifestation, which is persistent in character. 
Fever follows, and the temperature may soon reach 
105°, but is not usually constant. The pulse becomes 
exceedingly frequent and weak, and breathing rapid 
and shallow. It is always a bad sign when respira- 
tions seem to involve only the upper part of the chest. 
Nearly always vomiting commences early and is per- 
sistent, greenish material and even faecal matter being 
occasionally vomited. Constipation is the rule, al- 
though there may be diarrhoea; the tongue is coated 
or red and dry, and the urine is scanty. 

The most prominent symptom of peritonitis is the 
tenderness and pain throughout the abdomen, which 
is intensified by the least disturbance, such as pres- 
sure, jarring, deep breathing, walking of others across 
the room and even loud talking. The abdomen soon 
becomes distended, and appears " tight as a drum. " 
Hiccough, sleeplessness and delirium are most unfa- 
vorable symptoms. 

Death may occur within a week; and if convales- 
cence sets in it is slow and fraught with danger. 

When peritonitis is caused by perforation of the 
stomach or intestines the symptoms are frightful pain, 
cold sweat and great paleness, sudden icy coldness of 
the extremities, and a feeling that something has 
broken in the body. Agonizing death follows in a few 

Treatment. — Absolute quietude is imperative, and ac- 
tion must be quick and decisive, for life hangs upon a 
single thread. If there is constipation unload the 
bowels by an injection of catnip or boneset in starch 
water. Place hot irons to the feet. Rub stimulating 
liniment over the abdomen, and also place over the 
abdomen a hot fomentation of smart weed and lobelia 
herb if procurable, or thin and hot poultices of flax- 
seed, sprinkled over with lobelia and capsicum. 

Internally, give every half hour a tablespoonful of 
infusion of pleurisy root, containing a little ginger 
and scullcap, until perspiration is secured, and then 


leave out the pleurisy root and add blue cohosh. 
Should convalescence be established it will require 
throughout the most careful nursing - and a light diet; 
also frequent use of stimulating liniment over the ab- 
domen and tonic infusions internally. 


Degenerate Malarial Fever. 

This is a very dangerous condition which may arise, 
during the course of malarial fever. It may occur in 
various forms. Apoplectic symptoms may arise* em- 
bracing profound stupor, convulsions may be devel- 
oped, but paralysis will be absent. In other cases the 
circulation is affected. The surface may be cold and 
drenched with profuse perspiration, breathing feeble, 
and the heart very weak and prostration marked. 
Again all the symptoms of Asiatic cholera may arise. 

Treatment. — Malarial fever is pronounced and read- 
ily recognized before the symptoms of pernicious fever 
set in. The following may be given every two hours 
in water: One-half teaspoonful each of fluid extracts 
of gentian and scullcap and tincture of capsicum. 
The dose is heroic, but the patient will readily take it 
and in some cases almost enjoy its bitterness and in- 
tensity. If the surface is cold give hot infusion of 
composition and make hot applications externally. 

Pertussis. — Chin Cough. — See article on Whooping 

Pestilence (Glandular).— See article on Plague. 

Petit Mai. — A mild form of epilepsy. See the arti- 
cle on Epilepsy. 


Inflammation of the Pharynx. 

This is an inflammation of the pharynx, usually as- 
sociated with laryngitis. It is characterized by pain, 


redness and swelling and difficulty of swallowing', 
often interfering with respiration. Occasionally small 
points of ulceration resembling pimples may form at 
the back of the throat, constituting a form of the 
trouble known as fallicular pharyngitis. Usually the 
uvula, commonly known as the little palate, becomes 
swollen and falls upon the tongue, giving rise to a 
hacking cough. 

Treatment. — Give freely stimulating drinks, such as 
infusion of composition, or raspberry leaves and 
ginger. Locally, use a spray of infusion of golden- 
seal and gum kino containing borax. The feet must 
be kept warm and the whole body frequently bathed 
in warm water and well dried. Diet must be light. 

Phimosis. — A constriction of the foreskin. See 
section on Diseases of the Generative Organs. 

Phlebitis. — Inflammation of the Veins. — See the arti- 
cle on Vein Diseases. 

Phlegmasia Dolens. — Milk Leg. — This a peculiar 
condition of the leg occasionally met with in weak or 
unhealthy women during confinement. The leg be- 
comes greatly swollen, white and glistening. It is 
fully considered in the section on Diseases of Women. 

Phrenitis. — Inflammation of the Brain. — See the arti- 
cle on Brain Diseases. 

Phthiriasis. — This is a skin affection, character- 
ized by raw and scaly spots on various parts of the 
body, which become inflamed and tender and itch in- 
tolerably if not relieved; may cause superficial suppu- 
ration. The difficulty is caused by lice (pediculosis). 
Remove the cause as directed in the article on Lice, 
and then anoint the parts with witch hazel ointment. 

Phthisic. — See article on Asthma. 

Phthisis Pulmonalis.— This is fully described in 
the article on Consumption. 


Pigeon Breast. — This is a deformity due to disease 
of the bones of children, characterized by flattening" 
of the sides of the chest walls and protusion of the 
breast bone, like that of a bird. It is treated of un- 
der the title of Rickets. 



These are small tumors in the rectum near the anus, 
either of the small blood vessels or of folds of the mu- 
cous membrane. Their extreme painfulness is caused 
by the cramped condition of the very minute and sen- 
sitive nerve filaments. 

Persons of sedentary habits, and those whose struct- 
ures are relaxed and those whose occupations enforce 
long sitting - or standing, are most liable to suffer. 
But the most prolific cause of piles is constipation — 
the retention of faeces in the rectum causing pressure 
and distention and consequent trouble. Piles develop 
slowly and may be of several years' growth before 
they cause extreme annoyance. They are a source of 
agony to millions throughout life. 

Besides the local suffering caused by piles, more se- 
rious conditions are present in most cases. The con- 
stant irritation upon the peripherial nerves induces a 
sad condition of the nervous system, bringing about 
dyspepsia, weakness and a general "running down' ! 
of the svstem. 

Internal piles are situated within the rectum, and ex- 
ternal piles about the anus. Internal piles may be 
fleshy or longitudinal, and are then called blind (not 
bleeding); they may be globular in shape and contain 
minute blood vessels and be of red or blue color and 
frequently bleed, such are called bleeding piles. Ex- 
ternal piles vary in appearance from resembling mere 
folds of skin to large size "teats ' or tumors. A 
small class of piles about the anus are often classified 
as itching piles. 

Symptoms. — These vary and may include any of the 
following: Pain, itching and sense of weight in the 
rectum, increased by prolonged standing or sitting, 


agony at stool leading to putting off attending to na- 
ture's calls; there may be irritability of the bladder, 
disturbed sleep and loss of flesh, and often dyspepsia 
and muscular debility. 

Occasionally there will be many symptoms of dys- 
entery, accompanied by bloody and mucus stools. 
The piles may bleed profusely and cover the faeces 
with blood. Sometimes a large internal tumor will 
pass through the anus and be strangulated by the 
muscle contracting upon it, causing intense agony and 
a possibility, unless soon relieved, of suppuration or 
even gangrene setting in. 

Treatment. — A diet of fruits and succulent vegetables 
and the avoidance of stimulants is advisable. Mild 
physic may be used, but such a preparation as Butter- 
nut Syrup (see formulas) with a little cascara added, 
will be best. An attempt must be made daily to evac- 
uate the bowels, as regularity is of first importance. 

Mild cases will be relieved and permanently cured 
by frequent applications of witch hazel ointment. Ac- 
cumulations of hardened faeces must be softened by in- 
jections. Great pain and tenderness caused by inflam- 
mation may be relieved by applying witch hazel oint- 

Protruded piles which are strangulated, must first 
be relaxed with lobelia ointment and then shoved 
back into the rectum while the patient is on his knees 
and chest; then there must be applied an ointment of 
one drachm of tannic acid in an ounce of vaseline. 
This application is most excellent for bleeding piles. 
Surgical operations are often necessary, and may be 
conducted almost painlessly and with permanent 

Pimples. — See article on Acne. 


Prostrating Skin Disease. 

This is a very rare and usually fatal condition, 
characterized by the body becoming progressively 


covered with scales, while the skin becomes red and 
tender, and blue on exposure to cold. There are no 
swelling pimples or moisture. The appetite fails and 
great debility precedes death. The scales come off in 
large quantities and the nails become irregular. 

Treatment. — Locally, the whole body should be 
anointed thoroughly with cocoanut oil, containing 
a little oil of lobelia and oil of capsicum. Internally, 
the strength should be sustained by compound syrup 
of gentian containing half a drachm of fluid extract 
of cinchona to the ounce. 


Black Death. Pestilentia. Bubonic Plague. 

This is one of the most ancient diseases, and before 
attention was paid to private and public hygiene its 
ravages were terrible. During a period of eight 
years in the middle of the fourteenth century over 
twenty-four millions of lives were lost by black death 
in Europe alone. At the present time it is confined to 
the unsanitary portions of Asia and Egypt. 

Symptoms. — It is an infectious disease, and symptoms 
may commence within a few hours after exposure. 
These are great prostration, dizziness, palor, dilated 
pupils, staggering, burning sensation in the throat, 
bloodshot eyes, heart depression, vomiting. These 
symptoms are followed by a severe chill, quickly suc- 
ceeding which is a high fever, great thirst and fre- 
quent pulse; the head aches, the tongue is white and 
there is great irritation in the stomach and bowels. 

This condition does not last long, prostration soon 
following. The pulse becomes small, frequent and 
weak, the breathing is shallow and hurried, there are 
fainting spells and soon unconsciousness and delirium 
and stupor. A dark coating appears over the tongue 
and teeth, there is vomiting of dark material, consid- 
erable stringy mucous is coughed up from the lungs, 
hemorrhages may occur, the urine may be bloody, and 
offensive diarrhoea may take place. These fever 
symptoms may last six or ten days. 


Death may take place at this stage, or if life is pro- 
longed, local symptoms may manifest themselves. 
The glands of the groin and neck and elsewhere en- 
large and form painful buboes Carbuncles form over 
the body and the capillaries of the skin become en- 
gorged, giving a black-and-blue appearance. Death 
may follow from blood poisoning, or the buboes and 
carbuncles may suppurate and be evacuated and re- 
covery follow. 

Treatment. — Cleanliness and fresli air, pure drinking 
water and nourishing food are of the first importance. 
In the fever stage administer infusions of ginger, 
pleurisy root and lady slipper, with a little tincture of 
myrrh; after the bowels have been emptied, a stimula- 
ting emetic (see emetics) should be administered. 
Bathe the body, when hot, with borax water. 

During the period of depression administer freely 
the composition (see formulas) to which may be added 
a little tincture of myrrh. When carbuncles and 
buboes form they should be poulticed and evacuated 
as quickly as possible, and compound tincture of 
myrrh used freely. It may be found necessary to ad- 
minister several stimulating emetics during the course 
of an attack. Convalescence is slow, and tonics, 
such as golden seal and gentian should be adminis- 
tered along with most nourishing iood. 


Inflammation of the Pleura. Pleuritis. 

This is an inflammation of the membrane which cov- 
ers the lungs. It is most frequently caused by sitting 
in drafts of air, or chilling the body, especially after 
being heated. Occasionally it is a very unpleasant 
complication of bronchitis, pneumonia or consump- 

Symptoms. — There is usually more or less chilliness 
followed by fever and a lancinating pain in the chest, 
as though the lungs had caught against the chest-wall. 
Taking a full breath increases the pain, or may be 


impossible, and consequently breathing" is shallow. 
One side or both sides may be affected and the patient 
wishes to lie either on the back or the well side. 
Coughing increases pain. 

Mild cases present no other symptoms and recover 
in one or two days. Severe cases are protracted and 
develop many aggravating* symptoms, such as con- 
stant and painful cough and expectoration of glairy 
and glutinous mucus. 

Hydrothorax.— Fluid may accumulate in the sac 
about the lungs which may be absorbed before mis- 
chief is done, or may produce dangerous conditions, 
especially in the aged or feeble, known as hydrothorax, 
or dropsy of the chest. This may cause dropsy of the 
limbs, heart irregularities, paleness or blueness of the 
skin and viscid or bloody urine. Usually the fluid is 
absorbed, although death or chronic disease may fol- 
low When the fluid is mingled with pus, the condi- 
tion is known as empyema and resembles phthisis. 

Very frequently persons who have often suffered 
from pleurisy have adhesions of the sac to the lungs 
or to the ribs, which give permanent difficulty of 
breathing, accompanied by pain, increased upon the 
least exposure. 

Treatment. — Quietude in a recumbent position is of 
first importance. Avoid all drafts and keep the room 
at a moderate and even temperature. Rub the affected 
side well with stimulating liniment and place over it 
several thicknesses of heated flannel, or fill a cloth 
sack with hot salt and wrap it in flannel and apply to 
the side. 

Internally, give every half hour a tablespoonful or 
more of an infusion of pleurisy root containing a little 
ginger and lady slipper, and if the urine is not free, 
add some peach leaves. When dropsy of the chest is 
present composition and scullcap must be given freely, 
and every three hours a capsule containing a grain 
each of capsicum and sulphate of hydrastia. 

Pneumonia. — Inflammation of the Lungs. — See arti- 

cle on Lung Fever. 



General Symptoms and Treatment. 

Accidental poisoning- is liable to occur at any time, 
and unless prompt action is taken death may ensue 
speedily. It becomes absolutely necessary to have on 
hand directions for counteracting - the effects of poi- 
sonous substances which may be taken into the sys- 
tem, as well as methods of distinguishing* the effects 
of various poisons. 

The number of substances capable of causing" death 
when taken into the stomach amounts into the thou- 
sands, and to give detailed descriptions of all would 
only cause confusion. The ordinary poisons, the 
symptoms they produce and their antidotes will be 

It is a deplorable fact that the employment of poi- 
sons as remedies, instituted during the dark ages to 
enshroud medicine in mystery, is still practiced by 
many. Carelessness in handling so-called remedies 
and the keeping of poisons about the house, as insect 
exterminators or for mechanical use, cause many need- 
less deaths. 

Symptoms. —Whenever, soon after eating or drinking, 
there are symptoms of an unusual character, such as 
pain in the stomach, retching or vomiting, diarrhoea, 
burning or metallic taste in the mouth and a sense of 
anxiety, poisoning should be suspected, especially if 
two or more persons are attacked about the same time, 
after partaking of the same substances. Still in some 
instances, symptoms of poisoning do not present 
themselves for several hours after the poison has been 
taken, and then, again, symptoms of poisoning may be 
very different from those mentioned. 


Muriatic (Hydrochloric). Nitric (Aqua Fortis). Sul- 
phuric (Oil of VitrioR 

These acids are so frequently used in the arts that 
poisoning by them often occurs. They act by corrod- 


ing or burning the parts with which they come in con- 
tact, destroying tissues and causing frightful scars, if 
not death. 

Symptoms. — Puckering of the membranes of the 
mouth, burning pain in the mouth, throat and stom- 
ach, profuse saliva or vomiting of material varying 
in characteristics according to the amount of acid 
taken — being frothy, stringy, bloody or black or like 
coffee grounds, and causing effervescence when falling 
upon stones or chalk. The lips and inside of the 
mouth are stained or raw or covered with spots caused 
by corrosion. If relief or death does not occur soon, 
there may be hiccough, difficult and painful breathing, 
altered voice, pain through the abdomen, constipation 
or bloody discharges, desire and inability to urinate, 
cold extremities aud clammy sweats. 

Treatment. — Neutralize the acid as quickly as possi- 
ble by giving any one of the following substances 
that can be most quickly obtained: Soapy water, 
chalk and water, calcined magnesia, white-wash, di- 
lute ammonia (cooking or washing soda in water can 
be given immediately after the acid is taken; but 
when there is vomiting of dark material the gas given 
off from the soda is liable to burst the corroded stom- 
ach). When no lime or other alkali seems handy, lime 
may be scraped from the wall or ceiling. 

Follow the antidote with white of egg, milk or oils, 
and during convalescence give drinks of flaxseed, or 
marsh-mallow, or hollyhock tea, or water containing 
gum Arabic. Give scullcap infusion in slippery elm 
bark as an injection to the bowels to sustain the nerv- 
ous system. Pood must be chiefly of milk and raw 
eggs, if the stomach is able to take nourishment, 
otherwise food must be given by the rectum. 

Action cannot be too prompt and thorough in such 
cases. The acid is liable to cause perforation of the 
stomach and death, or ulceration of the stomach, or 
stricture of the oesophagus may follow, which should 
be treated accordingly. The stomach pump should 
not be used in acid poisoning, as it is liable to dam- 
age corroded tissues. 



Sulphuric acid turns the skin and membranes dark 
and causes a soft sloughing. 

Nitric acid turns the skin yellow or orange. 

Muriatic acid bleaches the skin or gives it light yel- 
low spots- it also gives off vapors which are very pen- 


Oxalic, Acetic. Prussic. 

Oxalic and Acetic Acids are frequently taken by 
mistake and produce symptoms similar to those of 
poisoning by the mineral acids, and the treatment 
should be similar with the exception that in oxalic 
acid poisoning all forms of soda, potash and ammonia 
should be avoided, as they form poisonous compounds 
with the acid. Cases are on record of children having 
eaten "sour grass' in excess and then been given 
soda to correct the sour stomach, and thus causing 
fatal poisoning. 

Prussic Acid, also known as hydrocyanic acid, is 
a fearful and rapidly fatal poison; forty drops may 
cause death in a few minutes. Children may eat ex- 
cessively of peach kernals, and by their fermentation 
in the stomach prussic acid may be formed. 

Symptoms are dizziness, numbness, possible convul- 
sions and collapse. There may be irregular breath- 
ing, cold extremities and profuse perspiration, bulg- 
ing of the eyeballs and stupor; the odor of peaches is 
readily recognized. 

Laurel Water produces the same symptoms. 

Treatment. — The stomach should be emptied as soon 
as possible by an emetic or stomach pump. Stimula- 
tion must be given internally, preferably the com- 
pound tincture of myrrh in compound spirits of laven- 
der, although the stimulant easiest obtained must be 
used without delay, and when there is inability to 
swallow, stimulating injections must be given to the 
rectum. Where breathing is labored alternate appli- 
cations of hot and cold water must be made over 


the chest, and artificial respiration may be necessary. 
A mild current of electricity over the heart is often 
resorted to. 


Ammonia. Potash. Soda. Lye. 

Soda, potash, lye, ammonia, and quick lime are the 
strong* alkalies which may cause fatal poisoning. 
There will be some of the following symptoms: Burn- 
ing- and pain in the mouth and throat and stomach, 
corrosion of the lips and mouth, vomiting, often 
bloody or dark, and possibly bloody diarrhoea. 

Treatment. — Give freely drinks of water containing" 
vineg"ar or lemon juice, or oranges. Follow by the 
use of white of egg", gum Arabic water or other demul- 
cent, and feed milk and gruel. 


Phenic Acid. 

This poison gives symptoms similar to other acids, 
and is readily distinguished by its peculiar odor. 

Treatment consists in using the stomach pump or 
quickly giving" an emetic of a tablespoonful of must- 
ard in a pint of lukewarm water, and then administer- 
ing soda or lime in water and thus washing out the 
stomach until all odor of the acid disappears. White 
of egg or milk must then be given. Hot applications 
to the extremities may be necessary, and in severe 
cases friction or the use of electricity. If there are 
symptoms of collapse stimulants must be administered 


Chloroform and Ether, Etc. 

The symptoms of dangerous poisoning" from chloro- 
form or ether are extreme coldness of the skin, very 


feeble and irregular pulse, becoming" almost impercep- 
tible, and lividness of the face, retraction of the 
tongue, and general symptoms of collapse. 

Treatment. — Seize the tongue and, drawing it for- 
ward, keep it from falling back into the throat. Re- 
move artificial teeth and loosen the clothing. Supply 
an abundance of fresh air. Alternately apply hot and 
cold water to the chest, and practice artificial respira- 
tion. The battery may be used — one pole over the 
stomach and the other on the front of the neck. 
Slapping the chest violently may arouse the action of 
the heart. A most efficient means consists in insert- 
ing into the rectum a bi-valve speculum and stretch- 
ing the muscles of the anus. Two fingers, of different 
hands, might serve the purpose instead of the specu- 
lum. No means should be left unemployed. 


Arsenious Acid. 

Symptoms of arsenic poisoning usually commence 
within an hour after the poison has been taken, and 
embrace a metallic taste in the mouth and a sense of 
constriction in the throat, burning pain in the stomach 
and tenderness, retching and vomiting and great dis- 
tress. The skin becomes cold and clammy, and the 
pulse weak and irregular. There may be violent and 
painful purging and possibly bloody urine. Such 
symptoms may continue from one to three days before 
death ensues in the form of collapse, stupor or con- 

Treatment.— -The antidote for arsenic poisoning is 
freshly prepared hydrated oxide of iron, kept in the 
drug stores. It should be given in tablespoonful doses 
every five or ten minutes. Give an emetic of mustard 
in salt water and excite vomiting by tickling the 
throat till the iron preparation is secured. Follow by 
milk and white of egg, and treat the after effects as 
for inflammation of the bowels. 



Coal Gas. Gas of Wells, Etc. 

The victim will usually be found unconscious and 
breathing heavily, or else in a stupor and breathing 
almost imperceptibly; extremities cold and skin pale 
or livid. 

Treatment. — Fresh air is of first importance. Take 
the patient out of doors or open doors and windows 
and place him in a draft. Apply hartshorn to the 
nostrils. Rub the extremities briskly with stimula- 
ting liniment or other stimulants. Artificial respira- 
tion may be necessary. When possible administer 
stimulants by the stomach and follow by strong coffee 
or inject into the rectum a pint of strong coffee con- 
taining ginger. Dashing small quantities of cold 
water on the chest followed by brisk rubbing will be 
useful. Charcoal fumes produce the same symptoms, 
to be treated similarly. 

Caustic Soda or Potash.— See Alkali Poisoning. 


Bi-Chloride of Mercury. 

Corrosive sublimate is frequently used in medicine 
and is a domestic preparation for destroying vermin, 
making great the liability of poisoning by it. The 
symptoms commence soon after swallowing the poison 
and are metallic taste and burning in the mouth, throat 
and stomach, pain in the stomach and bowels, desire 
and inability to urinate, colic, vomiting and purging, 
pinched countenance and cold surface. 

Treatment. — Administer as quickly as possible the 
whites of two or three or a dozen eggs, beaten in wa- 
ter, or give a thin flour batter and excite vomiting by 
tickling the throat. Follow by abundance of milk 
containing lime water. In some cases the stomach 
pump may be used, or an emetic of mustard in salt 


Chronic poisoning may follow the long continued use 
of small doses of corrosive sublimate. Its symptoms 
embrace salivation, the formation of ulcers, palsy or 
paralysis agitans, and great debility and emaciation. 

Opium. Morphine, Etc. 

The indiscriminate use of narcotics causes many 
cases of poisoning by accident, over-dosing, suicide or 

Symptoms. — These include drowsiness and blunted 
sensibilities progressing to profound stupor. The 
skin at first is dry and warm and the face flushed or 
dark, breathing heavy and slow, the pupils of the eyes 
contracted. Shaking and talking loud to the patient 
may partially arouse him. In severe cases, likely to 
end in death, the stupor is very profound, and no evi- 
dence of sensibility can be aroused, the face is blue, 
and the skin grows cold, and profuse perspiration oc- 
curs. The pupils of the eyes become contracted to 
mere pin points, except just before death, when they 
may be dilated. 

If taken upon an empty stomach opium or its prep- 
arations may cause death in six hours or even less, but 
if the stomach is full, even twenty hours may super- 
vene; but death usually occurs within twelve hours 
after the narcotic is taken. 

Treatment.— There is no specific antidote for opium. 
Vomiting should be aimed at from the start, provoked 
by mustard in salt water; or the stomach pump may 
be used. The most readily procurable and the most 
efficient article to administer is strong coffee. It 
should be poured into the stomach the first thing, and 
should be hot; its astringent properties seem to ren- 
der the poison less soluble and more easily evacuated. 
Infusion of bayberry bark or of tannic acid and a lit- 
tle capsicum may answer. 

Every effort must be made to arouse the patient. 
Alternately dash very small quantities of hot and of 


cold water in the face. Slap the chest and soles of 
the feet with a wet towel. Walk the patient back and 
forth, letting two persons support him. Shout loudly 
into his ear; apply a mild current of electricity — one 
pole at the back of the neck and the other at the 
breast bone. Keep up treatment even after apparent 


Matches and Rat-Paste. 

Symptoms. — These are peculiar and bad taste in the 
mouth, vomiting, possibly of blood, faintness, colic, 
diarrhoea, burning sensations in the mouth and stom- 
ach. The urine will appear luminous in the dark and 
will be scanty. Death may occur quickly after large 
doses, but usually several days of extreme weakness, 
jaundice, headache and low fever are experienced. 

Treatment. — Quickly excite vomiting by tickling the 
throat or by an emetic of mustard in salt water, first 
giving large drinks of thin batter. After vomiting 
give freely flaxseed tea or other demulcents. Give no 
tea, or milk or oils. All fatty substances are injuri- 
ous and favor the absorption of the poison. Ten- 
drop doses, every hour, of French turpentine have 
been recommended. 

A one-fourth of- one per cent solution of potassium 
permanganate has been declared an antidote for phos- 
phorus, but has not been used extensively enough to 
confirm the declaration. 


Rhus Toxicodendron. 

This is poisonous to some persons and many cannot 
even approach it, not less touch it, without being af- 
fected. The symptoms of poisoning are great swell- 
ing and inflammation, itching and burning of the skin, 
sometimes followed by blisters and perhaps superficial 


Treatment consists in using" freely a wash of an in- 
fusion of lobelia and goldenseal to which has been 
added small quantities of hyposulphite of soda and 
glycerine. This may be applied externally by cloths 
saturated with it. 


Nitrate of Potash. 

Symptoms. — Burning pain in the stomach, vomiting, 
purging, very weak and irregular pulse, cold and 
clammy skin, drowsiness, insensibility, and possibly 
death in from five to twelve hours. 

Treatment. — Antidotes are unknown. The stomach 
pump or an emetic of mustard in salt water should be 
given. Stimulating drinks or injections are needed 
where the surface is cold, also hot applications ex- 
ternally and brisk rubbings. Mucilaginous drinks, 
such as flax-seed, white of egg and water and olive oil 
are serviceable. 


Snake Bite. 

Symptoms first produced are those of shock, which 
may be overcome before the fatal symptoms com- 
mence; these are manifested within from half an hour 
to five or six hours as vomiting, feeble pulse and weak 
respirations, swelling and lividness about the wound, 
and mottled surface. 

Treatment, — Have the wound sucked immediately; 
tie a cord or handkerchief above the wound. Cauter- 
ize the wound by nitric acid or burning with a hot 
iron, or igniting gun powder placed upon it. Give in- 
ternally infusion of Virginia snake root or of capsi- 
cum or ginger. Black cohosh and wild yam are ex- 
cellent and infusions may be given freely. II there is 
tendency to gangrene, apply compound tincture of 


myrrh and also add some of it to the infusions. Ap- 
plications of smart weed may be made. 

Stimulation must be aimed at, and the substances 
mentioned are far superior to whisky or other alcoholic 
liquors. If death does not occur within an hour and a 
half, recovery may be expected if treatment is vigor- 
ously pursued. Kerosene given in teaspoonful doses 
on sugar has been found effectual in many cases. 


Nux Vomica. 

This is one of the most active poisons and is rapidly 
fatal. Within fifteen minutes after the poison is taken 
symptoms commence, such as sense of excitement, 
suffocating feelings, choking sensations, muscular 
twitchings and trembling of the body. Every few 
minutes there may be severe spasms, excited by jar- 
ring the body or by noises or disturbances of any kind. 
The body stiffens and bends like a bow, supported by 
the head and heels, every muscle seems contracted 
and breathing almost ceases. Such spasms last not 
over a minute and are followed by profuse perspiration 
and exhaustion. Consciousness is maintained. Death 
usually occurs in less than an hour. 

Treatment. — Quickly administer an emetic of mustard 
in salt water. Kerosene in teaspoonful doses on sugar 
is said to be an antidote. Spasms may be relieved by 
inhalations of chloroform and ten drop doses of the 
same diluted. Animal charcoal and strong coffee may 
be used freely. Recovery leaves great nervous irrita- 
bility, which call for soothing nervines. 


Jimson-Weed. Stinkweed. 

This often causes poisoning, especially to children 
who partake of the seeds. 


Symptoms. — These are dizziness, trembling, coldness 
of extremities, delirium or stupor and impaired vision 
and neuralgic pains through the head. 

Treatment. — An emetic must be given at once, con- 
sisting of a tablespoonful of mustard in a pint of 
warm water containing a teaspoonful of salt. A pint 
of strong coffee should be injected into the rectum; 
and after vomiting has been produced stimulants 
should be given by the stomach, such as strong in- 
fusion of composition. 

Hot applications should be made to the extremities, 
and mustard or stimulating liniment rubbed on the 
limbs. Splashing alternately hot and cold water on 
the chest or striking with a wet towel may be neces- 
sary. Quiet must be provided during convalescence. 
Stramonium poisoning is liable to leave persons sus- 
ceptible to neuralgia and mental confusion. 


Poison Mushrooms. 

Symptoms of poisoning in from six to fifteen hours 
after the toadstools have been eaten, such as pain and 
heaviness in the stomach and bowels, nausea, vomit- 
ing, diarrhoea, cramps and convulsions. There is 
great thirst and delirium, and death is preceded by 
stupor and cold and profuse perspiration. 

Treatment must be vigorous. First give an emetic of 
mustard in salt water to eject any poison possibly re- 
maining in the stomach, and then administer a large 
dose of castor oil to clear out the bowels. Apply hot 
fomentations of smart weed or other stimulants over 
the abdomen. Internally administer infusion of com- 
position containing vinegar. 

Apply warmth to the extremities and give encour- 
agement to the patient. The greatest care should be 
taken in selecting mushrooms for eating purposes, and 
children should not be entrusted to gather them. 




Syinptoms. — There will be nausea, faintness and col- 
lapse, followed by great prostration, and in severe 
cases by profuse perspiration, coldness of the surface, 
weak and irregular heart action and stupor. 

Treatment. — An emetic of mustard (a tablespoonful) 
in a pint of warm water containing" a little salt should 
be administered at once, or else the stomach pump 
should be used. Strong - tea or coffee or an infusion of 
tannic acid should be given freely, either one contain- 
ing red pepper. The patient should be placed in bed 
and hot bricks applied to the feet, and the arms and 
legs briskly rubbed. 


Vegetable and Mineral. 

Monkshood, Foxglove, Deadly Nightshade (Bel- 
ladonna), Hemlock, Chloral, Conium.— These give 
symptoms of nervous excitability and possibly con- 
vulsions, vomiting, diarrhoea and colic; there may be 
trembling of the limbs and great weakness; the pupils 
of the eyes are dilated, though in extreme cases they 
may be contracted. Treatment must be the same as 
for opium poisoning. 

Digitalis and Aconite poisoning should be treated 
the same as for opium, with the exception that the 
patient must keep the recumbent position, and greater 
attention must be directed toward sustaining the 
heart s action by stimulation. 

Lead and Its Soluble Salts require the adminis- 
tration of Epsom salts or Glauber's salts, followed by 
an emetic and the free use of milk, white of eggs or 
other demulcents. 

Nitrate OF Silver, lunar caustic and indelible ink 
require the administration of common salt in water, 


followed by an emetic, and then white of eggs and 

Turpentine poisoning causes irritation of the stom- 
ach and alimentary canal and of the urinary organs. 
After an emetic has been given, sulphate of magnesia 
or Epsom salts should be administered (an ounce in 
water), followed by flax-seed tea, white of egg, barley- 
water, milk, or other soothing drinks. 


Nasal Growths. 

Occasionally growths occur far up in the nostrils 
causing great annoyance. They may be hard and 
fibrous, though usually soft and jelly-like. When 
they are soft and have an apparent stem a ligature 
may be applied and tightly drawn and allowed to re- 
main until the polypus sloughs away. When they are 
small and flattened strong astringent washes, such as 
solution of tannic acid or gum kino or Monsell's solu- 
tion of iron, may be snuffed up. Fibrous polypi must 
be removed by surgical operation. Unless removed 
nasal polypus may seriously interfere with breathing. 

Summer Heat. Lichen Tropicus. 

This is an. inflammation of the sweat follicles, ac- 
companied by very minute and red pimples upon the 
skin, which itch intolerably, and are aggravated by 
heat, irritation, etc. 

Treatment consists in a light diet and the avoidance 
of stimulants, frequent baths in cool water contain- 
ing soda or borax. Witch hazel extract is an excel- 
lent external application, and in severe cases the fol- 
lowing mixtures will be found efficient: Starch, one 
ounce; glycerine, three ounces; or oxide of zinc, one 
drachm, rubbed into one ounce of vaseline. Lycopo- 
dium and starch, powdered, are useful. 



Prolapsus Ani. 

Falling 1 of the bowel of tenest occurs in childhood or 
old age. It is the result of straining at stool by those 
whose muscular structures, especially of the rectum, 
are weakened. Piles, constipation, diarrhoea and dys- 
entery may be followed by falling of the bowels. 

Symptoms. — While at stool there will be a sensation 
as though "the insides were coming" out," and pro- 
truding" from the anus will be seen a tumor, rounded 
or pear-shaped, with an opening" in the center. It is 
smooth and may be purplish. Five or six or more 
inches of the bowels may protrude. 

Treatment consists in first anointing the protruded 
part with an ointment of one drachm of tannic acid in 
an ounce of vaseline. Place the patient on the back 
and gently replace the bowel, and if necessary apply 
a compress and enjoin quiet. Constipation or diar- 
rhoea or other difficulties must be attended to at once. 

Prolapsus of the Womb. — See section on Diseases 
of Women. 

Psammona. — This name is given to small tumors 
connected with the dura mater or covering of the 
brain. They' consist of tissue and small particles of 
carbonate of lime . 

Pseudo-tabes is the manifestation of many of the 
symptoms of locomotor ataxy (tabes dorsalis) in the 
course of diabetes. For the description of these 
symptoms see Locomotor Ataxy. They usually dis- 
appear during diabetes when proper treatment is em- 


Scales on the Skin. 

This is an affection of the skin characterized by 
patches of white, glistening scales, usually occurring 


about the elbows and knees or scalp, or possibly over 
the whole body. The difficulty may occur periodic- 
ally once a year, usually in the winter, and may dis- 
appear without treatment, though the severe itching 
and the constitutional nature of the difficulty should 
demand attention. 

Treatment. — Locally, the scales should first be re- 
moved by warm water and borax, considerable soak- 
ing being required; afterward there should be applied 
a wash of witch hazel extract and white fluid hydras- 
tis, equal parts, to which a little tincture of ginger 
should be added. Cold water applications give most 
relief from itching. Internally, the compound syrup 
of yellow dock (see formulas) should be administered. 

Ptosis. — A characteristic symptom of paralysis, 
consisting of a falling down of the upper eyelid. 


Fever of Confinement. 

This is a transient fever which often occurs during 
confinement. It causes anxiety lest child-bed fever 
has commenced. About the seventh day of confine- 
ment a pronounced chill of long duration occurs, ac- 
companied by great depression and the arresting of 
secretions. The pulse becomes frequent and there is 
headache and pinched countenance. The nails are 
blue, as in ague, and there are many symptoms re- 
sembling the onset of malarial fever, to which the 
difficulty seems to be allied. 

Treatment. — During the chill give internally hot com- 
position infusion or other stimulant, and apply warmth 
to the body. After the chill has passed give freely of 
infusion of pleurisy root and lady-slipper containing 
a little ginger. Recovery will be preceded by warm 
and profuse perspiration and a feeling of relief. Give 
a light diet. 



Itching of the Skin. 

Frequently persons suffer severely from itching" of 
the skin without any apparent cause, giving - rise to 
great distress and annoyance, and often baffling every 
effort to overcome it. As there must be a cause for 
every physical disturbance, the particular cause for 
puritis must be ascertained in each individual case. 
Circumstances and conditions giving rise to puritis 
may be named as follows: 

1. Tight clothing, woolen Or rough garments, the 
use of harsh soaps, too violent rubbings, poisonous 
dyes in garments, insects and parasites. 

2. Diseases of the skin, eczema, salt rheum, hives, 
erythema and various eruptive diseases. 

3. Intestinal and stomach disorders, such as may 
be caused by eating excessively of fruits, or of foods 
objectionable to certain individuals, honey or cheese, 
or strawberries, or peaches are peculiarly apt to 
cause itching of the skin. 

4. In Bright 's disease and in diabetes, and some- 
times in various forms of liver troubles, this difficulty 
may be a prominent symptom. Particular parts of 
the body may be affected on account of their forma- 
tion, such as the scrotum, anus and vulva. 

Treatment. — This requires the ascertaining and re- 
moval of the cause, for which a diligent search should 
be made at once. No one is too cleanly to be possi- 
bly troubled with lice or fleas, and these should be 
looked for first. If the stomach is deranged there is 
nothing more appropriate than neutralizing cordial 
between meals. Other visceral or functional disorders 
must be treated according to their nature. 

As a rule itching can be greatly relieved by washing 
in warm water containing sulphurret of potash and bo- 
rax in liberal quantities. Likewise spirits of camphor 
in a previously heated mixture of borax and glycerine 
is excellent. Equal parts of rosewater and distilled 
extract of witch hazel will prove a fine preparation. 


Bathing* in warm water should be frequent, but harsh 
rubbing* should be avoided. 


Degenerate Accumulations of Blood. 

This difficulty is usually brought on by exposure, 
especially after improper living*. It is occasionally 
experienced after various forms of disease. Delicate 
persons between the ages of fifteen and twenty are 
the most frequent sufferers. 

Symptoms. — All over the body, except the face, hem- 
orrhages appear beneath the skin, being* purple, yel- 
low or greenish according to duration. The spots 
may be raised and accumulations of blood may occur 
and even become gangrenous. These conditions may 
exist in the mouth, stomach and bowels and following 
perforations cause death. Prostration, loss of appe- 
tite and fever are usual premonitory symptoms. 

Treatment. — Keep the bowels freely open and the 
stomach free from acidity. Tartrate of iron and po- 
tassa and citric acid, each one drachm, in eight ounces 
of water, a teaspoonful before meals, will usually be 
found sufficient. Where there is grangrenous tenden- 
cies give internally the compound syrup of gentian 
(see formulas) with a little tincture of myrrh added; 
and apply compound tincture of myrrh to the spots. 
In gangrenous cases death may occur in a few days; 
otherwise recovery follows in from two to eight weeks. 


Purple Spots on the Skin. 

This is a trifling disorder, although often causing 
unnecessary worriment. It is characterized by very 
small hemorrhages directly beneath the skin, causing 
purplish spots over the body, mostly upon the legs. 


There is no elevation or itching - , but there is a dis- 
agreeable and disturbed feeling throughout the body 
in nearly all cases, accompanied by digestive disor- 
ders. The color of the spots fade and become yellow 
or greenish. Very frequently purpura occurs during 
menstruation or in the course of infectious diseases, 
and sometimes during tuberculosis or anaemia. 

Treatment. — When other diseases are present they 
must be appropriately treated. When purpura occurs 
independently it requires no treatment beyond a light 
diet, fresh air and hygienic surroundings. Two weeks 
is the usual duration of the difficulty. 

Pyelo-nephritis. — Inflammation of the pelvis of 
the kidney accompanied by acute inflammation of the 

Pyo-nephritis. — The sac of the kidney filled with 
pus during pyelo-nephritis. 

Pyothorax. — This is the presence of pus in the cav- 
ity about the lungs, and may occur during Pleurisy, 
which see. 

Quartan Fever. — A form of malarial fever in which 
the paroxysms of chills and fever recur every fourth 
day. See the article on Ague. 


Tonsillitis. Sore Throat. 

This is inflammation of the tonsils, which is fre- 
quent in the winter, especially among young persons, 



the aged seldom experiencing it. Scrofulous persons 
are frequent sufferers. 

Symptoms. — In the commencement there is a slight 
fever, soon followed by a sense of fullness in the 
throat, and j:>ain and difficulty upon swallowing. The 
mouth and throat are at first dry, but mucus soon ac- 
cumulates. The tonsils, usually on one side only, will 
be found swollen and light red. The difficulty may go 
no farther, but often these symptoms all become more 
aggravated. Loss of appetite, furred tongue, headache 
and constipation may follow. There is hoarseness 
and great swelling and difficulty of swallowing and 

Looking into the throat the tonsils will be found 
very large and red and glassy, being covered with 
glary mucus. Points of ulceration will be seen, ele- 
vated above the surface, readily distinguished from 
diphtheritic patches, which are depressed and parch- 
ment-like. Usually these ulcerated spots discharge 
in three or four days and end the difficulty; though 
larger abscesses may form and continue ten or twelve 
days and cause much suffering. 

Treatment. — In simple cases tie about the neck a 
flannel saturated with stimulating liniment; gargle or 
spray with a solution of borax in raspberry infusion; 
keep the bowels open and protect from cold. 

In severe cases allow the patient to inhale vapors 
from a hot infusion of bayberry bark and vinegar; 
gargle with borax, hydrastis and raspberry leaves in 
infusion. Use liniment outwardly. Sustain the 
strength by light and nourishing diet and a tonic of 
scullcap. After the abscesses have discharged gargle 
with gum kino infusion to consolidate the tissues. 

Quotidian Fever. — This name is frequently given 
to the severe form of malarial fever in which the par- 
oxysms of chills and fever recur every day. See arti- 
cle on Ague. 


Rabies. — Mad-dog Bite. — See article on Hydrophobia. 

Tumor of the Tongue. 

From irritations or other provocative causes a 
cystic tumor may form under the tongue, either in 
front or at the side. It resembles a sack filled with 
glairy mucus. Sometimes the tumor will be of suffi- 
cient size to bulge out under the chin. 

Treatment is simple. With a sharp knife cut into the 
sac and allow the fluid to escape, and repeat the oper- 
ation as long as necessary. After each emptying of 
the sac inject into it an infusion of kino. 


Symmetrical Gangrene. 

This is a peculiar form of gangrene occasionally 
met with in feeble persons, often following various 
forms of disease; called also symmetrical gangrene. 
The tips of the ears and nose, and the toes and fin- 
gers are oftenest affected. Blisters appear upon the 
skin, followed by gangrene or sloughing of the parts, 
which is progressive and may completely destroy the 
parts. Fever may be present. Treatment must be 
the same as laid down for Gangrene (which see), and 
surgical operations, such as removal of toes or fingers, 
may be necessary. Recovery is the rule within six 


Stricture. Polypus. Injuries. 

Stricture. — Occasionally after ulceration of the 
mucous membrane of the rectum stricture may occur, 
characterized by constipation, straining, pain and the 


passage of blood at stools, great relaxation of the 
anus and discharges the size of a rope. Hip baths, 
large injections of warm water, light diet and rest 
must precede the introduction of bougies to cause dila- 
tation. Liver pills and injections of oil will make the 
discharges thin and prevent painful irritation. 

Polypus. — Sometimes there will be jelly-like tumors 
form upon the walls of the rectum, especially in chil- 
dren. They may be cut off by scissors or by ligature, 
if pendant, and Monsell's solution applied. 

Injuries caused by accident or by lodgement of 
sharp particles, inserted or swallowed, give great 
pain. Particles should be removed by forceps, or the 
fingers, oil being previously injected. 

Piles or haemorrhoids, fistulas and fissures are de- 
scribed elsewhere. 

Red Gum. — This is sometimes spoken of as stroph- 
ulus, and is characterized by the appearance of 
soft, red elevations on the gums, especially of infants. 
It is usually caused by stomach disturbances, and neu- 
tralizing cordial will prove an efficient remedy to cor- 
rect the disorder. 


Infective Fever from Poverty. 

The causes of this difficulty seem to be similar to 
those of typhus fever — poor food and unhygienic sur- 
roundings. It is occasionally epidemic in Europe. 

Symptoms. — These come on suddenly, a few days after 
exposure as a rule, though possibly in a few hours. 
The victim may be engaged in ordinary pursuits and 
be seized with dizziness and headache and a severe 
chill; this will be followed by high fever, gradually in- 
creasing until it possibly reaches 107°, having slight 
morning remission. The pulse may reach 140 or more 


per minute, and respirations iucrease to 40 or more per 
minute. The tongue is thinly coated white, but may 
become dry and brown. Constipation is marked and 
the urine scanty. There may be some jaundice, and 
possibly nausea and vomiting - . There is no eruption 
and the skin may be a little moist at times each day. 

After about a week of high fever the symptoms sud- 
denly abate. Abundant perspiration breaks out, the 
temperature, pulse and respirations fall to normal; 
discomfort ceases and there are free evacuations. Ex- 
cept a sense of great weakness the patient seems per- 
fectly well, and remains so for five or six days, when 
a second paroxysm of fever, precisely like the first, 
occurSe This time it lasts about four days. 

Several such paroxysmal periods may occur during 
the course of the disease, each followed by an inter- 
mission of the same duration as the paroxysm preced- 
ing it. Pain in the joints is common, and there may 
be serious complications, such as bronchitis, pneumo- 
nia, dropsy, abscess of the kidney or spleen, or pa- 
ralysis. Erysipelas may follow during convalescence 
and eye troubles and falling out of the hair are not in- 
frequent sequences. 

Treatment. — Commence by opening the bowels by a 
large injection of warm water and the administration 
of liver pills. During the fever give frequent sponge 
baths of warm water containing borax. Administer 
every two hours, during wakefulness, tablespoonful 
doses of an infusion of pleurisy root, scullcap and 
ginger. Allow the patient to drink all the cold water 
desired. If the urine is scanty give every four hours 
ten drops of fluid extract of queen of the meadow in 
water. When there is a tendency to collapse, as 
sometimes happens, just before remission occurs, give 
compound spirits of lavender containing a little com- 
pound tincture of myrrh. Three times a day from the 
commencement of the attack on through convalescence 
the compound syrup of gentian (see formulas) should 
be used. The infusions should be discontinued during 
the remission and perfect rest insisted upon. Diet 
must be light and nourishing, and fresh air should be 


Remittent Fever. — See the article on Ague. 
Renal Colic. — Kidney Colic. — See article on Colic. 


Inflammatory Rheumatism. Rheumatic Fever. 

Exposures to dampness and cold, and fatigue of mind 
and body have been long regarded as causes of inflam- 
matory rheumatism. Strains of muscles or ligaments 
also excite it. The difficulty is most common between 
fifteen and twenty-five years of age, though any one 
may suffer from it. Certain temperaments seem lia- 
ble, giving rise to the belief that the disease is hered- 
itary. One attack predisposes to other attacks; and 
the disease may run into the chronic form. 

Symptoms. — Inflammatory rheumatism may develop 
very suddenly, though there are usually several pre- 
ceding days of aching through the joints, and chilli- 
ness and possibly slight fever and sore throat. An 
ardent fever sets in, the temperature reaching 103° or 
104°, the pulse is frequent and full, though often some- 
what unsteady; the tongue is coated, and loss of ap- 
petite and constipation follow; the urine is diminished 
in quantity, high colored and acid; the surface is cov- 
ered with perspiration of a decidedly sour character, 
often causing an unpleasant eruption like "prickly- 
heat. ' ' The face is flushed and puffy, and the whole 
body is tender, causing the patient to lie as quiet as 

Swelling, heat, redness and pain soon commence in 
the joints, and first one and then another joint is at- 
tacked, the distress shifting to the various portions of 
the body and causing intense suffering. 

A first attack may last several weeks, though sub- 
sequent attacks usually subside within ten days. The 
great pain and profuse perspiration prove very ex- 
hausting and often render convalescence very tedious. 
Complications are liable to arise, such as pneumonia, 
pleurisy, meningitis and inflammation of the kidneys, 
or of the heart, or its valves, the heart trouble often 


causing death. When the brain is involved it is 
termed cerebral rheumatism, and often proves fatal. 

Treatment.- — In all cases bear in mind the patient's 
acute suffering and distress upon being handled, and 
arrange the bed and room accordingly, and provide a 
strong and skillful nurse. A flannel night-gown is the 
proper garment to be worn; and blankets instead of 
sheets should be used. Bathe the joints and affected 
parts every three hours with the following liniment: 
Tincture of black cohosh and lobelia, each two ounces; 
essence of ginger, one-half ounce, and bi-carbonate of 
potash, one drachm. Cover the parts with absorbent 
cotton kept in place by loose bandages. 

Allow all the cold water desired, provided it is pure. 
Distilled water containing twenty grains of citrate of 
lithia to the gallon is' best. If the patient can endure 
the handling, warm sponge baths are beneficial. Cold 
water applications will allay the inflammation, but 
are liable to produce stiffening of the joints. Keep 
the bowels open by the use of liver pills, and if the 
kidneys do not act freely enough allow drinks of in- 
fusion of peach leaves. 

As a tonic there may be given every four hours one 
grain each of salicin, capsicum and sulphate of hy- 
drastia in capsule. Should the heart show signs of 
weakness or distress the stimulating liniment should 
be briskly rubbed over the chest and infusion of gold- 
enseal and capsicum administered internally. Conva- 
lescence requires light diet, abstinence from meats, 
quietude and an equable temperature. 



This form of rheumatism is peculiarly liable to be 
"transmitted," that is, to occur in families of certain 
organizations. It is rarely manifest until after middle 
life, and attacks are excited by exposures to cold and 
dampness and physical or mental fatigue. Often it 
follows acute rheumatism. 


Symptoms. — The chief characteristic of chronic rheu- 
matism is pain in the joints, usually the larger joints. 
Swelling - and redness seldom occur and fever is rarely 
manifested. The pain in the joints is intensified by 
pressure or movement, the affected joints enlarge and 
stiffen, or seem to crack while moving - , on account of 
absence of sufficient lubrication. 

Various degrees of suffering - are experienced through 
chronic rheumatism. There may be simply pain ex- 
perienced before and during - storms, and subsiding 
afterward, or there may be frequent attacks of five or 
six days' duration, or there may be almost constant 
pain, amounting to distress sufficient to undermine the 
constitution. The joints, large or small, may be per- 
manently stiffened and enlarged, the muscles may be 
shrunken, and altogether permanent invalidism ensue, 
accompanied by deformit}^. Other parts of the body, 
such as the heart, lungs and brain, are rarely in- 

Treatment. — Plain and nourishing diet, an abundance 
of pure water and dry and hygienic surroundings are 
most beneficial. Vapor baths, once a week, are excel- 
lent. Rubbing the affected parts with skunk oil or 
cocoanut oil containing a little oils of lobelia and ori- 
ganum will be found useful. The bowels must be kept 
open, and the kidneys may be aided by ten-drop doses 
of dwarf elder given in water every six hours. Poke 
berries. American sarsaparilla and prickly ash are ex- 
cellent. The stomach soon tires of medicines, and de- 
pendence must be placed upon baths, diet and hygi- 
enic surroundings. 

Rheumatism. — Gonorrheal. — See the section on Dis- 
eases of the Generative Organs. 


Lumbago. Myalgia. 

This form of rheumatism is usually caused by sud- 
denly cooling the body while perspiring, standing in 


drafts, etc. Adults are the most frequent sufferers, 
although small children are sometimes attacked, and 
some persons are peculiarly liable to it. 

Symptoms. — The chief characteristic is pain and ten- 
derness of the muscles, shifting in its nature, and 
affecting first one and then another muscle. Fever is 
usually absent. Acute attacks may last but a few 
days, while the chronic form may possibly continue 
for months involving, perhaps, the heart, lungs or 

Treatment. — Avoidance of over-heating, exposure to 
drafts, and imprudencies must be studied. Flannel 
should be worn by those subject to attacks. The lini- 
ment mentioned for acute rheumatism should be used, 
and the bowels must be kept open. Citrate of lithia, 
one or two grains in a glass of water half an hour 
after meals, is excellent. Sufferers from muscular 
rheumatism should not use tea, coffee or alcoholic 


Rheumatic Swellings of the Joints. 

This is a form of chronic rheumatism characterized 
by deformity of the joints, usually commencing with 
the fingers or toes and later involving the larger 
joints. All sorts of unnatural positions may be per- 
manently assumed- — the fingers crooked, the leg flexed 
or twisted, and even the spine possibly affected. 
Often in the aged the hip joint is the one involved. 
Pain and tingling sensations are usually experienced, 
and at first there may be some swelling and tender- 

Treatment. — In some cases great relaxation may be 
secured by fomentations of lobelia and then force used 
to break up adhesions. The liniment named for acute 
rheumatism will Lest give relief, and the treatment of 
chronic rheumatism should be pursued. A warm and 
dry climate is best for sufferers from nodular rheuma- 


tism; and the diet must be of the most nourishing" 
character. Compound syrup of Stillingia (see formu- 
las) is of great value; though the stomach must not be 

Rhinitis. — This is inflammation of the lining- mem- 
brane of the nose. See the article on Catarrh. 

Rhinoliths.— Calcareous or earthy crusts which oc- 
casionally form in the passages of the nose, adherent 
to the nasal walls. 

Rhinorrhea. — This is a profuse muco-purulent dis- 
charge from the nose frequently occurring during 
nasal catarrh. See the article on Catarrh. 


Infantile Rachitis. 

Children during teething may be affected by insuffi- 
cient development of the bony structure, character- 
ized by softening of the bones and consequent deform- 
ities, sometimes of a frightful nature. Children whose 
parents are feeble or extremely young are most liable 
to rickets, and the trouble may be developed before 

Symptoms. — Disorders of the stomach, vomiting and 
diarrhoea are early signs. Emaciation commences, 
while at the same time the abdomen grows prominent 
and the teeth do not develop. There is fretfulness, 
great restlessness at night, sweating about the head 
and tenderness over the body. 

Nervous troubles often arise and the child is ex- 
tremely liable to severe colds. The deformities usu- 
ally commence during the second year and may be 
very diverse. The jaws may be contorted, the fore- 
head enlarged and the face small, and the whole head 
may appear as thrown forward. Dropsy of the brain 
(hydrocephalis) may occur and the head become enor- 
mous. Pigeon-breast, spinal curvatures, knock-knees, 


bow-legs, distortions of the hips or shoulders, en- 
larged ankles and wrists, and many other deformities 
may develop. The heart may become enlarged (hyper- 
trophy) and perhaps displaced, and the lungs may be- 
come impaired. 

Treatment. — It is imperative that the first symptoms 
of the disease should be recognized, that action may 
be taken early. If cutting the first teeth is delayed 
beyond the tenth month it is a bad sign, especially 
when accompanied by perspiration of the head and rest- 
lessness at night and frequent diarrhoea. Children 
showing such signs should be given plenty of fresh 
air out of doors, and daily salt water baths with brisk 
rubbings; and kept off the feet. 

The diet becomes important. Strained, boiled oat- 
meal, to which a little lime water may be added, is 
excellent. Starchy foods and sugars must be avoided. 
Children of eighteen months or over may be given 
broths, soft boiled eggs, bean soup and fish; egg-nog 
without alcohol and thickly-buttered whole-wheat 
bread may be given. 

Medicine should be used sparingly, no matter how 
harmless it may be in character. The diarrhoea may 
be checked by equal parts of wild cherry syrup and 
neutralizing cordial. Older children may be given 
tartrate of iron and potassa in solution of citric acid, 
before meals. Peptenzyme after meals is also bene- 
ficial, and greatly aids digestion. Malted Milk cannot 
be too highly recommended for use in this difficulty, 
and to the water given should be added a little lime 
water. Plenty of sunlight in the living and sleeping 
rooms is imperative, and dampness must be avoided. 



This is also called tinea tonsurans. It is a growth 
upon the skin caused by an organism called trichophy- 
ton tonsurans. It is oftenest met with in children, 
and commences as a small and slightly raised red 
patch on the scalp, which causes great itching. The 


patch enlarges and forms a ring, while the redness 
subsides, except on the margins, which are often cov- 
ered with small blisters. The hair at such places 
dies and breaks off and sometimes hairless patches are 
developed. Ring worm may appear on the face or 
upper part of the body. 

Treatment. — Fresh air and very nourishing food and 
hygienic surroundings are important. The compound 
gentian syrup will be an excellent tonic. Shave or 
pull out the hairs upon the ring worm of the scalp 
and apply a solution of hyposulphite of soda. Wash 
the scalp with tar-soap and borax. Each morning 
moisten the spot with a strong solution of borax and 
then apply sulphurus acid solution. Ring worm is 

Rodent Ulcer. — This is frequently spoken of as a 
form of epithelioma. It begins as a pale tubercle on 
the skin, upon the upper part of the face, and may 
gradually develop for years, the edges . becoming 
raised and hard and the inner surface red and raw or 
glazed. There is no special pain and the glands are 
not involved and the health is not impaired as in can- 
cer. Treatment should consist in keeping the health 
in good condition by hygienic regulations and remov- 
ing the ulcer by operation as early as possible 

Rosacea. — See the article on Acne. 

Rose. — See the article on Erysipelas. 

Rose Cold. — See the article on Hay Fever. 

Roseola. — Rotheln. — Rubella. — See the article on Fe- 
vers (Eruptive) — German Measles. 


Regurgitation of Food. 

This is a peculiar condition in which the sufferer re- 
gurgitates his food from the stomach to the mouth, 


and after masticating" it a second time swallows it. 
Children are the most frequent sufferers. The pecul- 
iarity may be congenital or it may be the result of 
stomach, or intestinal troubles, or nervous disorders, 
or may be a perverse habit or be excited by improper 
and insufficient food. 

Treatment includes mental influences to overcome the 
habit by force of will, and strict adherence to hygi- 
enic rules of health and diet. Ten drop doses of 
fluid extract of cramp bark, taken in water, just be- 
fore meals will be found beneficial. 


Foul Scabs and Ulcers. 

This disease is usually a consequence of syphilis or 
scrofula. It is characterized by the formation of hard, 
dark scabs ou the skin, caused by drying up of disa- 
greeable pustules. These scabs may be very numer- 
ous and vary in size from that of a bean to that of an 
oyster shell. Beneath the crusts will be found foul 

Treatment. — Apply a poultice of flaxseed sprinkled 
with ginger. When the crusts are removed, wash out 
the ulcers thoroughly with borax water containing 
tincture of myrrh and then apply a plaster of black 
salve (see formulas). The cause of the ulcers must be 
removed by appropriate treatment. 


Mercurialization. Ptyalismus. 

This is a distressing difficulty of the mouth, caused 
by the use of mercury or its various preparations. It 
was formerly quite common, when calomel was in gen- 


eral use. But an outraged people rebelled against 
the barbarous practices of the "medical profession." 
Lately mercurial preparations, to destroy bacteria, 
are again being used, chiefly in the form of corrosive 
sublimate, and salivation with its horrors is again 
met with. 

Symptoms. — The salivary glands at the angle of the 
jaws and those situated further forward and under the 
tongue become very tender, swollen and soft, and the 
secretion of saliva is abundant, and the mouth be- 
comes full of it to overflowing. The tongue swells 
considerably and grows soft and extremely tender. It 
grows dark red and covered with a sticky, white sub- 
stance, which in severe cases dries into a foul crust. 
The tongue may be enormous and fill the mouth and 
have numerous bloody fissures, and ulceration may 
set in. The face often becomes swollen and dark, eat- 
ing and talking are impossible, and great distress is 

Treatment. — The severe symptoms seldom last over 
five days. Relief is obtained by sucking pieces of ice, 
and the mouth washed out with witch hazel extract 
and borax solution. Sometimes the tongue and gums 
must be lanced to allow the blood and serum to es- 
cape. Ulcerated conditions require a wash of golden- 
seal and tincture of myrrh. Strength must be sus- 
tained by the use of nourishing diet and hygienic sur- 
roundings and the bowels regulated. Syrup of wild 
cherry containing fluid extract of goldenseal is an ex- 
cellent tonic. 

Sarcoma. — See the article on Tumors. 

Scabies. — See the article on Itch. 

Scald-Head. — An annoying form of eczema pecul- 
iar to young children. See the article on Eczema. 

Scarlatina. — Scarlet Fever. — This disease is fully 
considered in the article on Fevers (Eruptive). 



Sciatic Neuralgia. 

This is a neuralgia of the sciatic nerve, which is the 
largest nerve of the body and runs from the back of 
the hip-joint down the back of the thigh. The whole 
nerve may be affected, giving most intense pain in the 
buttock or the whole length of the leg and outer por- 
tion of the foot. In severe cases there will be fever 
and thirst, constipation, furred tongue and hard and 
frequent pulse. Exhaustion follows the sleeplessness 
caused by the almost incessant pain. 

Chronic cases of sciatica give tingling sensations 
and occasional numbness and cramps, and in course of 
time the muscles of the limb diminish in size, and 
lameness and inability to keep the limb warm are 
common. A person who has once suffered from acute 
sciatica is extremely liable to have frequent attacks. 
Syphilis, scrofula, mercurial and alcoholic or malarial 
poisoning render persons more susceptible to sciatica. 
Among the exciting causes of the difficulty may be 
mentioned exposure to cold and dampness, hardened 
accumulations in the rectum, a shock to the spine, a 
sprain of the hip, knee or ankle joint, physical strain 
of any kind, pregnancy and various womb troubles. 
An acute attack rarely lasts longer than a week, and 
the times of recurrence may be frequent or prolonged 
for years. 

Treatment. — Empty the rectum by injections, and use 
liver pills to keep the bowels naturally free. Locally, 
apply a liniment consisting of tinctures of lobelia, 
mullein and lady slipper, each two ounces, and tinct- 
ure of capsicum, four drachms. Wrap the affected 
limb in cotton and enjoin absolute quietude. Let the 
diet be extremely light. The predisposing cause 
must be ascertained and as soon as the attack has 
abated treatment must be commenced and persisted in 
according to the nature of the constitutional difficulty. 
The stomach will in nearly all cases be found over- 
worked and deranged in some manner. Persons sub- 
ject to sciatica cannot too carefully obey the rules of 
hygiene. They must avoid excesses and bad habits. 



Struma. Tubercle. 

There is no specific condition which may be termed 
scrofula. It is a peculiarity of the constitution which 
makes the person especially liable to inflammatory 
swellings of the lymphatic glands and to inflamma- 
tions of the skin and mucous membranes of the head. 

The causes of scrofula, or rather of the peculiarity 
known as the scrofulous diathesis, may be mentioned 
as improper food, unhygienic surroundings and hered- 
ity. Of these, heredity is the most important. Scrof- 
ulous parents, or those suffering from consumption, or 
syphilis, or very^youthful or aged parents, or those re- 
lated by blood, are extremely liable to have scrofu- 
lous offspring. Children develop scrofula more fre- 
quently than adults, and it may be the antecedent of 
serious tuberculous or rheumatic troubles in later life. 

Symptoms. — Glandular swellings, especially about 
the neck, groins and arm-pits, which swellings may 
develop slowly, or may become inflamed and ulcerate 
and discharge very disagreeably. There may be foul 
discharges from the ears. Occasionally the bones be- 
come involved, especially those of the hip, causing 
great suffering and deformity. 

Persons of scrofulous tendencies usually have acid 
perspiration and discharges from the bowels, and con- 
siderable sediment from urates in the urine. Impaired 
digestion and loss of appetite, troubles of vision and 
"sore eyes" (inflammations of the conjunctiva), are 
common, flushes on the cheeks, pearly eye-balls, de- 
bility and slow emaciation are accompaniments of 
scrofula. Consumption may be preceded by all the 
symptoms of scrofula. And persons of scrofulous 
tendencies should exercise the greatest care against 
exposures to cold; and lung troubles, no matter how 
trifling, should be promptly treated. 

Treatment. — Fresh air in abundance, a dry atmos- 
phere in living and sleeping rooms, plenty of sunlight, 
cleanliness, frequent bathing, an equable temperature, 


warm clothing-, avoidance of fats, and especially 
pork, as food, and a most nutritious diet, are matters 
to be considered indispensable in the management of 
scrofula. The diet should be composed largely of 
vegetables; the appetite must be encouraged, and di- 
gestion aided. Peptenzyme elixir, ateaspoonful after 
each meal, is most excellent. If there is constipation 
the liver pills must be employed. 

To aid in carrying off the poisonous material in the 
system an alterative will be found useful and a tonic 
should be added. Fluid extract of gentian, one 
ounce, and compound syrup of yellow dock, seven 
ounces (see formulas), will be found unexcelled taken 
in teaspoonful doses between meals. Many months 
may be required to effect a restoration to health; and 
there is always greater susceptibility to disease after 
an attack of scrofula. 


Ankle Ulceration. 

These are very troublesome and exhaustive sores 
which occur about the ankles of persons of the scrof- 
ulous diathesis under rare circumstances. Their first 
appearance is characterized by bluish swellings, fol- 
lowed by several open sores which run together and 
discharge offensive and thin ulcerative matter. They 
occasion great debility and lameness. 

Treatment, — The constitutional treatment advised for 
scrofula must be pushed vigorously, and fresh air, 
hygienic surroundings and most nourishing food be- 
come imperative. Locally, there should be applied a 
poultice of flax seed containing beth-root and pulver- 
ized myrrh, and kept moist by glycerine. Such poul- 
tices should be worn six or eight hours out of the 
twenty-four, and upon each removal, the sore should be 
thoroughly cleansed with borax solution. Compound 
tincture of myrrh should be frequently applied about 
the puffy edges of the sores. Treatment should be 




Scorbutus. Sea Scurvy. 

Improper diet is the great cause of scurvy, and es- 
pecially does the absence of vegetable acids tend to 
produce the disease. It was formerly much more com- 
mon than at present, on account of inability to make 
provision for proper nourishment for armies and for 
sailors, and for farm families when crops failed. 
Salted meats eaten in excess are extremely liable to 
produce scurvy in those who are exposed to cold and 
wet and fatigue, or those who are weakened by dis- 
ease, especially by malaria. 

Symptoms. — Premonitory signs will be general weak- 
ness and progressive emaciation and anaemia, which 
conditions continue throughout the attack, which may 
last for several months, or may possibly (though 
rarely) result fatally within three or four weeks. A 
very pronounced symptom is the spongy and swollen 
condition of the gums. The teeth become loosened 
and may fall out, and foul ulceration may follow. The 
gums become blue and bleed very easily. Hemor- 
rhages from the skin, chiefly upon the legs, are fre- 
quent, especially upon pressure. "Blood blisters' 
are not infrequent and may burst and become gan- 
grenous spots. Hemorrhages from the mucous sur- 
faces are common. The urine is scanty and contains 
albumen. Dysentery and pneumonia may be compli- 

Treatment. — Supply an abundance of fresh, dry air; 
avoid fatigue and furnish a diet of fresh meat and an 
abundance of vegetables. Sour apples, lemons and 
limes are especially good. No medicines are needed 
beyond possible astringent washes for the gums such 
as a vinegar tincture of bayberry and myrrh. Treat 
gangrenous spots as ordinary gangrene. Prophylaxis 
will prove most efficient. Scurvy is a preventable 
disease, and always curable if undertaken before 
degeneration commences; but very old persons, or 
chronic cases of long standing, offer very little ground 
for encouragement. 


Seborrhea. — This is a skin affection frequent in in- 
fancy, characterized by the excessive secretion of oil 
on the skin and accumulation of scales of epithelium. 
Treatment is simple and consists in washing- the skin 
with warm borax water, thoroughly drying, and ap- 
plying a mixture of equal parts of witch hazel extract 
and rose water. 

Septicemia. — Pyemia. — This is a dangerous condi- 
tion caused by pus from wounds, or abscesses or ulcers 
entering the circulation. See the article on Blood 


Herpes Zona. 

This is an annoying difficulty usually occurring in 
the winter time and caused by various circumstances. 
Unhygienic surroundings, unwholesome food, over- 
eating and under-eating, exposures, nervous troubles 
and other derangements often bring about shingles, a 
form of herpes. 

Symptoms. — The disease is characterized by the ap- 
pearance of numerous water blisters half around the 
middle of the body commencing at the spine. These 
blisters tingle and burn and excite considerable 
scratching. They may come in successive crops and 
gradually dry up and leave scaly scabs. In nearly all 
cases there will be constipation, indigestion, neuralgia 
and slight feverishness. 

Treatment. — Locally dust the parts with powdered 
starch and goldenseal, or apply witch hazel extract 
and spirits of camphor. Use the compound syrup of 
gentian containing a little fluid extract of cascara. 
Let the diet be light, bathe the body frequently and 
change the underclothing often. Be sure that the 
bowels move freely each day, and provide an abun- 
dance of fresh air in the sleeping room, and out-door 
exercise during the day. An attack of shingles may 


last two or three weeks. The disease of itself is 
never fatal. 

Ship Fever. — See article on Typhus Fever. 

Short-Sightedness. — See section on Diseases of 
the Eye. 

Sick Headache. — See article on Headache. 
Singultus. — See article on Whooping- Cough. 


Unnatural Opening. Fistula. 

This is a narrow canal, opening* on the surface and 
leading to a seat of ulceration or of secretion of fluids. 
Sometimes the natural secretions of various organs, 
such as the stomach and gall bladder, have their exit 
through these unnatural canals or sinuses. Usually, 
though, they are the means of escape of degenerate 
fluids caused by ulceration of decayed bones or of ab- 
scesses. In treating them it is first necessary to ascer- 
tain the cause and, if possible, remove it. The sinus 
should then be frequently and thoroughly cleansed 
with solution of borax and then injected with solution 
of tannic acid. A drainage tube may be inserted and 
withdrawn just a little each day as healing progresses. 
A weak solution of caustic potash may be necessary 
to start the healing process. 

Sleeplessness. — See article on Insomnia. 

Sloughing. — Mortification, — The breaking down of 
tissues; fully considered in the article on Gangrene. 

Small-Pox. — See the article on Fevers (Eruptive). 

Snake-Bite. — See the article on Poisoning. 

Spasms. — See the article on Convulsions. 


Spermatorrhea. — This is a condition of exhaustion 
and nervous debility caused by the unnatural loss of 
semen. See the section on Diseases of the Generative 


Potts' Disease. 

This sad affliction usually occurs in childhood, and 
is the result of caries or destruction of parts of the 
spinal vertebrae. Its first symptom is a prominence of 
the spinal processes. Pain may be absent, and the 
deformity may be so marked as to constitute " hump- 
back. " Paraplegia (which see) frequently follows. 
This form of spinal curvature does not often prove 
fatal, although incurable. 

Treatment. — A most nourishing diet and hygienic 
surroundings are imperative. Freedom from all exer- 
tion and worry must be secured. The application of 
a plaster jacket is often resorted to, and in the early 
stages frequent suspension of a nature to stretch the 
spine by the weight of the body will be found useful. 
Severe cases require rest in bed. Medicines are of 
little avail, although scullcap has proven a valuable 
tonic to the spinal nerves. 

Spinal Meningitis. — See the article on Fever — 


Waxy or Lardaceous Spleen. 

Like amyloid degeneration of the liver that of the 
spleen may be the result of suppuration, exhaustion 
of wasting diseases, malarial poisoning, syphilis, etc. 
It should be suspected when enlargement of the spleen 
follows any of the conditions mentioned. The treat- 
ment embraces hygienic measures, the free use of nat- 
ural iron water and the administration of a positive 


alterative, such as the compound syrup of Stillingia 
(see formulas). Recovery cannot be hoped for in pro- 
nounced cases. 

Spleenic Cancer. — This is usually a sequence of 
cancer of the liver or stomach, and must be treated as 

carcinoma of other organs. 


Splenic Hypertrophy. 

The spleen is a ductless gland situated in the left 
and upper portion of the abdominal cavity. From 
various causes the organ may become greatly en- 
larged. Among the causes of acute enlargement may 
be mentioned injuries, obstructions to circulation by 
diseases of the heart, or lungs or liver, and infective 

Symptoms. — As a rule there will be pain in the left 
side, extending to the shoulder, increased by coughing 
and lying upon the left side. The enlarged spleen 
may usually be distinctly felt as a tumor. 

Treatment. — There is no call for special medication. 
If caused by acute infective disease it will disappear 
with that disease. Severe pain may require outward 
stimulating applications, and possibly the administra- 
tion of nervines. 


A^ue Cake. 

This may be tne result of acute enlargement; but is 
usually developed during the course of some chronic 
disease, most commonly malarial difficulties. The or- 
gan may become fifteen or twenty times larger than 
normal; and may, after years of suffering, cause death 
by unnatural pressure and the exhaustion of the suf- 


Symptoms. — Pain in the left side, great paleness, 
cachexia, shortness of breath and palpitation. The 
enlarged organ may be distinctly felt by manipula- 

Treatment. — If possible the patient should be re- 
moved to a high and dry locality. Internally use the 
following night and morning: Fluid extracts of but- 
ternut and Peruvian bark, each two drachms, in four 
ounces of syrup of ginger. Stimulating liniment may 
be applied; and vapor baths should be frequently em- 
ployed. Recovery may be gradual, some cases last- 
ing for years. 



This difficulty may be secondary to inflammation of 
other organs, such as the stomach and lungs, or it 
may be caused directly by injuries. An abscess of 
the spleen almost invariably follows, giving serious 

Symptoms. — As a rule the disease will be ushered in 
by shivering, followed by high fever and hot and dry 
skin, nausea, possibly vomiting and constipation. The 
urine is scanty and high colored, and there is great 
thirst. The pulse is hard and frequent at first, though 
it may become very feeble and exhausting diarrhoea 
may set in. There is great pain in the left side, ex- 
tending to the shoulder, and pressure upon the ribs of 
that side causes increased pain. Coughing is usually 

A fluctuating tumor may be recognized. Occasionally 
splenic abscess is formed and results fatally before the 
true nature of the difficulty is determined. 

Treatment. — Hygienic surroundings and light nour- 
ishing diet are of the utmost importance. The bowels 
must be kept open, but no harsh means should be em- 
ployed. Frequent vapor baths should be used to keep 
the skin free and its secretory glands active. A tea- 


spoonful of the compound gentian syrup (see formu- 
las) given after each meal will be a sufficient tonic. 

Should there be evidences of active suppuration, 
such as frequent shiverings and hot flushes, and throb- 
bing pain in the left side, a small amount of compound 
tincture of myrrh may be added. The butternut syrup 
(see formulas), taken at bedtime, will keep the bowels 
sufficiently open. Stimulating liniment should be ap- 
plied outwardly night and morning. Frequently sur- 
gical operations by a skillful surgeon will be required 
to save life. 


Floating Spleen. 

Occasionally, on account of relaxation of the at- 
tachments of the spleen, that, organ may leave its 
natural position and descend into the cavity of the 
pelvis or fall upon the right side, or any other locality 
favored by the position the patient may assume. 
There may be no serious symptoms beyond a sense of 
discomfort and the recognition of the position of the 
organ by manipulation. The difficulty is sometimes 
overcome by bandages and the use of tonics and hygi- 
enic surrounding, though removal of the organ by sur- 
gical operation may be absolutely necessary. 

Splenic Rupture. — Sometimes during enlargement 
of the spleen, the organ may develop so rapidly that 
its sac or capsule bursts, causing internal hemor- 
rhage or peritonitis and speedy death. Recovery has 
taken place in rare instances, but medical treatment is 


Spotted Fever. — See Fever— Cerebro- Spinal. 



Straining of Ligaments. ,_ 

By falling, twisting the foot or limbs, and by other 
accidental injuries, the ligaments about various joints 


may be suddenly stretched, constituting- a sprain. The 
pain is usually severe and sharp, and swelling- and 
often redness of the parts follow. A severe pain of 
the ankle joint may cause lameness for several days, 
and if neglected, may result in permanent trouble. 

Treatment. — If commenced immediately, the best 
treatment consists in applications of cold water, run- 
ning water being preferable. If there is delay, and 
inflammation has set it, with redness and severe pain, 
apply cloths saturated with hot infusion of lobelia. 
After relief has been secured, the parts may be fre- 
quently bathed with tincture of calendula or witch 
hazel extract. Under no circumstances should the af- 
fected joint be used before complete recovery is as- 

St. Anthony's Evil. — See the article on Erysipelas. 

Sterility.— Barrenness. — This is inability in women 
to conceive. It may be caused by various conditions, 
and is fully considered in the section on Diseases of 

Men may likewise be sterile and unable to procreate.- 
Such cases are considered in the section on Diseases 
of the Generative Organs. 


Bloody Vomiting. 

Causes. — These may be mentioned as accidental in- 
juries, or swallowing of sharp substances, or strong 
acids or alkalies, perforation of the stomach by ab- 
scesses of neighboring organs, the result of diseases 
of the blood vessels, such as obstruction of the veins 
from liver troubles; diseases with hemorrhagic tenden- 
cies, such as scurvy and purpura; and occasionally 
hysterical convulsions, and maleria and other infective 

Symptoms. —Usually bleeding from the stomach will 
occasion vomiting of clots of dark blood and the pas- 
sage of very dark faeces from the bowels. When the 


hemorrhage is extensive the blood evacuated will be 
bright red, and the patient will experience a sense of 
warmth in the stomach. Nausea and vomiting soon 
follow, and after the blood has been expelled there 
will be great weakness and paleness. 

Hemorrhage from the stomach is rarely fatal unless 
some large artery is involved, as in aneurism, or if 
perforation has taken place by abscesses existing else- 
where. Nursing children may vomit blood sucked 
in from the mother's excoriated nipples, and adults 
may occasionally have blood in the stomach from 
catarrhal conditions, nose-bleed, or bleeding teeth. 

Treatment. — Place the patient in a comfortable posi- 
tion and enjoin absolute quiet. Administer every five 
or ten minutes cold infusion of kino, tannic acid or 
bayberry bark in teaspoonful doses. Allow the pa- 
tient to drink cold milk and to eat little pieces of ice. 
Place a cold wet cloth over the stomach and apply hot 
irons to the feet, or bathe the hands and feet in hot in- 
fusion of red pepper and mustard. 

Raspberry leaf tea may be used for several days 
after an attack. The diet must be light and exertion 
avoided. The mind should be kept cheerful. If con- 
stipation exists, move the bowels by injections. Dur- 
ing convalescence, give Nerve Tonic (see formulas). 
Stomach hemorrhages are usually sour with gastric 
juice, and may thus be distinguished from hemor- 
rhages from the lungs. 

Stomatitis. — See the articles on Canker and Thrush. 

Stone in the Bladder. — See the article on Calculi. 

Strabismus. — Gross-Eyes. — See section on Diseases 
of the Eyes. 


Retention of Urine. 

This is inability to pass the urine which has accu- 
mulated in the bladder, and must not be confounded 


with suppression of urine. Stranguary may be par- 
tial or complete. In the former case a small amount 
of urine may be voided with difficulty; while in com- 
plete stranguary there is no urine voided. The dis- 
tended bladder causes great suffering, and in occa- 
sional instances it has been known to burst, especially 
should the sufferer fall. Retention is caused by weak- 
ness of the bladder, induced by putting off urination 
from delicacy or other reasons; and often it is caused 
by irritating substances, such as Spanish flies. 

Treatment. — Put hot, wet cloths about the genital 
organs and the lower part of the abdomen, or take a 
hot sitz bath. If these measures fail the catheter 
must be used three or four times a day. Sometimes a 
large dose of salts will accomplish the desired result. 
Excesses and exposures to cold must be guarded 

Stricture. — See section on Diseases of the Genera- 
tive Organs. 

Strophulus. — This is an eruptive disease of child- 
hood, characterized by bright-red spots upon the face 
and arms, usually brought about by being overheated 
by too much clothing, and exaggerated by indigestion. 
Treatment is simple and consists of regulating the 
clothing, giving frequent baths, allowing light diet 
and correcting acidity of the stomach by neutralizing 


By falls or blows upon the head a person may be 
stunned and become unconscious, or perhaps grow 
dizzy and faint and become cold and pale. 

Treatment. — Place the patient on the back and apply 
outward warmth and stimulation, such as stimulating 
liniment over the ankles and wrists and neck, and hot 


bricks to the feet, thighs and arm-pits. Rub the limbs 
briskly. Administer compound tincture of myrrh (a 
few drops in warm water) or essence of ginger or in- 
fusion of composition if the patient can swallow, 
otherwise give an injection of ginger to the bowels, 
and enjoin perfect quiet. 

Shock. — Severe injuries or even great fright, espe- 
cially to elderly or feeble persons, may produce shock. 
When profound all the sig